Table 2: Study design characteristics of adult obesity epidemiologic studies in Kuwait.

First author (publication year) Year of survey (recruitment period) Study design Eligibility criteria Sample size
(% males)
Age range (yrs)
Ethnicity
Sampling source/frame Sampling method (response rate)

Badr et al. (2012) [18]2005-2006
(20 months)
Cross-sectional study
(based on area of residence)
Kuwaiti, ≥50 yrs. 2,443 (39%)
50–70+
Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti households in Ahmadi and Capital governorates. Multistage cluster sampling (78% of households). Households visited by interviewer (96% individuals).

Zaghloul et al. (2012) [19]2008-2009
(16 months)
National cross-sectional survey
(National Nutrition Survey (NNS))
Kuwaiti. 1,049 (45%)
19–86 yrs*Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti households from all six governorates. Multistage cluster sampling (53% households) stratified by age and gender based on 2005 national census data. Subjects asked to attend interview at one of seven primary health clinics at various districts (24% of individuals).

Alattar et al. (2012) [20]2009-2010
(not stated)
Cross-sectional study
(college-based)
Kuwaiti, young adults, no current acute infection, not pregnant or diabetic, no diabetes inducing drugs. 484 (36%)
17–24 yrs
Kuwaiti
Students attending the Public College for Basic Education between March 2009 and January 2010. Nonrandom: volunteer students that learned about study through flyer advertisement and/or informational lectures about study (not stated).

Naser Al-Isa et al. (2011) [21]Not stated
(2 weeks)
Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
Kuwaiti, males, ≥20 yrs. 464 (100%)
20–≥50 yrs
Kuwaiti
One clinic in the capital. Nonrandom: patient volunteers and those accompanying them (not stated).

Ahmed et al. (2011) [22]1998–2009
(biennial measures)
National serial cross-sectional survey
(Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System (KNNS))
Kuwaiti. 38,611 (45%)
20–69 yrs
Kuwaiti
Medical Council Center mandatory health check-up point for government employment registration (80% of employed Kuwaitis work in public sector), Public Authority for Social Security Center for pension registration (all Kuwaitis receive retirement pension), mandatory health check-up point for Hajj Pilgrimage, parents accompanying children for mandatory immunizations at local health centers. Nonrandom: volunteers among people attending mandatory health or social facilities (very low refusal rates).

Babusik and Duris (2010) [23]2004–2007
(44 months)
Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
Arab or South Asian ethnicity, absence of medical condition or drugs affecting outcome/exposures. 280 (64%)
18–69 yrs
Arab: 51%
South Asian: 49%
Al Rashid Private General Hospital. Nonrandom: patient volunteers (not stated).

Al Rashdan and Al Nesef (2010) [24]2006
(not stated)
National cross-sectional survey
(WHO STEPS survey)
Kuwaiti, 20–65 yrs. 2,280 (40%)
20–65 yrs
Kuwaiti
Public Authority of Civil Information (PACI) database used to randomly select sample of participants across 5 governorates in Kuwait. Stratified random sampling: individuals asked to attend participating primary health care clinic for interview (78%).

Al-Kandari et al. (2008) [25]2005
(one day)
Cross-sectional study
(college-based)
Kuwait College of Nursing students. 202 (28%)
17–35 yrs
Kuwaiti: 43%
GCC: 29%
Other Arab: 20%
Non-Arab: 8.3%
All associate degree students enrolled in 2nd semester of 2004-5 (total of 350 students) at Kuwait College of Nursing. Nonrandom: students in class on a specific day who agreed to participate (88%).

Al-Bader et al. (2008) [26]2004–2006
(2 years)
Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
Kuwaiti, adults, FEV1 > 80%, absence of smoking, pulmonary, cardiac, neurological, spine diseases. 380 (53%)
20–65 yrs
Kuwaiti
Six medical centers covering all six governorates in Kuwait. Nonrandom: patient volunteers (not stated).

Al Orifan et al. (2007) [27]Not stated
(not stated)
Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
Kuwaiti, adults, absence of chronic disease, not pregnant. 296 (60%)
20–44 yrs
Kuwaiti
Qortuba Police Health Center, Abdulla Al Salem Health Center. Nonrandom convenience sample: volunteer subjects attending routine health check-up (not stated).

Al-Kandari (2006) [28]Not stated
(not stated)
Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
Kuwaiti, adults. 424 (50%)
21–77 yrs
Kuwaiti
Primary health care clinics or home interviews. Nonrandom opportunistic sample: volunteers from six governorates of Kuwait (not stated).

Al-Assomi et al. (2005) [29] 2002-2003
(13 months)
Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
>30 years. 597 (41%)
30–70+ yrs
Kuwaiti: 77%
Non-Kuwaiti: 23%
Surra Family Practice Health Center. Nonrandom: volunteer Surra district residents that learned about study through posters, brochures, and two open days for raising awareness were given appointment for interview at the clinic (not stated).

Al-Shayji and Akanji (2004) [30]Not stated
(not stated)
Cross-sectional study Kuwaiti, <50 yrs, no prior chronic illness, not pregnant. 177 (41%)
18–50 yrs
Kuwaiti
A wide section of Kuwaiti population. Nonrandom: volunteers who found out study through advertisement (not stated).

Al-Asi (2003) [31]1999-2000
(18 months)
Cross-sectional study
(company based)
Kuwait Oil Company employees. 3,282 (85%)
Median age: 40 yrs
Kuwaiti: 62%
Non-Kuwaiti: 38%
All full-time employees due for their periodic medical examination between June 1999 and December 2000. Nonrandom: full-time company employees due for their medical examination who agreed to participate (95%).

Olusi et al. (2003) [32]2001
(9 months)
National cross-sectional survey
(rheumatic disorders’ prevalence survey)
Kuwaiti, adults > 15 yrs. 7,609 (52%)
15–84 yrs
Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti households. Randomly chosen households from all six governorates in Kuwait according to population size of each governorate. Households visited by interviewer (not stated).

Al-Isa (1999) [33]1997
(5 days)
Cross-sectional study
(university-based)
Kuwait University students. 842 (46%)
<18–≥23 yrs
Not stated
All male and female students coming in the first 5 days of registration for the 1997 fall semester at Kuwait University. Nonrandom: students coming in to register who volunteered to participate in study (85%).

Abdella et al. (1998) [34]1995-1996
(9 months)
Cross-sectional study
(based on area of residence)
Kuwaiti, >20 yrs. 3,003 (37%)
20–≥60 yrs
Kuwaiti
Hawalli and Capital governorate. Nonrandom: volunteer subjects that learned about study through a publicity campaign (newspaper, radio, TV, brochures, posters at homes, supermarkets and post offices) were asked to attend the primary health care center in their area of residence (response lower in men).

Al-Isa (1997) [35]1980-1981
(not stated)
1993-1994
(12 months)
1980: National cross-sectional survey (Nutrition Status Assessment of Adults Survey)
1993: Cross-sectional study
(hospital-based)
Kuwaiti, adults. 1980: 2,067 (43%)
18–≥60 yrs
Kuwaiti
1993: 3,435 (50%)
18–≥60 yrs
Kuwaiti
Primary health care clinics. 1980 sample: stratified random sampling of 17 primary health care clinics in 5 governorates. Sample stratified by gender according to population gender ratio (not stated).
1993 sample: volunteer patients and those accompanying the patients attending 6 randomly selected primary health care clinics in 5 governorates of Kuwait (85%).

Study also recruited individuals from 3–18 yrs of age; however, only data from adults from this study are presented in this review.
Studies are sorted by publication year.