Table 5: Comparison of biochemical measures between ACTION and standard care groups.

MeasuresACTION group
Standard care group
Between-group difference
Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI) value

HDL-C (mmol/L)
 Pre1.07 (0.98, 1.16) 1.06 (0.97, 1.16)
 Post1.07 (0.98, 1.17)1.03 (0.9, 1.13)
 Difference0.0 (−0.09, 0.09)−0.04 (−0.09, 0.02)0.04 (−0.07, 0.14)0.50
Triglycerides (mmol/L)
 Pre1.4 (1.2, 1.7)1.3 (1.0, 1.5)
 Post1.5 (1.1, 1.9)1.4 (1.1, 1.6)
 Difference 0.1 (−0.3, 0.4) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.3) 0.0 (−0.4, 0.4)0.95
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)
 Pre4.5 (4.4, 4.7)4.7 (4.6, 4.8)
 Post4.8 (4.7, 4.9)4.8 (4.6, 4.9)
 Difference0.3 (0.1, 0.4) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.2)0.2 (0.03, 0.4)0.04
Fasting insulin (pmol/L)d
 Pre93.4 (69.4, 134.0)96.5 (67.4, 112.5)
 Post85.1 (67.4, 112.5)83.3 (67.4, 120.1)
 Difference −10.1 (−23.8, 34.4)1.4 (−19.4, 25.0)−5.7 (−39.6, 40.3)0.59
HOMA-IRa,d
 Pre2.6 (1.9, 3.9)3.1 (2.1, 4.1)
 Post2.5 (2.0, 3.6)2.5 (2.0, 3.6)
 Difference 0.0 (−0.6, 1.1) 0.7 (−0.7, 2.1)−0.1 (−0.6, 0.9)1.00

aHOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index.
dResults are reported as median (95% CI). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for value and bootstrap procedure was used for confidence intervals.