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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 393192, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/393192
Review Article

Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

1Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-9170, USA
2Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817-2218, USA
3VA Medical Center, Mather, CA 95655-4200, USA

Received 26 January 2013; Accepted 14 February 2013

Academic Editor: Anne E. Sumner

Copyright © 2013 Andrew A. Bremer and Ishwarlal Jialal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin) and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin), as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.