Table 2: Overall findings of included meta-analyses.

Meta-analysesES/participants (No.)Mean (95% CI)Q (p) (%)PI (95%)

Atlantis et al. [42]
 (i) Percent fat (SMD)9/369−0.4 (−0.7, −0.1)15.5 (0.05)*48.4−1.3, 0.5
 (ii) BMI3/71−1.2 (−3.1, 0.8)NA
 (iii) Body weight (kg)11/334−2.7 (−6.1, 0.8)17.9 (0.07)44.1NA
 (iv) Central obesity (SMD)4/156−0.2 (−0.5, 0.06)1.4 (0.70)0NA
McGovern et al. [43]
 (i) Percent fat (SMD)6/358
−0.5 (−0.7, −0.3)2.2 (0.81)
0
−0.8, −0.2
 (ii) BMI-related (SMD)11/433−0.02 (−0.21, 0.18)9.4 (0.49)0NA

Notes: No: Number; ES: effect size; CI: confidence intervals; Q: Cochran’s Q statistic and associated alpha (p) value for heterogeneity; : I-squared statistic for heterogeneity; PI: prediction intervals, based on a random effects model; SMD: standardized mean difference; central obesity measures derived from waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, visceral adipose tissue; BMI-related measures include body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, BMI z-score, BMI percentile, and percent overweight, adjusted for height. NA: not applicable; —: insufficient data to calculate; mean (95% CI) based on random effects model; boldfaced values indicate continuous data with non-overlapping confidence intervals; statistically significant, P ≤ 0.05.