Table 5: Effects of the 4-week controlled Mediterranean diet intervention on anthropometric and metabolic variables associated with cardiovascular risk in abdominally obese and non-abdominally obese individuals1.

Variables Non-abdominally obese individuals ( ) Abdominally obese individuals ( ) value
ChangeSEMΔ%ChangeSEMΔ%TimeGroup*time

Body weight (kg)2−0.62 0.16 −0.79−1.12 0.21 −1.23<0.00010.1481
BMI (kg/m2)2−0.20 0.05 −0.76−0.38 0.07 −1.21<0.00010.2947
Waist circumference (cm) 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.49 −1.140.15260.0174
Waist to hip ratio 0.01 0.01 0.99 −0.01 0.01 −0.850.87630.0586
TG (mmol/L)2−0.25 0.10 −15.45−0.15 0.13 −9.020.07240.0888
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) −0.40 0.11 −7.21−0.49 0.10 −9.02<0.00010.6021
LDL-C (mmol/L)−0.26 0.10 −7.17−0.36 0.08 −10.52<0.00010.4323
HDL-C (mmol/L)−0.03 0.02 −2.12−0.05 0.02 −4.630.01540.3678
Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio −0.30 0.10 −6.05−0.23 0.11 −4.800.00100.6273
LDL-C/HDL-C ratio −0.26 0.08 −7.82−0.16 0.08 −5.340.00090.4271
Apo B (g/L)2−0.09 0.03 −8.41−0.11 0.02 −9.99<0.00010.6961
Apo A-1 (g/L) −0.06 0.02 −4.03−0.07 0.02 −5.39<0.00010.4856
Apo A-2 (g/L) −0.020 0.005 −5.58−0.021 0.006 −6.21<0.00010.8916
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) −3.50 1.46 −3.12−3.45 1.12 −3.030.00030.9629
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) −2.64 0.90 −3.49−4.03 1.04 −5.14<0.00010.3281
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 0.02 0.06 0.40 −0.06 0.08 −1.070.68840.3977
2-h glucose (mmol/L)−0.33 0.29 −5.47−0.51 0.24 −7.150.02630.6323
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)2−1.2 3.3 −1.83−14.1 6.9 −12.440.15330.2687
2-h insulin (pmol/L)2−33.9 48.9 −9.28−139.2 62.7 −22.410.08390.8845
HOMA index2,3−0.009 0.018 −10.20−0.016 0.017 −21.380.56810.5813

Δ%: percentage of change; BMI: body mass index; TG: triglycerides; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; Apo: apolipoprotein; HOMA index: homeostasis model assessment index.
1All analyses concerning waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and metabolic variables are adjusted for weight change during the MedDiet. Values are presented as means with their standard errors (SEM). Men and women with a waist circumference of, respectively, >102 cm and >88 cm were considered as having abdominal obesity.
2Analysis was performed on transformed values.
3Calculated as (1/[fasting glucose (mmol/L) × fasting insulin (pmol/L)/22.5]) for measuring insulin sensitivity.
*Abdominally obese individuals significantly decrease their waist circumference in response to the MedDiet, .