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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 512914, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/512914
Research Article

Sociocultural and Socioeconomic Influences on Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Overweight/Obese African-American and Latino-American Children and Adolescents

1Schools of Kinesiology and Public Health, University of Michigan, 1402 Washington Heights, 2110 Observatory Lodge, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
3Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
4Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
5Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA

Received 2 November 2012; Revised 1 April 2013; Accepted 15 April 2013

Academic Editor: David Allison

Copyright © 2013 Rebecca E. Hasson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American ( ) and Latino-American ( ) children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA) questionnaire. Household social position was calculated using the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position. Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIRG) and disposition index (DI) were derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). The relationships between AHIMSA subscales (i.e., integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization), household social position and FSIGT parameters were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results. For African-Americans, integration (integrating their family’s culture with those of mainstream white-American culture) was positively associated with AIRG ( , , ) and DI ( , , ). For Latino-Americans, household social position was inversely associated with AIRG ( , , ) and DI ( , , ). Conclusions. Sociocultural orientation and household social position play distinct and opposing roles in shaping type 2 diabetes risk in African-American and Latino-American children and adolescents.