Notes: No: Number; ES: effect size; CI: confidence intervals; Q: Cochran’s Q statistic and associated alpha (p) value for heterogeneity; : I-squared statistic for heterogeneity; PI: prediction intervals, based on a random effects model; SMD: standardized mean difference; central obesity measures derived from waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, visceral adipose tissue; BMI-related measures include body mass index (BMI) in kg/m^{2}, BMI z-score, BMI percentile, and percent overweight, adjusted for height. NA: not applicable; —: insufficient data to calculate; mean (95% CI) based on random effects model; boldfaced values indicate continuous data with non-overlapping confidence intervals; statistically significant, P ≤ 0.05.