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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 298024, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/298024
Research Article

Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with the Evolution of Cardiometabolic Risk over Four Years in West-African Adults: The Benin Study

1TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7
2Department of Health Promotion, Regional Institute for Public Health, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 918 Cotonou, Benin
3United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, BP 1146 N'Djamena, Chad
4Bioversity International, West and Central Africa, c/o IITA, 08 BP 0932 Cotonou, Benin
5Department of Health and Environment, Regional Institute for Public Health, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 918 Cotonou, Benin

Received 23 December 2012; Accepted 6 February 2013

Academic Editor: Renato Pasquali

Copyright © 2013 Charles Sossa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aim. To assess in adults from Benin changes in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) using both the Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine the effects of diet, and lifestyles, controlling for location and socioeconomic status. Methods. Apparently healthy subjects ( ) aged 25–60 years and randomly selected in the largest city, a small town, and rural areas were included in the four-year longitudinal study. Along with CMR factors, socioeconomic, diet and lifestyle data were collected in individual interviews. A food score based on consumption frequency of four “sentinel” food groups (meat and poultry, dairy, eggs, and vegetables) was developed. Lifestyle included physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use. Education and income (proxy) were the socioeconomic variables. Results. Among the subjects with four-year follow-up data ( ), 13.5% were at risk at baseline, showing MetS or FRS ≥ 10%. The incidence of MetS and FRS ≥ 10% during follow-up was 8.2% and 5%, respectively. CMR deteriorated in 21% of subjects. Diet and lifestyle mediated location and income effects on CMR evolution. Low food scores and inactivity increased the likelihood of CMR deterioration. Conclusion. Combining MetS and FRS might be appropriate for surveillance purposes in order to better capture CMR and inform preventive measures.