Table 3: Effect of exercise on (a) rate of change of gut peptide concentrations and hunger ratings over 120 minutes after exercise or after rest, among runners and among walkers and (b) gut pepetide concentrations and hunger ratings immediately after exercise or after rest (at t = 0).
(a) Effect of exercise over all time points

RunnersWalkers
Exercise*Rest*Exercise effect 𝑃 valueExercise*Rest*Exercise effect 𝑃 value

Ghrelin (pmol/L) 1 0 . 0 ± 2 2 . 9 2 . 1 ± 1 1 . 7 12.9 (−3.9, 29.7)0.12 1 2 . 8 ± 3 3 . 6 4 . 6 ± 2 3 . 2 −9.9 (−42.6, 22.8)0.53
Ghrelinacyl (pmol/L) 3 . 6 ± 1 0 . 0 1 . 4 ± 3 . 9 2.9 (−7.6, 13.4)0.56 1 . 7 ± 4 . 2 1 . 3 ± 4 . 7 1.7 (−2.9, 6.3)0.44
PYY (pmol/L) 3 . 9 ± 2 . 4 1 . 7 ± 1 . 6 −2.0 (−4.0, −0.095)0.041 9 . 4 ± 8 . 3 2 . 2 ± 1 . 7 −6.7 (−13.2, −0.14)0.05
GLP-1 (pmol/L) 8 . 5 ± 7 . 9 1 . 5 ± 6 . 3 −10.7 (−17.0, −4.4)0.002 1 0 . 2 ± 1 0 . 6 6 . 9 ± 1 8 . 1 −16.5 (−28.0, −5.0)0.01
Hunger 1 3 . 4 ± 5 . 9 1 0 ± 4 . 6 3.6 (−1.5, 8.7)0.15 9 . 2 ± 4 . 9 7 . 6 ± 4 . 5 0.60 (−2.9, 4.1)0.72
Satiety 8 . 7 ± 7 . 8 8 . 2 ± 7 . 6 −2.6 (−7.1, 1.8)0.23 5 . 6 ± 6 . 8 7 . 6 ± 3 . 8 3.2 (−1.6, 8.0)0.18
Fullness 1 0 . 6 ± 6 . 4 9 . 3 ± 3 . 3 −3.9 (−7.7, −0.16)0.042 8 . 2 ± 4 . 3 6 . 6 ± 5 . 0 −0.35 (−3.9, 3.2)0.84
Desire to Eat 1 0 . 2 ± 6 . 3 8 . 4 ± 4 . 3 1.9 (−2.4, 6.1)0.37 7 . 9 ± 4 . 4 8 . 3 ± 3 . 7 −1.9 (−4.4, 0.67)0.14

*Mean ± SD of slopes.
Estimated effect (95% confidence interval) from linear regression, adjusting for baseline.
(b) Immediate effect of exercise

RunnersWalkers
Exercise*Rest*Exercise effect 𝑃 valueExercise*Rest*Exercise effect 𝑃 value

Ghrelin (pmol/L) 3 . 7 ± 7 1 . 1 3 . 6 ± 4 3 . 5 −7.3 (−57.2, 42.6)0.76 3 9 . 2 ± 1 2 5 . 4 2 8 . 7 ± 1 5 1 . 9 68.0 (−70.0, 205.9)0.31
Ghrelinacyl (pmol/L) 7 . 9 ± 5 . 7 0 . 0 3 ± 9 . 2 7.9 (−0.9, 16.7)0.075 2 . 3 ± 5 . 3 4 . 0 ± 2 0 . 5 −6.3 (−23.0, 10.3)0.43
PYY (pmol/L) 8 . 3 ± 1 2 . 7 4 . 0 ± 5 . 8 12.3 (3.6, 21.0)0.008 9 . 8 ± 1 8 . 4 3 . 6 ± 1 3 . 2 13.3 (1.9, 24.7)0.02
GLP-1 (pmol/L) 3 0 . 3 ± 2 5 . 5 2 . 2 ± 1 8 . 9 32.4 (5.3, 59.5)0.022 9 . 8 ± 3 6 . 5 1 . 1 ± 1 0 . 5 8.7 (−23.8, 41.2)0.58

*Mean ± SD of difference in 𝑡 0 and baseline.
Estimated effect (95% confidence interval) from linear regression.