Table 2: Relationships between body weight satisfaction* and weight-related health behaviors, health indicators, and chronic disease diagnoses among women ( ) and men ( ) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, 1987–2002.

Weight related behaviors, chronic disease diagnoses, and health indicatorsWOMEN MEN = 14,408
Satisfied
( )
Dissatisfied
( )
Satisfied ( )Dissatisfied ( )

Eating to maintain weight**
  Eat less1138 (52.0)1599 (66.5)2747 (38.6)3700 (50.8)
  Eat just 923 (42.2)477 (19.8)<.00013804 (53.4)2242 (30.8)<.0001
  Eat more128 (5.8)330 (13.7)576 (9.0)1345 (18.5)
Dieting frequency (more)††511 (23.3)946 (39.3)<.0001960 (13.5)1609 (22.1)<.0001
Yo-yo dieting (yes)‡‡70 (17.4)135 (43.0)<.0001131 (8.4)282 (26.7)<.0001
Snacking 7+ times per week806 (57.2)998 (63.2).021826 (41.8)2233 (45.8)<.0001
Meal frequency
 0–13 meals per week230 (10.7)272 (11.7)543 (7.7)739 (10.3)
 14–20 meals per week1007 (46.9)1166 (50.0).023851 (54.9)4419 (61.6)<.0001
 ≥21 meals per week908 (42.3)892 (38.3)2619 (37.3)2020 (28.1)
Activity
 Inactive452 (20.6)721 (30.0)1566 (22.0)2583 (35.4)
 Moderate162 (53.1)1234 (51.3)<.00013418 (48.0)3396 (46.6)<.0001
 Active575 (26.3)451 (18.7)2137 (30.0)1308 (17.9)
Tobacco
 Never1484 (67.8)1529 (63.5)4058 (57.0)3769 (51.7)
 Former570 (26.0)690 (28.7).0062201 (31.0)2425 (33.3)<.0001
 Current135 (6.2)187 (7.8)862 (12.0)1093 (15.0)
Alcohol consumption
 None703 (32.1)934 (38.9)1811 (25.4)1975 (27.1)
 Light1108 (50.6)1087 (45.2)<.00014399 (61.8)4282 (58.8).0009
 Moderate/Heavy378 (17.3)385 (16.0)434 (6.1)1030 (14.1)
Chronic disease diagnoses
 Hypertension***293 (13.4)453 (18.8)<.00011747 (24.5)2933 (40.3)<.0001
 Myocardial infarction or stroke††† 7 (.3)15 (.6).1498 (1.4)93 (1.3).60
 Cancer†††155 (7.1)163 (6.8).68376 (5.3)319 (4.4).01
 Diabetes†††31 (1.4)66 (2.7).002146 (2.1)349 (4.8)<.0001
 Hypercholesterolemia‡‡‡433 (19.8)679 (28.2)<.00011863 (26.2)2656 (36.5)<.0001
Health Indicators
 Body mass index (kg/m2)21.0 (1.6)25.8 (4.1)<.000124.3 (2.0)29.1 (3.6)<.0001
 Percent body fat (%) 22.7 (5.4)30.4 (5.9)<.000118.2 (4.9)25.2 (4.4)<.0001
 Waist circumference (cm)68.7 (8.4)79.4 (10.9)<.000187.6 (5.8)100.7 (7.5)<.0001
 Treadmill time (minutes)15.9 (4.5)12.9 (4.1)<.000120.8 (4.6)17.0 (4.0)<.0001
 Maximal 10.7 (2.1)9.3 (1.9)<.000113.1 (2.4)11.2 (1.9)<.0001
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 92.7 (13.3)95.6 (15.4)<.000198.4 (14.5)102.8 (19.3)<.0001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 111.2 (13.9)114.9 (14.5)<.0001120.4 (12.9)124.1 (13.1)<.0001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74.6 (9.5)78.0 (9.7)<.000180.0 (9.0)83.8 (9.6)<.0001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 193.4 (36.7)204.7 (39.5)<.0001202.3 (36.4)215.3 (41.2)<.0001

 *Weight satisfaction is based on the difference between measured and goal weight (kg) or relative weight (kg/m2).
Data presented as number of participants with the characteristic and the % of column total for that variable represented (%).
Data presented are means and standard deviations (SD).
applies for all data except for yo-yo dieting, for snacking frequency, and for meal frequency in satisfied women and for yo-yo dieting, for snacking frequency, and for meal frequency in dissatisfied women and   for percent body fat and for waist circumference for satisfied women and for percent body fat and for waist circumference for dissatisfied women.
applies for all data except for yo-yo dieting, for snacking frequency, and for meal frequency for satisfied men and for yo-yo dieting, for snacking frequency, and for meal frequency in dissatisfied men and for percent body fat and for waist circumference for satisfied men and for percent body fat and for waist circumference for dissatisfied men.
Significance of chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical and of -tests for continuous variables: comparisons of behaviors, health indicators, and diagnoses between weight satisfaction columns (satisfied or dissatisfied).
**Eating to maintain weight coded as Less = generally eating less than what he wants to maintain weight; Just = eating just the amount he/she wants to maintain weight; More = generally having to eat more than what he/she wants to maintain weight.
††Diet frequency coded as Less = never, rarely, or only sometimes dieting; More = often or always dieting.
‡‡Yo-yo dieting coded as: “are you really a yo-yo dieter?” Yes or No.
, from leisure-time physical activity questionnaire, inactive defined as no regular leisure-time activity; moderate defined as some participation in regular leisure-time activity, or walking, jogging, or running up to 10 miles per week; active defined as walking, jogging, or running more than 10 miles per week.
use defined as Never = never smoked cigarettes; Former = previously smoked cigarettes; Current = currently smoked cigarettes based on self-reported smoking habit questionnaire.
alcohol consumption defined as none, light corresponds to <15 grams per day for women and <30 grams per day for men or moderate/heavy corresponds to ≥15 grams per day for women or ≥30 grams per day for men.
***Defined as the history of hypertension or resting systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg.
†††Defined as any personal history of myocardial infarction or stroke; cancer, or diabetes including insulin use, or fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL).
‡‡‡Defined as the history of hypercholesterolemia or fasting total cholesterol level ≥6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dL).
metabolic equivalent tasks achieved during treadmill test.