Table 3: Summary of predictive equations for children and adolescents based on a three-compartmental model.

DevelopmentCross-validation
Author Sex Ethnic group Age Y Criterion method RMSE CV (%)Equations and predictor variables Age PECVCCCBiasAgreement
LimitsTrend

Houtkooper et al. [65]MCauc10–1453UWW,
Deut Dilut1
0.853.3%NA%FM = −0.235 * S, cm2/ + 0.252 * Abdcirc + 0.281 * (sum: Tric, Abd, Thigh SKF) − 0.044NANANANANANANANANA
F41

Houtkooper et al. [65] MCauc10–1453
UWW,
Deut Dilut1
0.941.9 kgNAFFM (kg) = 0.713 * S, cm2/ + 0.15 * (chest circ) + 0.493 * (hip Skeletal width) + 0.121 * Re − 21.41NANANANANANANANANA
F41

Houtkooper et al. [59]M and FCauc10–141572UWW,
Deut Dilut1
0.952.1 kg5.1FFM (kg) = 0.61 * S, cm2/ + 0.25 + 1.312510.5–14.40.95NANANA1.7NANA

Goran et al. [51]MCauc4–949DXA Lunar DPX-L densitometer0.910.94 kgNAFM (kg) = 0.16 * Sub SKF + 0.33 + 0.11 * Tric SKF − 0.16 * S, cm2/ − 0.43 * Sex − 2.4NANANANANANANANANA
F490.881.05 kgNAFM (kg) = 0.18 + 0.23 * Sub SKF + 0.23 * Tric SKF − 3.0

Ellis [49] MCauc3–18145DXA Hologic QDR 2000 0.573.56 kg31.7FM (kg) = 0.534 − 1.59 * age + 3.03NANANANANANANANANA
Black780.624.29 kg36.1FM (kg) = 0.594 − 0.381 * S, cm + 36.0NANANANANANANANANA
Hispanic740.553.71 kg25.7FM (kg) = 0.591 − 1.82 * Age + 3.36NANANANANANANANANA

Ellis et al. [50] FCauc3–18141DXA Hologic QDR 2000 0.931.09 kg9.7FM (kg) = 0.642 − 0.12 * S, cm − 0.606 * Age + 8.98NANANANANANANANANA
Black1040.962.44 kg16.7FM (kg) = 0.653 − 0.163 * S, cm − 0.298 * Age + 10.7NANANANANANANANANA
Hispanic680.952.45 kg15.1FM (kg) = 0.677 − 0.217 * S, cm + 15.5NANANANANANANANANA

de Lorenzo et al. [57] MNA7.7–1320DXA Lunar DPX 0.961.0 kgNAFFM = 2.330 + 0.588 * S, cm2/ + 0.211 NANANANANANANANANA
F15densitometer

Dezenberg et al. [48]M and FCauc and Black4–10.9135DXA Lunar DPX-L 0.950.5 kgNAFM (kg) = 0.332 + 0.263 * Tric SKF + 0.76 * Sex + 0.704 * Ethnicity − 8.004674–10.90.92NANANA−0.110.1–(−0.3)0.19

Morrison et al. [58] FCauc6–1765Hologic
QDR-1000/W
0.991.14 kg3.6FFM (kg) = 1.07 + 0.37 * S, cm2/ 0.17 * Tric SKF + 0.47 209.3 ± 0.6NA1.56NANANANA
Black610.991.95 kg4.7FFM (kg) = −8.78 + 0.78 * S, cm2/ + 0.10 * Rc + 0.18 209.2 ± 0.5NA1.25NANANANA

Bray et al. [54] M and FCauc and Black10–12129DXA Hologic QDR 2000 0.913.1%NA%FM = 7.26 + 0.77 * Bic SKF + 0.36 * calf SKF + 0.25 * Thigh SKFNANANANANANANANANA
0.893.4%NA%FM = 9.02 + 1.09 * Bic SKF + 0.42 * Calf SKFNANANANANANANANANA

Clasey et al. [56] MCauc5–11.9203DXALunar DPX-IQ 0.951.4 kgNAFFM (kg) = −7.655 + 0.297 * S, cm + 0.125 – 0.0174 * Imp38 M5–11.90.951.2 kgNANA0.02.5–(−2.4)NS
F158(GE/Lunar)37 F

Flavel et al. [55]MCauc6–1737DXA Lunar Prodigy0.913.0%NA%FM = 1.09 + 0.63 * Tri SKF + 0.36 * Thigh SKF + 0.50 Supraspinale SKF – 0.16 * Abd SKF + 0.33 Bic SKFNANANANANANANANANA
F330.932.60%NA%FM = 11.03 + 0.93 * BMI + 0.30 * Waist Girth − 0.24 * S, cm + 0.48 * Calf SKF + 0.07 * Hip GirthNANANANANANANANANA

Huang et al. [53]M and FLatino7–1364DXA Hologic QDR 4500W0.92NANAFM (kg) = 0.665 − 1.606 * Age − 1.882 * Sex (0 = girl; 1 = boy) + 3.330327–130.92NANANA0.366.4–(−5.7)NS

Hoffman et al. [52]MMixed ethnicity9.8 ± 1.348DXA Hologic QDR 4500A0.781.2 kgNAFM (kg) = 6.371 + 0.488 + 0.128 * Tric SKF − 1.138 * S, cm + 0.645 * Sex − 0.188 * Age1210.1 ± 1.50.80NANANA0.09NANA
F6718

NA: not available; UWW: underwater weighing; DXA: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Cauc: caucasians; SKF: skinfold; NS: nonsignificant; Bic SKF: bicipital skinfold; Tric SKF: tricipital skinfold; Supil SKF: Suprailiac skinfold; Sub SKF: subscapular skinfold; Abd SKF: abdominal skinfold; M: male; F: female; Deut Dilut: deuterium dilution; : coefficient of determination; RMSE: root of mean square error; CV: coefficient of variation; CCC: concordance correlation coefficient; PE: pure error; BMI: body mass index; : weight; FM: fat mass; FFM: fat-free mass; S: stature; : resistance; Rc: reactance; Imp: impedance; abdcirc: abdominal circumference.
% Fat = {(2.057/Db) − 0.786 * − 1.286 100, where Db: body density; : total body water [9].
% Final equation was obtained from combining the development and cross-validation samples [59].