About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 437369, 31 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/437369
Review Article

Weight Loss Maintenance in African American Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Literature

1Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60608, USA
2School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60608, USA
3Cancer Education and Career Development Program, Institute of Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60608, USA
4Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60608, USA

Received 29 October 2012; Revised 8 January 2013; Accepted 28 January 2013

Academic Editor: Bernhard H. Breier

Copyright © 2013 Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, B. K. Kit, and C. L. Ogden, “Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 5, pp. 491–497, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. B. Caballero, “The global epidemic of obesity: an overview,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. K. Kumanyika, J. Shults, J. Fassbender et al., “Outpatient weight management in African-Americans: the Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Program (HELP) study,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 488–502, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Paeratakul, J. C. Lovejoy, D. H. Ryan, and G. A. Bray, “The relation of gender, race and socioeconomic status to obesity and obesity comorbidities in a sample of US adults,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1205–1210, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Must, J. Spadano, E. H. Coakley, A. E. Field, G. Colditz, and W. H. Dietz, “The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 16, pp. 1523–1529, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. A. Wadden and M. L. Butryn, “Behavioral treatment of obesity,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 981–1003, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. A. Wadden, M. L. Butryn, and K. J. Byrne, “Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, supplement, pp. S151–S162, 2004. View at Scopus
  8. L. P. Svetkey, J. D. Ard, V. J. Stevens et al., “Predictors of long-term weight loss in adults with modest initial weight loss, by sex and race,” Obesity, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1820–1828, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. D. Akers, P. A. Estabrooks, and B. M. Davy, “Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1511–1522, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. F. Hollis, C. M. Gullion, V. J. Stevens et al., “Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 118–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. S. West, T. E. Prewitt, Z. Bursac, and H. C. Felix, “Weight loss of black, white, and Hispanic men and women in the diabetes prevention program,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1413–1420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. P. Svetkey, T. P. Erlinger, W. M. Vollmer et al., “Effect of lifestyle modifications on blood pressure by race, sex, hypertension status, and age,” Journal of Human Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 21–31, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. K. Kumanyika, E. Obarzanek, V. J. Stevens, P. R. Hebert, and P. K. Whelton, “Weight-loss experience of black and white participants in NHLBI-sponsored clinical trials,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 6, supplement, pp. 1631S–1638S, 1991.
  14. D. S. West, V. DiLillo, Z. Bursac, S. A. Gore, and P. G. Greene, “Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1081–1087, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. A. Rickel, V. A. Milsom, K. M. Ross, V. J. Hoover, N. D. Peterson, and M. G. Perri, “Differential response of African American and Caucasian women to extended-care programs for obesity management,” Ethnicity & Disease, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 170–175, 2011.
  16. A. G. Tsai, T. A. Wadden, M. A. Rogers, S. C. Day, R. H. Moore, and B. J. Islam, “A primary care intervention for weight loss: results of a randomized controlled pilot study,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1614–1618, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. F. Van Gaal, I. L. Mertens, and D. Ballaux, “What is the relationship between risk factor reduction and degree of weight loss?” European Heart Journal, Supplement, vol. 7, supplement, pp. L21–L26, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. R. Wing, J. L. Bahnson, G. A. Bray et al., “Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the look AHEAD trial,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 17, pp. 1566–1575, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. F. Hamman, R. R. Wing, S. L. Edelstein et al., “Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 2102–2107, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. G. Perri, S. F. Sears Jr., and J. E. Clark, “Strategies for improving maintenance of weight loss: toward a continuous care model of obesity management,” Diabetes Care, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 200–210, 1993. View at Scopus
  21. M. D. Witham and A. Avenell, “Interventions to achieve long-term weight loss in obese older people. A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Age and Ageing, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 176–184, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. N. Sciamanna, M. Kiernan, B. J. Rolls et al., “Practices associated with weight loss versus weight-loss maintenance: results of a national survey,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 159–166, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. W. Jeffery, A. Drewnowski, L. H. Epstein et al., “Long-term maintenance of weight loss: current status,” Health Psychology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2000. View at Scopus
  24. J. P. Kassirer and M. Angell, “Losing weight—an ill-fated new year's resolution,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 1, pp. 52–54, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. J. Franz, J. J. VanWormer, A. L. Crain et al., “Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 107, no. 10, pp. 1755–1767, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. L. Kraschnewski, J. Boan, J. Esposito et al., “Long-term weight loss maintenance in the United States,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1644–1654, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. A. Wadden, G. D. Foster, K. A. Letizia, and J. L. Mullen, “Long-term effects of dieting on resting metabolic rate in obese outpatients,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 264, no. 6, pp. 707–711, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Rosenbaum, E. M. Murphy, S. B. Heymsfield, D. E. Matthews, and R. L. Leibel, “Low dose leptin administration reverses effects of sustained weight-reduction on energy expenditure and circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 2391–2394, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Rosenbaum, M. Sy, K. Pavlovich, R. L. Leibel, and J. Hirsch, “Leptin reverses weight loss-induced changes in regional neural activity responses to visual food stimuli,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 2583–2591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. E. Cummings, D. S. Weigle, R. S. Frayo et al., “Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 21, pp. 1623–1630, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. K. Hansen, R. Dall, H. Hosoda et al., “Weight loss increases circulating levels of ghrelin in human obesity,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 203–206, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. D. Brownell, “The environment and obesity,” in Eating Disorders and Obesity, C. G. Fairburn and K. D. Brownell, Eds., pp. 433–438, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  33. K. D. Brownell, “The humbling experience of treating obesity: should we persist or desist?” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 717–719, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. L. Butryn, S. Phelan, J. O. Hill, and R. R. Wing, “Consistent self-monitoring of weight: a key component of successful weight loss maintenance,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 3091–3096, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. A. Raynor, S. Phelan, J. O. Hill, and R. R. Wing, “Television viewing and long-term weight maintenance: results from the national weight control registry,” Obesity, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1816–1824, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. C. Seo and J. Sa, “A meta-analysis of psycho-behavioral obesity interventions among US multiethnic and minority adults,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 573–582, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Osei-Assibey, I. Kyrou, Y. Adi, S. Kumar, and K. Matyka, “Dietary and lifestyle interventions for weight management in adults from minority ethnic/non-White groups: a systematic review,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 769–776, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. H. Cousins, D. S. Rubovits, J. K. Dunn, R. S. Reeves, A. G. Ramirez, and J. P. Foreyt, “Family versus individually oriented intervention for weight loss in Mexican American women,” Public Health Reports, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 549–555, 1992. View at Scopus
  39. B. M. Kennedy, S. Paeratakul, C. M. Champagne et al., “A pilot church-based weight loss program for African-American adults using church members as health educators: a comparison of individual and group intervention,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 373–378, 2005. View at Scopus
  40. F. F. Samaha, N. Iqbal, P. Seshadri et al., “A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 21, pp. 2074–2081, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Wassertheil-Smoller, H. G. Langford, and M. D. Blaufox, “Effective dietary intervention in hypertensives: sodium restriction and weight reduction,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 423–430, 1985. View at Scopus
  42. D. Poston, A. Turnbull, J. Park, H. Mannan, J. Marquis, and M. Wang, “Family quality of life: a qualitative inquiry,” Mental Retardation, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 313–328, 2003.
  43. T. D. Agurs-Collins, S. K. Kumanyika, T. R. Ten Have, and L. L. Adams-Campbell, “A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African-American subjects,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1503–1511, 1997. View at Scopus
  44. S. K. Kumanyika, M. A. Espeland, J. L. Bahnson et al., “Ethnic comparison of weight loss in the trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly,” Obesity Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 96–106, 2002. View at Scopus
  45. M. L. Fitzgibbon, L. M. Tussing-Humphreys, J. S. Porter, I. K. Martin, A. Odoms-Young, and L. K. Sharp, “Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 193–213, 2012.
  46. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, “Healthy people 2000,” National Health Promotion and Disease Objectives 91-50212, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1990.
  47. A. Liberati, D. G. Altman, J. Tetzlaff et al., “The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 6, no. 7, Article ID e1000100, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. D. White, “Scientific communication and literature retrieval,” in The Handbook of Research Synthesis, H. Cooper and L. V. Hedges, Eds., Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  49. J. W. Anderson, E. C. Konz, R. C. Frederich, and C. L. Wood, “Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 579–584, 2001. View at Scopus
  50. S. K. Kumanyika, T. A. Wadden, J. Shults et al., “Trial of family and friend support for weight loss in African American adults,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 19, pp. 1795–1804, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. S. West, A. A. Gorin, L. L. Subak et al., “A motivation-focused weight loss maintenance program is an effective alternative to a skill-based approach,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 259–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Boltri, M. Davis-Smith, I. S. Okosun, J. P. Seale, and B. Foster, “Translation of the National Institutes of Health Diabetes Prevention Program in African American Churches,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 194–202, 2011. View at Scopus
  53. J. Z. Goldfinger, G. Arniella, J. Wylie-Rosett, and C. R. Horowitz, “Project HEAL: peer education leads to weight loss in harlem,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 180–192, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. B. Kreider, M. Serra, K. M. Beavers et al., “A structured diet and exercise program promotes favorable changes in weight loss, body composition, and weight maintenance,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 828–843, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. J. Appel, M. Espeland, P. K. Whelton et al., “Trial of Nonpharmacologic Intervention in the Elderly (TONE): design and rationale of a blood pressure control trial,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 119–129, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. P. Svetkey, V. J. Stevens, P. J. Brantley et al., “Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 10, pp. 1139–1148, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Weight Loss Maintenance Collaborative Research Group, “9.2.1 Cultural Adaptation of the Intervention,” Weight Loss Maintenance Public Website, Version 1.0, 2008, http://www.kpchr.org/WLMPublic/public/documentation.aspx?ContentAreaID=13&ParentContentAreaID=6&ContentAreaRootID=4.
  58. V. S. Malik, M. B. Schulze, and F. B. Hu, “Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 274–288, 2006. View at Scopus
  59. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group, “The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2165–2171, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. M. L. Fitzgibbon, M. R. Stolley, L. Schiffer, L. K. Sharp, V. Singh, and A. Dyer, “Obesity reduction black intervention trial (ORBIT): 18-month results,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2317–2325, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. D. Martin, G. R. Dutton, P. C. Rhode, R. L. Horswell, D. H. Ryan, and P. J. Brantley, “Weight loss maintenance following a primary care intervention for low-income minority women,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2462–2467, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Z. Djuric, J. Mirasolo, L. Kimbrough et al., “A pilot trial of spirituality counseling for weight loss maintenance in African American breast cancer survivors,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 552–564, 2009. View at Scopus
  63. C. L. Meinert, N. O. Borhani, and H. G. Langford, “Design, methods, and rationale in the hypertension prevention trial,” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 10, no. 3, supplement, pp. 1S–29S, 1989. View at Scopus
  64. V. J. Stevens, S. A. Corrigan, E. Obarzanek et al., “Weight loss intervention in phase 1 of the trials of hypertension prevention,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 7, pp. 849–858, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. J. Stevens, E. Obarzanek, N. R. Cook et al., “Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase II,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2001. View at Scopus
  66. V. I. Lasser, J. M. Raczynski, V. J. Stevens et al., “Trials of hypertension prevention, phase II: structure and content of the weight loss and dietary sodium reduction interventions,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 156–164, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. K. Yancey, W. J. McCarthy, G. G. Harrison, W. K. Wong, J. M. Siegel, and J. Leslie, “Challenges in improving fitness: results of a community-based, randomized, controlled lifestyle change intervention,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 412–429, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. G. Perri, M. C. Limacher, P. E. Durning et al., “Extended-care programs for weight management in rural communities: the Treatment of Obesity in Underserved Rural Settings (TOURS) randomized trial,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 21, pp. 2347–2354, 2008. View at Scopus
  69. W. L. McNabb, M. T. Quinn, and L. Rosing, “Weight loss program for inner-city black women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: PATHWAYS,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 75–77, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Banks-Wallace, “Outcomes from Walk the Talk: a nursing intervention for Black women,” The ABNF Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2007. View at Scopus
  71. M. C. Whitt-Glover and S. K. Kumanyika, “Systematic review of interventions to increase physical activity and physical fitness in African-Americans,” American Journal of Health Promotion, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. S33–S56, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. V. Craig and R. L. Smyth, The Evidence-Based Practice Manual For Nurses, Churchill Livingston, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 2002.
  73. M. G. Perri and J. A. Corsica, “Improving the maintenance of weight lost in behavioral treatment of obesity,” in Handbook of Obesity Treatment, T. A. Wadden and A. J. Stunkard, Eds., pp. 357–379, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  74. A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1986.
  75. U. Bronfenbrenner, The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1979.
  76. R. Rosenheck, “Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 535–547, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. Kong, S. A. A. Beresford, C. M. Alfano et al., “Self-monitoring and eating-related behaviors are associated with 12-month weight loss in postmenopausal overweight-to-obese women,” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1428–1435, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. V. J. Cleland, M. D. Schmidt, T. Dwyer, and A. J. Venn, “Television viewing and abdominal obesity in young adults: is the association mediated by food and beverage consumption during viewing time or reduced leisure-time physical activity?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1148–1155, 2008. View at Scopus
  79. J. A. Linde, R. W. Jeffery, S. A. French, N. P. Pronk, and R. G. Boyle, “Self-weighing in weight gain prevention and weight loss trials,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 210–216, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. Sitzman, “Eating breakfast helps sustain weight loss,” The AAOHN Journal, vol. 54, no. 3, p. 136, 2006. View at Scopus
  81. S. A. French, R. W. Jeffery, and D. Murray, “Is dieting good for you? Prevalence, duration and associated weight and behaviour changes for specific weight loss strategies over four years in US adults,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 320–327, 1999. View at Scopus
  82. A. Barnes and R. Kimbro, “Descriptive study of educated african american women successful at weight-loss maintenance through lifestyle changes,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1272–1279, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. J. Boone-Heinonen, P. Gordon-Larsen, and L. S. Adair, “Obesogenic clusters: multidimensional adolescent obesity-related behaviors in the U.S.,” Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 217–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. J. Schuit, A. J. M. Van Loon, M. Tijhuis, and M. C. Ocké, “Clustering of lifestyle risk factors in a general adult population,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 219–224, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. E. Blixen, A. Singh, M. Xu, H. Thacker, and E. Mascha, “What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight-reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 1160–1170, 2006. View at Scopus
  86. D. R. Young, J. Gittelsohn, J. Charleston, K. Felix-Aaron, and L. J. Appel, “Motivations for exercise and weight loss among African-American women: focus group results and their contribution towards program development,” Ethnicity and Health, vol. 6, no. 3-4, pp. 227–245, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. A. Eyler, E. Baker, L. Cromer, A. C. King, R. C. Brownson, and R. J. Donatelle, “Physical activity and minority women: a qualitative study,” Health Education and Behavior, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 640–652, 1998. View at Scopus
  88. S. K. Kumanyika, M. C. Whitt-Glover, T. L. Gary et al., “Expanding the obesity research paradigm to reach African American communities,” Preventing chronic disease, vol. 4, no. 4, article A112, 2007. View at Scopus
  89. J. D. Ard, S. Kumanyika, V. J. Stevens et al., “Effect of group racial composition on weight loss in African Americans,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 306–310, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. J. Mayer-Davis, A. M. D'Antonio, S. M. Smith et al., “Pounds off with empowerment (POWER): a clinical trial of weight management strategies for black and white adults with diabetes who live in medically underserved rural communities,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 1736–1742, 2004. View at Scopus
  91. S. Kumanyika, “Ethnic minorities and weight control research priorities: where are we now and where do we need to be?” Preventive Medicine, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 583–586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. L. Fitzgibbon, L. M. Tussing-Humphreys, J. S. Porter, I. K. Martin, A. Odoms-Young, and L. K. Sharp, “Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 193–213, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. M. W. Turk, K. Yang, M. Hravnak, S. M. Sereika, L. J. Ewing, and L. E. Burke, “Randomized clinical trials of weight loss maintenance: a review,” Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 58–80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. Harvey-Berino, S. Pintauro, P. Buzzell et al., “Does using the Internet facilitate the maintenance of weight loss?” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1254–1260, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. J. Teixeira, S. B. Going, L. B. Sardinha, and T. G. Lohman, “A review of psychosocial pre-treatment predictors of weight control,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43–65, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. T. T. Huang, A. Drewnosksi, S. Kumanyika, and T. A. Glass, “A systems-oriented multilevel framework for addressing obesity in the 21st century,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 6, no. 3, article A82, 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009/Jul/09_0013.htm.
  97. L. F. Chitwood, S. P. Brown, M. J. Lundy, and M. A. Dupper, “Metabolic propensity toward obesity in black vs white females: responses during rest, exercise and recovery,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 455–462, 1996. View at Scopus
  98. R. L. Weinsier, G. R. Hunter, P. A. Zuckerman et al., “Energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in black and white women: comparison before and after weight loss,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1138–1146, 2000. View at Scopus
  99. R. N. Cortright, K. M. Sandhoff, J. L. Basilio et al., “Skeletal muscle fat oxidation is increased in African-American and white women after 10 days of endurance exercise training,” Obesity, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1201–1210, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. K. A. Brownley, K. C. Light, K. M. Grewen, E. E. Bragdon, and A. L. Hinderliter, “Postprandial ghrelin is elevated in black compared with white women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 4457–4463, 2004, Erratum in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 794, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. K. A. Brownley, S. Heymen, A. L. Hinderliter, and B. MacIntosh, “Effect of glycemic load on peptide-YY levels in a biracial sample of obese and normal weight women,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1297–1303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. L. Leibel, M. Rosenbaum, and J. Hirsch, “Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 332, no. 10, pp. 621–628, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. P. Sumithran, L. A. Prendergast, E. Delbridge et al., “Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 17, pp. 1597–1604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. A. R. Harvey and R. B. Hill, “Africentric youth and family rites of passage program: promoting resilience among at-risk African American youths,” Social Work, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 65–74, 2004. View at Scopus
  105. M. G. Constantine, P. C. Donnelly, and L. J. Myers, “Collective self-esteem and africultural coping styles in African American adolescents,” Journal of Black Studies, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 698–710, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. N. Zenk, A. J. Schulz, T. Hollis-Neely et al., “Fruit and vegetable intake in African Americans: income and store characteristics,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. L. M. Powell, S. Slater, D. Mirtcheva, Y. Bao, and F. J. Chaloupka, “Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 189–195, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. P. Gordon-Larsen, M. C. Nelson, P. Page, and B. M. Popkin, “Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 417–424, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. B. E. Ainsworth, S. Wilcox, W. W. Thompson, D. L. Richter, and K. A. Henderson, “Personal, social, and physical environmental correlates of physical activity in African-American women in South Carolina,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 25, no. 3, supplement 1, pp. 23–29, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. K. Morland and S. Filomena, “Disparities in the availability of fruits and vegetables between racially segregated urban neighbourhoods,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1481–1489, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. S. Wilcox, M. Bopp, L. Oberrecht, S. K. Kammermann, and C. T. McElmurray, “Psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates of physical activity in rural and older African American and white women,” Journals of Gerontology B, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. P329–P337, 2003. View at Scopus
  112. Y. C. Cozier, L. A. Wise, J. R. Palmer, and L. Rosenberg, “Perceived racism in relation to weight change in the black women's health study,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 379–387, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. N. A. Christakis and J. H. Fowler, “The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 4, pp. 370–379, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. D. Kahneman, “Experiences of collaborative research,” American Psychologist, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 723–730, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus