Table 3: Odds ratios from logistic regression models predicting at-risk levels of biomarkers by BMI and waist circumference groups (normal BMI and high waist, obese, and very obese) among American, English, and Taiwanese aged 54+.
(a) Men

Normal BMI + high waist
USEnglandTaiwanUSEnglandTaiwan
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)

Cardiovascular risk factors
 SBP measured118330695871.54 (1.03–2.31)1.24 (1.01–1.53)3.36 (0.81–13.91)
 DBP measured118330695870.97 (0.37–2.53)1.42 (1.00–2.04)0.95 (0.21–4.44)
Metabolic risk factors
 Total-C118124815860.81 (0.46–1.43)1.09 (0.81–1.46)0.76 (0.09–6.31)
 HDL-C 118124795861.98 (1.22–3.20)1.86 (1.35–2.55)1.97 (0.58–6.77)
 LDL-C56724105841.13 (0.52–2.45)1.26 (0.91–1.73)1.25 (0.26–6.06)
 Triglycerides58715435862.35 (1.21–4.57)2.52 (1.68–3.76)5.71 (1.54–21.13)
 Fasting glucose58515375863.08 (1.52–6.26)2.22 (0.92–5.35)2.23 (0.54–9.17)
 Glycated hemoglobin118324555862.71 (1.56–4.71)1.62 (1.13–2.32)2.00 (0.43–9.26)
Inflammation markers
 C-Reactive protein 118124812.35 (1.58–3.49)1.77 (1.39–2.25)
 Interleukin-6586*

ObeseVery obese
USEnglandTaiwanUSEnglandTaiwan
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)

Cardiovascular risk factors
 SBP measured1.00 (0.64–1.56)1.53 (1.24–1.89)1.68 (0.75–3.78)0.97 (0.54–1.75)1.71 (1.25–2.34)
 DBP measured1.19 (0.50–2.87)1.57 (1.11–2.22)1.30 (0.53–3.18)0.46 (0.15–1.41)1.50 (0.94–2.39)
Metabolic risk factors
 Total-C1.06 (0.58–1.93)1.05 (0.79–1.41)0.78 (0.21–2.90)1.76 (0.86–3.61)0.81 (0.50–1.31)
 HDL-C 1.60 (0.97–2.64)2.4 (1.75–3.30)2.19 (0.94–5.07)1.71 (0.89–3.27)3.18 (2.08–4.87)
 LDL-C0.34 (0.12–0.96)1.09 (0.77–1.54)1.13 (0.34–3.73)1.35 (0.40–4.60)0.83 (0.49–1.43)
 Triglycerides1.75 (0.85–3.60)3.68 (2.50–5.41)5.31 (1.91–14.73)1.64 (0.65–4.16)4.03 (2.33–6.95)
 Fasting glucose2.23 (1.00–5.02)2.00 (0.73–5.47)2.53 (0.89–7.24)3.57 (1.40–9.10)2.73 (0.76–9.87)
 Glycated hemoglobin2.37 (1.31–4.30)2.38 (1.67–3.39)4.48 (1.71–11.72)4.25 (2.19–8.27)5.07 (3.23–7.95)
Inflammation markers
 C-Reactive protein 2.21 (1.44–3.39)2.21 (1.72–2.85)3.40 (1.96–5.89)4.30 (2.94–6.29)
 Interleukin-6 1.04 (0.13–8.57)

Could not be estimated.
SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, Total-C: total cholesterol, HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.
All models adjusted for age, use of antihypertensives, smoking status, and physical activity.
High-waist circumference men ≥ 102 cm, women ≥ 88 cm.
Referent group: normal body mass index (18.5–29.9 kg/m2) + normal waist.
The results are not computed for Very Obese in Taiwan because too few individuals are classified as very obese.
(b) Women

Normal BMI + high waist
USEnglandTaiwanUSEnglandTaiwan
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)

Cardiovascular risk factors 
 SBP measured70737214310.90 (0.56–1.47)1.46 (1.20–1.78)2.00 (1.14–3.49)
 DBP measured70737214310.72 (0.26–2.04)1.72 (1.17–2.53)2.49 (1.34–4.63)
Metabolic risk factors
 Total-C72130294311.60 (0.92–2.80)0.96 (0.78–1.17)1.15 (0.61–2.19)
 HDL-C 72130264311.19 (0.42–3.37)1.81 (0.96–3.40)1.98 (1.09–3.60)
 LDL-C34929864312.25 (0.78–6.44)1.07 (0.85–1.34)0.99 (0.51–1.91)
 Triglycerides36118794311.16 (0.49–2.74)3.15 (2.02–4.93)1.79 (0.85–3.77)
 Fasting glucose36618614314.96 (1.64–14.98)9.82 (1.23–78.48)1.83 (0.94–3.57)
 Glycated hemoglobin73129934302.02 (0.85–4.81)2.07 (1.34–3.22)2.03 (1.11–3.71)
Inflammation markers
 C-Reactive protein 72330292.02 (1.23–3.32)2.03 (1.62–2.55)
 Interleukin-6 4311.12 (0.38–3.30)

ObeseVery obese
USEnglandTaiwanUSEnglandTaiwan
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)

Cardiovascular risk factors
 SBP measured1.16 (0.66–2.04)1.53 (1.24–1.90)2.02 (0.90–4.53)1.23 (0.64–2.40)2.17 (1.67–2.82)
 DBP measured1.16 (0.38–3.54)2.06 (1.39–3.05)2.41 (1.13–5.13)1.19 (0.36–3.96)3.44 (2.22–5.32)
Metabolic risk factors
 Total-C1.18 (0.60–2.33)0.82 (0.65–1.02)1.30 (0.59–2.88)1.32 (0.65–2.68)0.67 (0.49–0.91)
 HDL-C 2.88 (1.02–8.14)1.71 (0.86–3.38)0.99 (0.42–2.37)2.89 (1.06–7.92)4.66 (2.38–9.13)
 LDL-C1.57 (0.46–5.40)1.01 (0.78–1.32)0.90 (0.38–2.09)1.84 (0.53–6.33)0.96 (0.68–1.34)
 Triglycerides1.42 (0.57–3.56)3.36 (2.10–5.37)1.08 (0.40–2.92)1.36 (0.51–3.64)5.94 (3.54–9.97)
 Fasting glucose3.32 (1.01–10.87)10.06 (1.21–83.81)1.33 (0.56–3.15)13.28 (4.23–41.66)37.51 (4.71–298.77)
 Glycated hemoglobin3.47 (1.41–8.52)3.65 (2.37–5.62)1.52 (0.69–3.36)9.05 (3.92–20.87)7.00 (4.40–11.12)
Inflammation markers
 C-Reactive protein 4.93 (2.79–8.72)4.18 (3.29–5.32)10.08 (5.11–19.89)8.61 (6.24–11.88)
 Interleukin-6

1.05 (0.30–3.68)


SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, Total-C: total cholesterol, HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.
All models adjusted for age, use of antihypertensives, smoking status, and physical activity.
High-waist circumference men ≥ 102 cm, women ≥ 88 cm.
Referent group = normal body mass index (18.5–29.9 kg/m2) + normal waist.
The results are not computed for Very Obese in Taiwan because too few individuals are classified as very obese.