Table 1: Characteristics of participants and body composition at baseline in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) group and control group. Data are given as mean values (standard deviation) or number of subjects and percentages.

ILI ( )Control ( )P value
% %

Female/male 42/29 59.2/40.821/12 63.6/36.40.663a
Age (year) 45.2 (9.5)38.5 (9.8)0.001b
Height (cm)173.2 (8.6)172.3 (10.4)0.626b
Body mass index (kg/m2)42.8 (4.6)42.8 (6.3)0.983b
Body weight (kg)128.9 (19.4)127.1 (21.6)0.680b
Fat mass (kg)60.5 (11.0)60.4 (13.5)0.986b
Fat-free mass (kg)68.3 (13.2)67.1 (12.8)0.676b
Skeletal muscle mass (kg)38.4 (7.9)37.9 (7.4)0.760b
Visceral fat area (cm2)255.7 (64.7)245.6 (66.3)0.464b
Highest education
 Primary and/or secondary school8c12.9721.20.178a
 High school32c51.62060.6
 Higher education22c35.56 18.2
Employment (full-time job)34d52.316e50.00.831a
Current smoker (yes) 15f23.46 18.20.552a

Chi-square; bindependent-samples t test; c , d , e , f .