Table 1: Baseline preexercise characteristics for 9 female runners and 10 female walkers. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Body fat percentage by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; VO2max: maximal oxygen uptake while running or walking on a motor driven treadmill.
(a) Anthropometric characteristics

RunnersWalkers 𝑃 value

Age (yr) 2 3 . 7 ± 2 . 4 2 4 . 6 ± 6 . 9 0.70
Height (cm) 1 6 3 . 9 ± 4 . 2 1 6 4 . 6 ± 8 . 6 0.80
Mass (kg) 5 3 . 5 ± 3 . 1 6 0 . 0 ± 1 2 . 3 0.14
BMI (kg·m−1) 1 9 . 8 ± 1 . 0 2 2 . 1 ± 3 . 4 0.06
Body Fat (%) 2 3 . 0 ± 4 . 9 3 5 . 7 ± 5 . 2 <0.001
VO2max (mL·kg−1 min−1) 4 9 . 7 ± 3 . 0 3 3 . 9 ± 3 . 7 <0.001

(b) Gut peptide concentrations and appetite ratings before exercise and rest trials

RunnersWalkers
Exercise*Rest* 𝑃 valueExercise*Rest* 𝑃 value

Ghrelin 1 4 4 . 7 ± 5 2 . 6 1 6 7 . 8 ± 3 7 . 0 0.33 1 2 6 . 8 ± 4 2 . 8 2 0 9 . 4 ± 1 2 7 . 8 0.09
Ghrelinacyl 1 0 . 6 ± 8 . 6 2 5 . 4 ± 1 5 . 7 0.02 6 . 4 ± 2 . 8 1 5 . 2 ± 7 . 2 0.22
PYY 4 5 . 0 ± 8 . 9 4 3 . 6 ± 1 0 . 9 0.67 5 1 . 2 ± 1 6 . 6 4 5 . 9 ± 1 3 . 6 0.39
GLP-1 4 2 . 5 ± 1 9 . 5 4 7 . 6 ± 1 5 . 5 0.59 5 5 . 2 ± 9 . 6 5 0 . 9 ± 2 7 . 0 0.63
Hunger 8 . 9 ± 9 . 4 1 3 . 6 ± 1 6 . 4 0.34 7 . 5 ± 9 . 7 1 7 . 7 ± 2 8 . 3 0.23
Satiety 7 1 . 8 ± 2 3 . 2 7 7 . 7 ± 1 9 . 3 0.75 7 9 . 6 ± 2 0 . 2 6 6 . 0 ± 2 8 . 9 0.11
Fullness 6 4 . 6 ± 2 6 . 4 7 8 . 2 ± 1 5 . 6 0.29 8 4 . 2 ± 1 1 . 4 7 3 . 6 ± 2 6 . 7 0.20
Desire to Eat 2 6 . 6 ± 2 5 . 1 3 3 . 4 ± 3 0 . 1 0.51 1 8 . 4 ± 1 4 . 2 3 2 . 4 ± 2 7 . 8 0.04

*Mean ± SD.
Based on paired t-test.