Table 4: Regression coefficients of the full summary measure (range: 0–9) of biological risk on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among older adults.
(a) Men

Summary measure (0–9)
US ( )England ( )Taiwan ( )Taiwan
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2

Intercept2.51*3.18*0.53*0.60*1.86*2.67*1.52*2.31*
Age0.00−0.010.02*0.02*0.00−0.010.00−0.01
Currently smoking0.250.42*0.120.14
Physical activity−0.51*−0.25*0.120.15
Antihypertensives0.25−0.013−0.73*−0.72*
BMI and waist circumference
 Underweight−0.56−0.390.440.21−0.94*−0.78*−0.90*−0.73*
 Normal BMI + normal waistReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Normal BMI + high waist0.73*0.69*0.51*0.50*0.85*0.78*0.290.27
 Obese0.53*0.51*0.78*0.78*0.98*0.96*0.69*0.67*
 Very obese0.88*0.67*1.14*1.14*

R 20.040.060.070.090.050.100.060.11

(b) Women

Summary measure (0–9)
US ( )England ( )Taiwan ( )Taiwan
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2

Intercept2.46*2.32*−0.86*−0.91*0.221.61*0.101.47*
Age0.000.000.04*0.04*0.02*0.010.02*0.01
Currently smoking0.230.36*−0.020.04
Physical activity−0.12−0.030.040.08
Antihypertensives0.36*0.12−0.92*−0.91*
BMI and waist circumference
 Underweight0.370.64−0.06−0.16−0.49−0.16−0.45−0.13
 Normal BMI + normal waistReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Normal BMI + high waist0.390.330.35*0.34*0.84*0.75*1.15*1.04*
 Obese0.59*0.57*0.67*0.65*0.69*0.470.59*0.44*
 Very obese1.28*1.13*1.19*1.16*

R 20.050.060.130.140.080.150.090.16

BMI categories: underweight < 18.5 kg/m2, normal 18.5–29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥ 30 kg/m2, very obese ≥ 35 kg/m2 (the results are not computed for Taiwan because too few individuals are classified as very obese).
These models for Taiwan group BMI categories: underweight < 18.5 kg/m2; normal 18.5–26.9 kg/m2; obese ≥ 27 kg/m2.
Model 1 includes age and BMI and waist circumference category.
Model 2 includes Model 1 covariates in addition to smoking, physical activity, and antihypertensives.
All underweight individuals had a normal waist circumference.
All obese individuals had a high waist circumference.
Includes CRP (for US and England) and IL-6 (for Taiwan); .