Items include milk (BM, formula, cows, rice, goat, and soy), other dairy (yoghurt, cheese, ice-cream, and pudding), other soy foods (tofu, soy desserts), fruit and vegetable juice, sweet drinks, baby cereal, other cereals (breakfast cereals, biscuits, breads, rice, pasta, etc.), fruit, vegetables, French fries, meat and chicken, fish, nut-based foods, eggs, sweet foods (candy, cookies, cake, etc.), and other
Items include meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, cereals, snack foods, commercial baby foods, non-milk drinks and human milk, baby formulas, and other milks. Portion size estimated using household measures
Not specified (never/<1/month to several times/day)
125 foods grouped into 15 questions based on the Norwegian meal pattern. Items include dairy (milk, yoghurt, and cheese), bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, cake, chocolate, and soft drinks. Other questions on dietary supplements, food habits, and child nutrition information sources. Portion size estimated using a photographic booklet with four different sized (small–large) or household units (e.g., slices, pieces, and spoons)
Not specified (never/<1/month to several times/day)
140 foods grouped into 18 questions based on the Norwegian meal pattern. Items include dairy (milk, yoghurt, and cheese), baby cereal, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, meat, sweetened drinks; and commercial baby foods. Other questions on dietary supplements food habits, child nutrition information sources. Portion size estimated using a photographic booklet with four different sized (small–large) or household units (e.g., slices, pieces, and spoons)
Items include porridges, fruits, vegetables, soups, cereals, legumes, roots and tubers, animal products, cereal-legume mixtures, and cereal-animal product mixtures. Other questions on breastfeeding frequency and daily number other milk feedings
Items include fruits, vegetables, grain products (bread, cereal, pasta, and rice), milk and alternatives (white or flavoured, soy or rice beverages, cheese, and yogurt), and meat and alternatives (meat, poultry, fish, peanut butter, nuts, and tofu), chips, French fries, candy, chocolate, regular soft drinks, and cakes and cookies
Lanfer et al. (2011) ; IDEFICS consortium; European countriesc
Items include vegetables, potatoes, fruit, meat, fish, egg, cereals, bread, pasta, dairy (cheese, milk, and yoghurt), sweetened beverages, spreads, sauces, take-away products, salty snacks, chocolate, candy, cake, and ice-cream. Screening instrument investigating food consumption frequency and behaviours associated with child overweight, obesity, and general health
Items include fruit, vegetables, potato, meat, fish, dairy (yoghurt, cheese, and dairy desserts), bread, cereal, sauces, sweets and snacks (e.g., chocolate), and drinks (e.g., cola). Other questions on eating habits
Items include vegetables, fruit, fish, bread/cereal, rice/pasta/potatoes, milk/dairy products, eggs, meat, fats, sweets/fatty snacks/soft drinks, and other beverages. Other questions on eating habits, supplement intake, fortified foods, light products, convenience food, and probiotic products. Portion size estimated using illustrations or standard household measures
Foods energy nutrients
Huybrechts et al. (2009) ; Belgium Huybrechts et al. (2006) ; Belgium
2.5–6.5 y, validity reproducibility (NR) 2.5–6.5 y, mean 4.5 y , (50% boys)
6 (every day to never or less than 1 day/month)
Items include beverages (water, juice, and milk drinks), dairy (cheese, yoghurt), meat and meat alternatives (fish, eggs), bread, pasta, rice, vegetables, fruit, potatoes (including fried), meat/fish products, chocolate, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and desserts. Other questions on food habits of some product groups. Portion size estimated using examples of common standard measures
Items include grains, milk, fruit, vegetables, meat, and fast food. Other questions on nutrition risk constructs: physical growth, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and factors affecting food intake
Items include cereals/grains, potatoes/tubers, pulses, fish, meat/meat products, eggs, milk/dairy products, fruits and vegetables, fats, added oil, sugary drinks, herbal teas, and added sugar and sweets, sweet and milky desserts. Portion sizes determined according to the observed amount usually consumed in population, measured prior to study.
9 (1, 2, and 3/day; 1, 2, 3/week; 0, 1, and 2/month)
Items include fruits, vegetables, legumes and nuts, dairy products, meat, fish, and poultry.
FFQ: food frequency questionnaire; iDEFICS: Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants; NFS: not further specified; mo: months; NR: not reported; USA: United States of America; UK: United Kingdom; y: years.
aTools were defined as quantitative (quantity of food consumed was estimated using weights, measures, or food models), semiquantitative (quantity of food consumed estimated using a standard portion size, serving, or a predetermined amount and respondent asked about the number of portions consumed), or nonquantitative (quantity of food consumed not assessed).
bSelf-administered (primary caregiver completed the dietary assessment without assistance); interviewer-administered (a trained interviewer elicited the dietary assessment information from the primary care-giver in a one-on-one setting).
cItaly, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain.