Table 1: Participants’ characteristics by gender, Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, 1987–2002 ( )*.

Men ( )†,‡Women ( )

Continuous variables mean (±SD
 Age (years)45.7 (9.6)44.6 (10.2)
 Percent body fat (%)21.8 (6.3)26.7 (6.9)
 Waist circumference (cm)94.2 (10.8)74.4 (11.2)
 Treadmill time (minutes)18.9 (5.0)14.3 (4.6)
 Maximal 12.1 (2.5)10.0 (2.1)
 Alcohol drinking (g/day)13.5 (18.0)7.5 (11.5)
 Body weight (kg)85.9 (13.7)63.2 (11.7)
 Goal weight (kg)80.1 (9.0)57.0 (6.3)
 Weight satisfaction**5.8 (7.7)†,‡ 6.2 (7.7)†,‡
 Relative weight (BMI in kg/m2)††26.7 (3.8)23.3 (4.0)
 Relative goal weight (BMI in kg/m2)‡‡24.9 (2.1)21.0 (1.9)
 Relative weight 1.8 (2.4)†,‡2.3 (2.9)†,‡
Categorical variables Men ( = 14,408)Women ( )
 Weight status
  Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2)17 (0.12)189 (3.4)
  Normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2)5082 (35.2)3372 (70.5)
  Overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2)7009 (49.6)898 (18.8)
  Obese (≥30 kg/m2)2317 (16.1)325 (6.8)
 Hypertension4680 (32.5)746 (16.2)
 Myocardial infarction or stroke***191 (1.3)22 (0.5)
 Cancer695 (4.8)318 (6.9)
 Diabetes495 (3.4)97 (2.1)
 Hypercholesterolemia†††4519 (31.4)1112 (24.2)
 Physical activity level‡‡‡
  Inactive4149 (28.8)1173 (25.5)
  Moderate6814 (47.3)2396 (52.1)
  Active3445 (23.9)1026 (22.3)
 Tobacco
  Never7827 (54.3)3013 (65.6)
  Former4626 (32.1)1260 (27.4)
  Current1955 (13.6)322 (7.0)
 Eat more to maintain weight 1912 (13.3)458 (10.0)
 Dieting (more)2569 (17.8)1457 (31.7)
 Snacking
  0–6 per week5185 (56.1)1259 (40.6)
  7+ per week4062 (43.9)1843 (59.4)
 Meal frequency
  0–13 per week1282 (9.0)518 (11.1)
  14–20 per week8279 (58.3)2271 (48.8)
  21+ per week4647 (32.7)1865 (40.1)

 * applies for all data except for percent body fat and for waist circumference in men, and for percent body fat, for waist circumference in women; does not include those in the underweight category. This data is shown for illustration but was not included in any of the analyses.
Difference is significant (i.e., Ho: Satisfaction = 0) at .
Difference in weight satisfaction between the genders is significant at .
are means and standard deviations (SD); differences between the genders are significant at for all variables.
metabolic equivalent tasks achieved during treadmill test.
Goal weight is that weight reported by the subject to be his/her ideal as of the first examination from 1987 to 2002.
**Weight Satisfaction = the Measured weight minus (−) the goal weight in kg.
††BMI = body mass index, a measure of relative weight is described by this formula: weight (kg)/height (m)2.
‡‡Goal weight expressed in BMI units (kg/m2).
satisfaction expressed in BMI units (kg/m2).
categorical variables reported as number with characteristic and percent of total (%); differences between genders significant at for all variables.
Defined as the history of hypertension or resting systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg.
***Defined as any personal history of myocardial infarction or stroke; cancer, or diabetes including insulin use, or fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL).
†††Defined as the history of hypercholesterolemia or fasting total cholesterol level ≥6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dL).
‡‡‡Activity, from leisure-time physical activity questionnaire, inactive defined as no regular leisure-time activity; moderate defined as some participation in regular leisure-time activity, or walking, jogging, or running up to 10 miles per week; active defined as walking, jogging, or running more than 10 miles per week.
use defined as Never = never smoked cigarettes; Former = previously smoked cigarettes; Current = currently smoked cigarettes based on self-reported smoking habit questionnaire.
more to maintain weight is coded as No = generally eating less or just what he/she wants to maintain weight; Yes = generally having to eat more than what he/she wants to maintain weight.
Diet frequency is coded as Less = subject reports never, rarely, or only sometimes dieting; More = subject reports often or always dieting.