Table 5: Regression coefficients of the alternate summary measure (range: 0–8) of biological risk on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among older adults.
(a) Men

Summary measure
US ( )England ( )Taiwan ( )Taiwan
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2

Intercept2.36*3.31*0.53*0.61*1.76*2.51*1.43*2.16*
Age0.00−0.010.02*0.02*0.00−0.010.00−0.01
Currently smoking0.010.24*0.120.14
Physical activity−0.45*−0.180.150.17
Antihypertensives0.20−0.02−0.68*−0.67*
BMI and waist circumference
 Underweight−0.81−0.590.180.03−0.96*−0.80*−0.91*−0.76*
 Normal BMI + normal waistReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Normal BMI + high waist0.56*0.52*0.38*0.38*0.90*0.84*0.350.33
 Obese0.340.340.60*0.61*0.98*0.96*0.67*0.65*
 Very obese0.62*0.400.82*0.82*

R 20.030.040.050.060.050.100.060.11

(b) Women

Summary measure (0–8)
US ( England ( )Taiwan ( )Taiwan
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2

Intercept2.31*2.27*−0.93*−1.10*0.301.66*0.181.53*
Age0.000.000.04*0.04*0.02*0.010.02*0.01
Currently smoking0.140.27*−0.14−0.08
Physical activity−0.060.050.070.10
Antihypertensives0.39*0.10−0.92*−0.91*
BMI and waist circumference
 Underweight0.440.63−0.08−0.16−0.66−0.32−0.62−0.30
 Normal BMI + normal waistReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Normal BMI + high waist0.260.190.22*0.21*0.84*0.74*1.12*1.01*
 Obese0.260.220.35*0.34*0.69*0.470.58*0.43*
 Very obese0.80*0.63*0.70*0.69*

R 20.020.030.100.110.080.150.090.16

BMI categories: underweight < 18.5 kg/m2; normal 18.5–29.9 kg/m2; obese ≥ 30 kg/m2; very obese ≥ 35 kg/m2 (the results are not computed for Taiwan because too few individuals are classified as very obese).
These models for Taiwan group BMI categories: underweight < 18.5 kg/m2; normal 18.5–26.9 kg/m2; obese ≥ 27 kg/m2.
Model 1 includes age and BMI and waist circumference category.
Model 2 includes Model 1 covariates in addition to smoking, physical activity, and antihypertensives.
All underweight individuals had a normal waist circumference.
All obese individuals had a high waist circumference.
Excludes CRP (for US and England) and IL-6 (for Taiwan); .