About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 409679, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/409679
Clinical Study

Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

Center for Human Nutrition and Departments of Clinical Nutrition, Internal Medicine and The Metabolic Unit of the Veterans Administration North Health Science Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9052, USA

Received 5 December 2012; Revised 1 February 2013; Accepted 1 February 2013

Academic Editor: Anne E. Sumner

Copyright © 2013 Gloria Lena Vega and Scott M. Grundy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, “Evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, pp. 3143–3421, 2002.
  2. Alberti, R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy et al., “Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; World heart federation; International atherosclerosis society; And international association for the study of obesity,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 16, pp. 1640–1645, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. J. Cameron, R. A. Sicree, P. Z. Zimmet et al., “Cut-points for waist circumference in Europids and South Asians,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2039–2046, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. V. Considine, M. K. Sinha, M. L. Heiman et al., “Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 5, pp. 292–295, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. E. Ruhl, J. E. Everhart, J. Ding et al., “Serum leptin concentrations and body adipose measures in older black and white adults,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 576–583, 2004. View at Scopus
  6. Mapfei, Halaas, Ravussin et al., “Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects,” Nature Medicine, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 1155–1161, 1995. View at Scopus
  7. C. Couillard, P. Mauriège, P. Imbeault, D. Prud'homme, A. Nadeau, and A. Tremblay, “Hyperleptinemia is more closely associated with adipose cell hypertrophy than with adipose tissue hyperplasia,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 782–788, 2000. View at Scopus
  8. Lilja, Rolandsson, Shaw et al., “Higher leptin levels in Asian Indians than Creoles and Europids: a potential explanation for increased metabolic risk,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 878–885, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Klein, Coppack, Mohamed-Ali, and Landt, “Adipose tissue leptin production and plasma leptin kinetics in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 984–987, 1996. View at Scopus
  10. V. Van Harmelen, S. Reynisdottir, P. Eriksson et al., “Leptin secretion from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in women,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 913–917, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Kondo, L. Shimomura, Y. Matsukawa et al., “Association of adiponectin mutation with type 2 diabetes: a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 2325–2328, 2002. View at Scopus
  12. Y. Matsuzawa, T. Funahashi, S. Kihara, and I. Shimomura, “Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. T. Turer, A. Khera, C. R. Ayers, et al., “Adipose tissue mass and location affect circulating adiponectin levels,” Diabetologia, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2515–2524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. J. Clarenbach, S. M. Grundy, N. Palacio, and G. L. Vega, “Relationship of apolipoprotein B levels to the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 237–247, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. L. Vega, M. Chandalia, L. S. Szczepaniak, and S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic correlates of nonalcoholic fatty liver in women and men,” Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 716–722, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. C. Levy, D. R. Matthews, and M. P. Hermans, “Correct homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) evaluation uses the computer program,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2191–2192, 1998. View at Scopus
  17. S. Zhu, S. B. Heymsfield, H. Toyoshima, Z. Wang, A. Pietrobelli, and S. Heshka, “Race-ethnicity-specific waist circumference cutoffs for identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 409–415, 2005. View at Scopus
  18. J. Y. Park, A. Y. Chong, E. K. Cochran et al., “Type 1 diabetes associated with acquired generalized lipodystrophy and insulin resistance: the effect of long-term leptin therapy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. A. Oral, V. Simha, E. Ruiz et al., “Leptin-replacement therapy for lipodystrophy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 8, pp. 570–578, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. M. Zelissen, K. Stenlof, M. E. Lean, et al., “Effect of three treatment schedules of recombinant methionyl human leptin on body weight in obese adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 755–761, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. S. Mantzoros, F. Magkos, M. Brinkoetter, et al., “Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, no. 4, pp. E567–E584, 2011.
  22. A. Strobel, T. Issad, L. Camoin, M. Ozata, and D. Strosberg, “A leptin missense mutation associated with hypogonadism and morbid obesity,” Nature Genetics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 213–215, 1998. View at Scopus
  23. K. Clément, C. Vaisse, N. Lahlou et al., “A mutation in the human leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction,” Nature, vol. 392, no. 6674, pp. 398–401, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. S. Farooqi, S. A. Jebb, G. Langmack et al., “Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 12, pp. 879–884, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. S. Ryan, D. M. Berman, B. J. Nicklas et al., “Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, body composition, and glucose utilization in adult women with wide ranges of age and obesity,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2383–2388, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Qiao, C. Zou, D. R. van der Westhuyzen, and J. Shao, “Adiponectin reduces plasma triglyceride by increasing VLDL triglyceride catabolism,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1824–1833, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. P. Combs, U. B. Pajvani, A. H. Berg, et al., “A transgenic mouse with a deletion in the collagenous domain of adiponectin displays elevated circulating adiponectin and improved insulin sensitivity,” Endocrinology, vol. 145, pp. 367–383, 2004.
  28. T. Yamauchi, J. Kamon, H. Waki, et al., “Globular adiponectin protected ob/ob mice from diabetes and ApoE-deficient mice from atherosclerosis,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 4, pp. 2461–2468, 2003.
  29. I. B. Bauche, S. A. El Mkadem, A. Pottier et al., “Overexpression of adiponectin targeted to adipose tissue in transgenic mice: impaired adipocyte differentiation,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 1539–1549, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Baratta, S. Amato, C. Degano et al., “Adiponectin relationship with lipid metabolism is independent of body fat mass: evidence from both cross-sectional and intervention studies,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2665–2671, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Vergès, J. M. Petit, L. Duvillard et al., “Adiponectin is an important determinant of ApoA-I catabolism,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1364–1369, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. C. Chan, P. H. R. Barrett, E. M. M. Ooi, J. Ji, D. T. Chan, and G. F. Watts, “Very low density lipoprotein metabolism and plasma adiponectin as predictors of high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein a-l kinetics in obese and nonobese men,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 989–997, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. G. Schneider, M. Von Eynatten, S. Schiekofer, P. P. Nawroth, and K. A. Dugi, “Low plasma adiponectin levels are associated with increased hepatic lipase activity in vivo,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2181–2186, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. J. Clarenbach, G. L. Vega, B. Adams-Huet, R. V. Considine, M. Ricks, and A. E. Sumner, “Variability in postheparin hepatic lipase activity is associated with plasma adiponectin levels in African Americans,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 187–194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. M. Finucane, J. Luan, N. J. Wareham, et al., “Correlation of the leptin: adiponectin ratio with measures of insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals,” Diabetologia, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2345–2349, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Oda, S. Imamura, T. Fujita et al., “The ratio of leptin to adiponectin can be used as an index of insulin resistance,” Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 268–273, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. P. Wildman, P. Muntner, K. Reynolds et al., “The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the US population (NHANES 1999–2004),” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 15, pp. 1617–1624, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Blüher, “The distinction of metabolically “healthy” from “unhealthy” obese individuals,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 21, pp. 38–43, 2010.
  39. M. Brochu, A. Tchernof, I. J. Dionne, et al., “What are the physical characteristics associated with a normal metabolic profile despite a high level of obesity in postmenopausal women?” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, pp. 1020–1025, 2001.
  40. N. Stefan, K. Kantartzis, J. Machann et al., “Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 15, pp. 1609–1616, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus