- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 984245, 9 pages
Weight Considerations in Pharmacotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Received 15 June 2010; Accepted 26 July 2010
Academic Editor: A. Halpern
Copyright © 2011 Vicky Cheng and Sangeeta R. Kashyap. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. M. V. Narayan, J. P. Boyle, T. J. Thompson, E. W. Gregg, and D. F. Williamson, “Effect of BMI on lifetime risk for diabetes in the U.S,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1562–1566, 2007.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults with diagnosed diabetes—United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 53, no. 45, pp. 1066–1068, 2004.
- B. J. Goldstein, “Insulin resistance as the core defect in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 3G–10G, 2002.
- R. A. DeFronzo, “Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 787–835, 2004.
- W. C. Knowler, E. Barrett-Connor, S. E. Fowler et al., “Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 6, pp. 393–403, 2002.
- R. Turner, “Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33),” Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9131, pp. 837–853, 1998.
- W. T. Friedewald, J. B. Buse, J. T. Bigger et al., “Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 24, pp. 2545–2559, 2008.
- S. Mäkimattila, K. Nikkilä, and H. Yki-Järvinen, “Causes of weight gain during insulin therapy with and without metformin in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus,” Diabetologia, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 406–412, 1999.
- D. M. Nathan, J. B. Buse, M. B. Davidson et al., “Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement of the american diabetes association and the european association for the study of diabetes,” Clinical Diabetes, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 4–16, 2009.
- J. Rosenstock, E. Samols, D. B. Muchmore, and J. Schneider, “Glimepiride, a new once-daily sulfonylurea: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of NIDDM patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1194–1199, 1996.
- D. C. Simonson, I. A. Kourides, M. Feinglos, H. Shamoon, and C. T. Fischette, “Efficacy, safety, and dose-response characteristics of glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system on glycemic control and insulin secretion in NIDDM. Results of two multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 597–606, 1997.
- A. J. Garber, D. S. Donovan Jr., P. Dandona, S. Bruce, and J.-S. Park, “Efficacy of glyburide/metformin tablets compared with initial monotherapy in type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 3598–3604, 2003.
- A. J. Hanley, B. Zinman, P. Sheridan, S. Yusuf, and H. C. Gerstein, “Effect of rosiglitazone and ramipril on β-cell function in people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 608–613, 2010.
- A. H. Xiang, R. K. Peters, S. L. Kjos et al., “Effect of pioglitazone on pancreatic β-cell function and diabetes risk in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 517–522, 2006.
- J. A. Dormandy, B. Charbonnel, D. J. Eckland et al., “Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial in macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial,” Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9493, pp. 1279–1289, 2005.
- S. E. Kahn, S. M. Haffner, M. A. Heise et al., “Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 23, pp. 2427–2443, 2006.
- Y. Miyazaki, A. Mahankali, M. Matsuda et al., “Effect of pioglitazone on abdominal fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 2784–2791, 2002.
- R. L. Frye, P. August, M. M. Brooks et al., “A randomized trial of therapies for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 24, pp. 2503–2515, 2009.
- R. A. DeFronzo, C. Triplitt, Y. Qu, M. S. Lewis, D. Maggs, and L. C. Glass, “Effects of exenatide plus rosiglitazone on beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes on metformin,” Diabetes care, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 951–957, 2010.
- J. Weng, Y. Li, W. Xu et al., “Effect of intensive insulin therapy on β-cell function and glycaemic control in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a multicentre randomised parallel-group trial,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9626, pp. 1753–1760, 2008.
- W. Xu, Y.-B. Li, W.-P. Deng, Y.-T. Hao, and J.-P. Weng, “Remission of hyperglycemia following intensive insulin therapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: a long-term follow-up study,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 122, no. 21, pp. 2554–2559, 2009.
- A. Barnett, J. Allsworth, K. Jameson, and R. Mann, “A review of the effects of antihyperglycaemic agents on body weight: the potential of incretin targeted therapies,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1493–1507, 2007.
- J. Rosenstock, M. Davies, P. D. Home, J. Larsen, C. Koenen, and G. Schernthaner, “A randomised, 52-week, treat-to-target trial comparing insulin detemir with insulin glargine when administered as add-on to glucose-lowering drugs in insulin-naive people with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 408–416, 2008.
- R. R. Holman, K. I. Thorne, A. J. Farmer et al., “Addition of biphasic, prandial, or basal insulin to oral therapy in type 2 diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 17, pp. 1716–1730, 2007.
- R. A. DeFronzo and A. M. Goodman, “Efficacy of metformin in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. the multicenter metformin study group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 9, pp. 541–549, 1995.
- A. Garber, E. Klein, S. Bruce, S. Sankoh, and P. Mohideen, “Metformin-glibenclamide versus metformin plus rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2006.
- A. Vella, J. S. Lee, M. Camilleri et al., “Effects of pramlintide, an amylin analogue, on gastric emptying in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 123–131, 2002.
- M. Fineman, C. Weyer, D. G. Maggs, S. Strobel, and O. G. Kolterman, “The human amylin analog, pramlintide, reduces postprandial hyperglucagonemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 504–508, 2002.
- I. Chapman, B. Parker, S. Doran et al., “Effect of pramlintide on satiety and food intake in obese subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 838–848, 2005.
- P. A. Hollander, P. Levy, M. S. Fineman et al., “Pramlintide as an adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term glycemic and weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year randomized controlled trial,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 784–790, 2003.
- M. Riddle, R. Pencek, S. Charenkavanich, K. Lutz, K. Wilhelm, and L. Porter, “Randomized comparison of pramlintide or mealtime insulin added to basal insulin treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1577–1582, 2009.
- S. R. Smith, L. J. Aronne, C. M. Burns, N. C. Kesty, A. E. Halseth, and C. Weyer, “Sustained weight loss following 12-month pramlintide treatment as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention in obesity,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1816–1823, 2008.
- T. Vilsbøll, T. Krarup, C. F. Deacon, S. Madsbad, and J. J. Holst, “Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 609–613, 2001.
- M. A. Nauck, E. Homberger, and E. G. Siegel, “Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 492–498, 1986.
- D. J. Drucker, “Enhancing incretin action for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2929–2940, 2003.
- J. J. Meier, B. Gallwitz, S. Salmen et al., “Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 2719–2725, 2003.
- A. Flint, A. Raben, A. K. Ersbøll, J. J. Holst, and A. Astrup, “The effect of physiological levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 on appetite, gastric emptying, energy and substrate metabolism in obesity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 781–792, 2001.
- L. Farilla, H. Hongxiang, C. Bertolotto et al., “Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes islet cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in zucker diabetic rats,” Endocrinology, vol. 143, no. 11, pp. 4397–4408, 2002.
- R. A. DeFronzo, R. E. Ratner, J. Han, D. D. Kim, M. S. Fineman, and A. D. Baron, “Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1092–1100, 2005.
- R. E. Ratner, D. Maggs, L. L. Nielsen et al., “Long-term effects of exenatide therapy over 82 weeks on glycaemic control and weight in over-weight metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 419–428, 2006.
- D. C. Klonoff, J. B. Buse, L. L. Nielsen et al., “Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 275–286, 2008.
- M. C. Bunck, M. Diamant, A. Cornér et al., “One-year treatment with exenatide improves β-cell function, compared with insulin glargine, in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, controlled trial,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 762–768, 2009.
- J. Rosenstock, L. J. Klaff, S. Schwartz, J. Northrup, J. H. Holcombe, and K. Wilhelm, “Effects of exenatide and lifestyle modification on body weight and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with and without prediabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1173–1175, 2010.
- J. Jendle, M. A. Nauck, D. R. Matthews et al., “Weight loss with liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue for type 2 diabetes treatment as monotherapy or added to metformin, is primarily as a result of a reduction in fat tissue,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1163–1172, 2009.
- A. Garber, R. Henry, R. Ratner et al., “Liraglutide versus glimepiride monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (LEAD-3 Mono): a randomised, 52-week, phase III, double-blind, parallel-treatment trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9662, pp. 473–481, 2009.
- B. Zinman, J. Gerich, J. B. Buse et al., “Efficacy and safety of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in combination with metformin and thiazolidinedione in patients with type 2 diabetes (LEAD-4 Met+TZD),” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1224–1230, 2009.
- D. Russell-Jones, A. Vaag, O. Schmitz et al., “Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial,” Diabetologia, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 2046–2055, 2009.
- J. B. Buse, J. Rosenstock, G. Sesti et al., “Liraglutide once a day versus exenatide twice a day for type 2 diabetes: a 26-week randomised, parallel-group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6),” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9683, pp. 39–47, 2009.
- A. Astrup, S. Rössner, L. Van Gaal et al., “Effects of liraglutide in the treatment of obesity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9701, pp. 1606–1616, 2009.
- P. Aschner, M. S. Kipnes, J. K. Lunceford, M. Sanchez, C. Mickel, and D. E. Williams-Herman, “Effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin as monotherapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2632–2637, 2006.
- B. J. Goldstein, M. N. Feinglos, J. K. Lunceford, J. Johnson, and W.-H. De, “Effect of initial combination therapy with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, and metformin on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1979–1987, 2008.
- R. A. DeFronzo, M. N. Hissa, A. J. Garber et al., “The efficacy and safety of saxagliptin when added to metformin therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes with metformin alone,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1649–1655, 2009.
- R. Guerciolini, “Mode of action of orlistat,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 21, supplement 3, pp. S12–S23, 1997.
- J. S. Torgerson, J. Hauptman, M. N. Boldrin, and L. Sjöström, “XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 155–161, 2004.
- S. Jacob, M. Rabbia, M. K. Meier, and J. Hauptman, “Orlistat 120 mg improves glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with or without concurrent weight loss,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 361–371, 2009.
- C. Berne, “A randomized study of orlistat in combination with a weight management programme in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 612–618, 2005.
- J. M. Miles, L. Leiter, P. Hollander et al., “Effect of orlistat in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1123–1128, 2002.
- D. E. Kelley, G. A. Bray, F. X. Pi-Sunyer et al., “Clinical efficacy of orlistat therapy in overweight and obese patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a 1-year randomized controlled trial,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1033–1041, 2002.
- B. Barkeling, K. Elfhag, P. Rooth, and S. Rössner, “Short-term effects of sibutramine (Reductil) on appetite and eating behaviour and the long-term therapeutic outcome,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 693–700, 2003.
- H. Hauner, M. Meier, G. Wendland, T. Kurscheid, and K. Lauterbach, “Weight reduction by sibutramine in obese subjects in primary care medicine: the S.A.T. study,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 201–207, 2004.
- L. J. Aronne, A. E. Halseth, C. M. Burns, S. Miller, and L. Z. Shen, “Enhanced weight loss following coadministration of pramlintide with sibutramine or phentermine in a multicenter trial,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1739–1746, 2010.
- S. J. McNulty, E. Ur, and G. Williams, “A randomized trial of sibutramine in the management of obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 125–131, 2003.
- A. Gokcel, H. Karakose, E. M. Ertorer, N. Tanaci, N. B. Tutuncu, and N. Guvener, “Effects of sibutramine in obese female subjects with type 2 diabetes and poor blood glucose control,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1957–1960, 2001.
- W. Philip T. James, Ian D. Caterson, Walmir Coutinho et al., “Effect of Sibutramine on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Subjects,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 10, pp. 905–917, 2010.