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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 312153, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/312153
Research Article

Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

1Division of Nutrition, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA
2Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA
3Division of Neonatology, University of Utah, P.O. Box 581289, Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA

Received 7 December 2012; Accepted 1 February 2013

Academic Editor: Nicola Abate

Copyright © 2013 Heidi N. Bagley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2) in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPARγ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PPARγ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPARγ, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI-) induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1) normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPARγ expression in male rats and (2) increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.