Table 1: Baseline characteristics.

ParameterParticipants ( )Men ( )Women ( )

Age (years)46.4 ± 5.946.5 ± 6.046.3 ± 5.7
Weight (kg)80.3 ± 15.987.5 ± 13.570.4 ± 13.5 ***
BMI (kg/m2)26.4 ± 4.427.1 ± 3.925.4 ± 4.8 ***
Waist circumference (cm)94.1 ± 12.498.4 ± 10.988.2 ± 12.0 ***
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130.3 ± 16.9133.8 ± 16.3125.4 ± 16.5 ***
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)83.5 ± 9.285.6 ± 8.880.6 ± 9.1 ***
Triglycerides (mg/dL)119.7 ± 81.9 (98)1135.8 ± 92.7 (110) 1
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)210.1 ± 36.2211.6 ± 36.4208.0 ± 35.7 **
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)130.8 ± 33.1136.6 ± 32.7122.8 ± 31.9 ***
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)60.0 ± 16.253.5 ± 12.669.0 ± 16.3 ***
HbA1c (%)5.4 ± 0.55.5 ± 0.55.4 ± 0.5 ***
Intima media thickness (mm)0.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.2 ***
Smoker/former smoker (%)11/2112/2210/19

LDL: low-density lipoprotein; HDL: high-density lipoprotein. Shown are mean ± standard deviations. 1(median). There were 422–431 missings in the variables waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, intima media thickness. In the other variables, there were 0–55 missings. Differences between men and women had been determined by t-test and by Chi-square test for smoking (** ; *** ). Significant differences were bold written.