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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 862514, 14 pages
Research Article

BMI and an Anthropometry-Based Estimate of Fat Mass Percentage Are Both Valid Discriminators of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Comparison with DXA and Bioimpedance

1Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. BOX 35 (L), 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
2Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Haapaniementie 16, 70100 Kuopio, Finland
3Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden
4Department of Preventive Medicine, University of TN Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
5Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
6Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Oulu University Hospital and Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, 90029 Oulu, Finland
7School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China

Received 19 September 2013; Revised 3 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013

Academic Editor: Yuichiro Yano

Copyright © 2013 Benno Krachler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To determine whether categories of obesity based on BMI and an anthropometry-based estimate of fat mass percentage (FM% equation) have similar discriminative ability for markers of cardiometabolic risk as measurements of FM% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Design and Methods. A study of 40–79-year-old male ( ) and female ( ) Finns. Weight, height, blood pressure, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Body composition was assessed by DXA and BIA and a FM%-equation. Results. For grade 1 hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/L, the categories of obesity as defined by BMI and the FM% equation had 1.9% to 3.7% ( ) higher discriminative power compared to DXA. For grade 2 hypertension the FM% equation discriminated 1.2% ( ) lower than DXA and 2.8% ( ) lower than BIA. Receiver operation characteristics confirmed BIA as best predictor of grade 2 hypertension and the FM% equation as best predictor of grade 1 hypertension. All other differences in area under curve were small (≤0.04) and 95% confidence intervals included 0. Conclusions. Both BMI and FM% equations may predict cardiometabolic risk with similar discriminative ability as FM% measured by DXA or BIA.