Table 3: Adjusted* differences of preference-weighted QOL scores by clinical and demographic characteristics compared with reference categories**.

Health Utility Index 2Health Utility Index 3Feeling thermometer
Difference( -value)Difference( -value)Difference( -value)

BMI%
 85–94 (0.330) (0.084) (<0.001)
 95–99 (0.178) (0.128) (<0.001)
 99+ (0.013) (0.025) (<0.001)
(0.078)(0.068)(<0.001)
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)
 100–110 (0.551) (0.396) (0.697)
 100+ (0.205) (0.475) (0.431)
(0.357)(0.520)(0.666)
Fasting insulin ( U/mL)
 30+
Age
 10 or younger
 12 (<0.001) (<0.001) (0.041)
(0.003)(0.003)(0.044)
Sex
 Male0.000(0.992)0.006(0.491)0.014(0.023)
Tanner stage
 2 (0.006) (0.124) (0.200)
 3 (<0.001) (0.088) (0.552)
 4 or 5 (<0.001) (0.017) (0.190)
(0.002)(0.128)(0.381)
Family history of diabetes
 Yes (0.109) (0.065) (0.104)
(0.109)(0.065)(0.104)
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic (<0.001) (<0.001) (0.213)
 Black (0.017) (0.006) (0.533)
(<0.001)(<0.001)(0.156)
Highest educational grade attained in household
 No HS diploma (0.524) (0.127) (0.383)
 Some college (0.588) (0.623) (0.421)
(0.368)(0.250)(0.651)

Linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, blood glucose and insulin, Tanner stage, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and educational attainment.
Reference groups were normal weight, fasting glucose < 100 mg/dL, fasting insulin < 30  U/mL, age of 11 years, female, Tanner stage 1, no family history of diabetes, non-Hispanic white children, and college graduate.