Table 1: General characteristics of the population included in the study.

No metabolic syndrome ( )Metabolic syndrome ( ) value

Age (years)37 ± 1143 ± 10<0.0011
BMI (kg/m2)45.4 ± 6.746.0 ± 6.50.395
Gender (% female)87.4%73.7%0.0012
Ethnicity (% Caucasian)80.5%85.0%0.222
Smoking 0.152
  % never smoked49%40%
  % stopped smoking29%32%
  % smokes22%28%
Pack years36.0 ± 11.29.9 ± 14.80.003
Abdominal circumference (cm)126.8 ± 14134.3 ± 16<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)136.4 ± 17.9145.98 ± 16.6<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)83.6 ± 11.887.83 ± 10.1<0.001
Comorbidities
  Diabetes mellitus3.8%30.3%<0.001
  Hypertension18.9%42.8%<0.001
  Hypercholesterolemia1.9%21.7%<0.001
  Self-reported asthma19.6%21.0%0.723
 Use of inhaled corticosteroids3.8%5.5%0.413

1Data presented as mean ± standard deviation, value for Student’s test,
2Data presented as percentage, value for Chi-square test.
3Data were log transformed for statistical analysis.