- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 637538, 8 pages
The Relationship between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Colorectal Cancer: The Future Challenges and Outcomes of the Metabolic Syndrome
1Department of Ophthalmology, Southampton University Hospitals, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
2Department of Trauma & Orthopedics, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
3Department of Surgery, North Tyneside General Hospital, North Shields NE29 8NH, UK
4Department of General Surgery, CMU Healthcare, Central Michigan University, Saginaw, MI 48602, USA
5Department of Medicine, Wexham Park Hospital, Slough, Berkshire SL2 4HL, UK
Received 21 October 2012; Accepted 11 November 2012
Academic Editor: Ahmed Almobarak
Copyright © 2012 Said O. Muhidin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. T. Touzin, K. N. V. Bush, C. D. Williams, and S. A. Harrison, “Prevalence of colonic adenomas in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 169–176, 2011.
- A. L. Thorne, S. J. Mercer, G. J. C. Harris, and J. N. L. Simson, “Reduction in late diagnosis of colorectal cancer following introduction of a specialist colorectal surgery service,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 562–565, 2006.
- B. K. Edwards, M. L. Brown, P. A. Wingo et al., “Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2002, featuring population-based trends in cancer treatment,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 19, pp. 1407–1427, 2005.
- J. S. Byeon, S. K. Yang, T. I. Kim et al., “Colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic Asians: a prospective multinational multicenter colonoscopy survey,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1015–1022, 2007.
- M. P. Reilly and D. J. Rader, “The metabolic syndrome: more than the sum of its parts?” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 13, pp. 1546–1551, 2003.
- H. Tilg and A. M. Diehl, “NAFLD and extrahepatic cancers: have a look at the colon,” Gut, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 745–746, 2011.
- S. T. Hwang, Y. K. Cho, J. H. Park et al., “Relationship of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to colorectal adenomatous polyps,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 562–567, 2010.
- M. H. Ahmed and C. D. Byrne, “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” in The Metabolic Syndrome, pp. 245–277, Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
- M. H. Ahmed and C. D. Byrne, “Modulation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) as potential treatments for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 12, no. 17-18, pp. 740–747, 2007.
- M. H. Ahmed, E. O. Abu, and C. D. Byrne, “Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): new challenge for general practitioners and important burden for health authorities?” Primary Care Diabetes, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 129–137, 2010.
- M. H. Ahmed and C. D. Byrne, “Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and fatty liver: association or causal link?” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 34, pp. 4243–4252, 2010.
- C. D. Byrne, R. Olufad, K. D. Bruce, F. R. Cagampang, and M. H. Ahmed, “Metabolic disturbances in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Clinical Science, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 539–564, 2009.
- E. Giovannucci, “Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and colon cancer: a review,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. s836–842, 2007.
- L. S. Szczepaniak, P. Nurenberg, D. Leonard et al., “Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 288, no. 2, pp. E462–E468, 2005.
- S. Bellentani, G. Saccoccio, F. Masutti et al., “Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in northern Italy,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 112–117, 2000.
- M. H. Ahmed and C. D. Byrne, “Metabolic syndrome, diabetes & CHD risk,” in The Year in Lipid Disorders, C. J. Packard, Ed., pp. 3–26, Clinical Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2007.
- M. H. Ahmed and C. D. Byrne, “Current treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 188–195, 2009.
- M. H. Ahmed, “Biochemical markers: the road map for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 20–22, 2007.
- L. A. Adams, J. F. Lymp, J. S. Sauver et al., “The natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based cohort study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 113–121, 2005.
- L. A. Adams, S. Harmsen, J. L. S. Sauver et al., “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increases risk of death among patients with diabetes: a community-based cohort study,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 1567–1573, 2010.
- V. W. S. Wong, G. L. H. Wong, S. W. C. Tsang et al., “High prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” Gut, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 829–836, 2011.
- Y. I. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, and H. S. Park, “Colorectal neoplasms in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Korean women: a retrospective cohort study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 91–95, 2012.
- A. Stadlmayr, E. Aigner, B. Steger et al., “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasia,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 41–49, 2011.
- V. W. Wong, A. Y. Hui, S. W. Tsang et al., “Metabolic and Adipokine Profile of Chinese Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1154–1161, 2006.
- J. M. Hui, A. Hodge, G. C. Farrell, J. G. Kench, A. Kriketos, and J. George, “Beyond insulin resistance in NASH: TNF-α or adiponectin?” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 46–54, 2004.
- V. W. S. Wong, G. L. H. Wong, S. W. C. Tsang et al., “Genetic polymorphisms of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese people,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 914–921, 2008.
- R. H. Unger and P. E. Scherer, “Gluttony, sloth and the metabolic syndrome: a roadmap to lipotoxicity,” Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 345–352, 2010.
- T. Yamaji, M. Iwasaki, S. Sasazuki, and S. Tsugane, “Interaction between adiponectin and leptin influences the risk of colorectal adenoma,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 13, pp. 5430–5437, 2010.
- M. Sugiyama, H. Takahashi, K. Hosono et al., “Adiponectin inhibits colorectal cancer cell growth through the AMPK/mTOR pathway,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 339–344, 2009.
- T. Fujisawa, H. Endo, A. Tomimoto et al., “Adiponectin suppresses colorectal carcinogenesis under the high-fat diet condition,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1531–1538, 2008.
- E. K. Wei, E. Giovannucci, C. S. Fuchs, W. C. Willett, and C. S. Mantzoros, “Low plasma adiponectin levels and risk of colorectal cancer in men: a prospective study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 22, pp. 1688–1694, 2005.
- A. Y. Kim, Y. S. Lee, K. H. Kim et al., “Adiponectin represses colon cancer cell proliferation via AdipoR1- and -R2-mediated AMPK activation,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1441–1452, 2010.
- E. Bråkenhielm, N. Veitonmäki, R. Cao et al., “Adiponectin-induced antiangiogenesis and antitumor activity involve caspase-mediated endothelial cell apoptosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 2476–2481, 2004.
- P. Ferroni, R. Palmirotta, A. Spila et al., “Prognostic significance of adiponectin levels in non-metastatic colorectal cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 27, no. 1 B, pp. 483–489, 2007.
- D. P. Rose, D. Komninou, and G. D. Stephenson, “Obesity, adipocytokines, and insulin resistance in breast cancer,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 153–165, 2004.
- P. Stattin, A. Lukanova, C. Biessy et al., “Obesity and colon cancer: does leptin provide a link?” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 149–152, 2004.
- S. Cowey and R. W. Hardy, “The metabolic syndrome: a high-risk state for cancer?” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 169, no. 5, pp. 1505–1522, 2006.
- P. Trayhurn and I. S. Wood, “Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 347–355, 2004.
- S. E. Shoelson, J. Lee, and A. B. Goldfine, “Inflammation and insulin resistance,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1793–1801, 2006.
- A. G. Pittas, N. A. Joseph, and A. S. Greenberg, “Adipocytokines and insulin resistance,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 447–452, 2004.
- G. E. Sonnenberg, G. R. Krakower, and A. H. Kissebah, “A novel pathway to the manifestations of metabolic syndrome,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 180–186, 2004.
- C. Procaccini, M. Galgani, V. de Rosa et al., “Leptin: the prototypic adipocytokine and its role in nafld,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 16, no. 17, pp. 1902–1912, 2010.
- H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, C. T. Shun et al., “Association of metabolic syndrome with proximal and synchronous colorectal neoplasm,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 221–229, 2007.
- R. Pais, H. Silaghi, A. C. Silaghi, M. L. Rusu, and D. L. Dumitrascu, “Metabolic syndrome and risk of subsequent colorectal cancer,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 41, pp. 5141–5148, 2009.
- K. Aleksandrova, H. Boeing, M. Jenab et al., “Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer: the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1873–1883, 2011.
- E. E. Calle, C. Rodriguez, K. Walker-Thurmond, and M. J. Thun, “Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. Adults,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 17, pp. 1625–1638, 2003.
- R. L. Ahmed, K. H. Schmitz, K. E. Anderson, W. D. Rosamond, and A. R. Folsom, “The metabolic syndrome and risk of incident colorectal cancer,” Cancer, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2006.
- M. Trevisan, J. Liu, P. Muti, G. Misciagna, A. Menotti, and F. Fucci, “Markers of insulin resistance and colorectal cancer mortality,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 937–941, 2001.
- L. A. Colangelo, S. M. Gapstur, P. H. Gann, A. R. Dyer, and K. Liu, “Colorectal cancer mortality and factors related to the insulin resistance syndrome,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 385–391, 2002.
- G. C. Kabat, M. Y. Kim, U. Peters et al., “A longitudinal study of the metabolic syndrome and risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 326–332, 2012.
- Y.-C. Hsu, H.-M. Chiu, J.-M. Liou et al., “Glycated hemoglobin A1c is superior to fasting plasma glucose as an independent risk factor for colorectal neoplasia,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 321–328, 2012.
- K. T. Khaw, N. Wareham, S. Bingham, R. Luben, A. Welch, and N. Day, “Preliminary communication: glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, and incident colorectal cancer in men and women: a prospective analysis from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 915–919, 2004.
- R. E. Schoen, C. M. Tangen, L. H. Kuller et al., “Increased blood glucose and insulin, body size, and incident colorectal cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 13, pp. 1147–1154, 1999.
- S. H. Saydah, E. A. Platz, N. Rifai, M. N. Pollak, F. L. Brancati, and K. J. Helzlsouer, “Association of markers of insulin and glucose control with subsequent colorectal cancer risk,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 412–418, 2003.
- H. G. Mulholland, L. J. Murray, C. R. Cardwell, and M. M. Cantwell, “Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of digestive tract neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 568–576, 2009.
- M. S. Sandhu, D. B. Dunger, and E. L. Giovannucci, “Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins, their biologic interactions, and colorectal cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 94, no. 13, pp. 972–980, 2002.
- A. Grimberg and P. Cohen, “Role of insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in growth control and carcinogenesis,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2000.
- R. S. Warren, H. Yuan, M. R. Matli, N. Ferrara, and D. B. Donner, “Induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by insulin-like growth factor 1 in colorectal carcinoma,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 46, pp. 29483–29488, 1996.
- P. J. Jenkins, “Acromegaly and cancer,” Hormone Research, vol. 62, supplement 1, pp. 108–115, 2004.
- E. Giovannucci, M. N. Pollak, E. A. Platz et al., “A prospective study of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 and risk of colorectal neoplasia in women,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 345–349, 2000.
- A. C. Williams, T. J. Collard, C. M. Perks et al., “Increased p53-dependent apoptosis by the insulin-like growth factor binding protein IGFBP-3 in human colonic adenoma-derived cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2000.
- A. B. De Gonzalez, P. Hartge, J. R. Cerhan et al., “Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 23, pp. 2211–2219, 2010.
- A. A. Moghaddam, M. Woodward, and R. Huxley, “Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 31 studies with 70,000 events,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2533–2547, 2007.
- S. Morois, S. Mesrine, M. Josset, F. Clavel-Chapelon, and M. C. Boutron-Ruault, “Anthropometric factors in adulthood and risk of colorectal adenomas,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 172, no. 10, pp. 1166–1180, 2010.
- B. Stein, J. C. Anderson, R. Rajapakse, Z. A. Alpern, C. R. Messina, and G. Walker, “Body mass index as a predictor of colorectal Neoplasia in ethnically diverse screening population,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 2945–2952, 2010.
- Y. Wang, E. J. Jacobs, A. V. Patel et al., “A prospective study of waist circumference and body mass index in relation to colorectal cancer incidence,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 783–792, 2008.
- T. Pischon, P. H. Lahmann, H. Boeing et al., “Body size and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC),” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 13, pp. 920–931, 2006.
- M. Tabuchi, J. Kitayama, and H. Nagawa, “Hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia may associate with the adenoma-carcinoma transition in colorectal epithelial cells,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 985–987, 2008.
- M. Tabuchi, J. Kitayama, and H. Nagawa, “Hypertriglyceridemia is positively correlated with the development of colorectal tubular adenoma in Japanese men,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1261–1264, 2006.
- C. S. Liu, H. S. Hsu, C. I. Li et al., “Central obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk for colorectal adenoma in a Chinese population,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 10, article 51, 2010.
- S. Bonovas, K. Filioussi, C. S. Flordellis, and N. M. Sitaras, “Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 18 studies involving more than 1.5 million patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 23, pp. 3462–3468, 2007.