Table 3: Short dietary assessment tool validity studies among infants and toddlers (birth-24 months) and preschoolers (2–5 years).

Reference details; tool length; validation standard; reference period; sample size
Infants and toddlers (birth-24 months)Pre-schoolers (2–5 years)
Marriott et al. (2008) [19]; 34 items; 4 d WDR; 15 days; Andersen et al. (2003) [21]; 18 items; 7 d WDR; 1-2 weeks; Andersen et al. (2004) [20]; 7 d WDR; 15 items; 1-2 weeks; Huybrechts et al. (2009) [27]; 47 items; 3 d EDR; 1 week; Huybrechts et al. (2006) [28]; 47 items; 3 d EDR; 1 week;

Energy and nutrients
Mean/median nutrient intakes All median intakes significant higher ( 5), except sodiumAll median intakes significant higher ( ), except CaAll median intakes significant higher ( ), except protein, Carb, SFA, and CaSignificantly lower mean Ca intake: 777 mg/d v 838 ± 305 mg/d; difference 61 ± 294 mg/d ( )

Mean/median nutrient densities No significant differences except for protein, SFA, MUFA, fibre, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and ironNo significant differences except for protein, SFA, MUFA, fibre, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron

Pearson’s correlation , corrected for intravariability:

Spearman’s correlation (nutrients) (range 0.39–0.86) energy-adjusted: –0.89 (range 0.18–0.72) energy-adjusted:  (0.16–0.79) (range 0.26–0.50) energy-adjusted (range 0.46–0.66)

Spearman’s correlation (foods) (range 0.28–0.83) (range 0.26–0.69) (range 0.23–0.62)
corrected:
–0.75

Specificity77%

Sensitivity62%

Bland Altman, mean biasMostly positive, all nutrients within range −12.5% to 12.5%, except vitamin B12 (−18.9%).Systematic increase in difference with increasing intake, except CaSystematic increase in difference with increasing intake for most nutrientsLarge differences, higher for greater mean intakes

Bland Altman, limits of agreementLarge for all nutrientsLarge for all nutrients

Cross classification; nutrientsSame quartile, 38% (range 22% fibre—56% SFA); opposite, 3%Same quartile, 36% (range 29% fat—44% vitamin A); opposite, 5% Energy-adjusted: same, 42%; opposite, 4%Same quartile, 42%; within one, 83%; opposite, 2.4%; difference between quartiles

Foods
Mean/median food group intakesMean differences within ±10% 6/13 food groups, 11–30% 6/13, >40% 1/13; median differences within ±10% 5/13 food groups, 11–20% 1/13, >20% 6/13; 100% for 1/13

Wilcoxon signed rank testSignificantly higher intakes 11/17 food groups, NS differences 6/17Significantly higher intakes 7/15 food groups, significantly lower intakes 3/1, NS difference for 5/15Significantly different intake distribution for 6/13 ( ) or 9/13 ( ) food groups; higher 5/13, lower 4/13, NS difference 4/13

Kappa statistic<0.20 4/13 food groups, 0.20–0.40
4/13, 0.41–0.60 2/13, NR 3/13
0.38 (95% CI 0.34, 0.42)

Bland Altman, mean biasIncreasing bias with increasing intakes for “many foods” ( not reported)

Cross classification; foods Same = NR, within one = 67%–88%, opposite <10% (2% fruit, fruit juices, and milk products—9% meat products)

Ca: calcium; carb: carbohydrates; d: day; EDR: estimated dietary record; LOA: limits of agreement; MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acids; NR: not reported; NS: not significant; %: percent; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA: saturated fatty acids; WDR: weighed dietary record.