- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 862514, 14 pages
BMI and an Anthropometry-Based Estimate of Fat Mass Percentage Are Both Valid Discriminators of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Comparison with DXA and Bioimpedance
1Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. BOX 35 (L), 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
2Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, Haapaniementie 16, 70100 Kuopio, Finland
3Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden
4Department of Preventive Medicine, University of TN Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
5Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
6Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Oulu University Hospital and Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, 90029 Oulu, Finland
7School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China
Received 19 September 2013; Revised 3 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013
Academic Editor: Yuichiro Yano
Copyright © 2013 Benno Krachler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. C. Seidell, “Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes—a worldwide epidemic,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. S5–S8, 2000.
- D. Wormser, S. Kaptoge, E. Di Angelantonio et al., “Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9771, pp. 1085–1095, 2011.
- R. Thibault, L. Genton, and C. Pichard, “Body composition: why, when and for who?” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 435–447, 2012.
- M. J. Müller, M. Lagerpusch, J. Enderle, B. Schautz, M. Heller, and A. Bosy-Westphal, “Beyond the body mass index: tracking body composition in the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 13, supplement 2, pp. 6–13, 2012.
- Q. Sun, R. M. van Dam, D. Spiegelman, S. B. Heymsfield, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu, “Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric and anthropometric measures of adiposity in relation to adiposity-related biologic factors,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 172, no. 12, pp. 1442–1454, 2010.
- K. M. Flegal, J. A. Shepherd, A. C. Looker et al., “Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 500–508, 2009.
- S. B. Heymsfield, R. Scherzer, A. Pietrobelli, C. E. Lewis, and C. Grunfeld, “Body mass index as a phenotypic expression of adiposity: quantitative contribution of muscularity in a population-based sample,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1363–1373, 2009.
- S. B. Heymsfield, A. Martin-Nguyen, T. M. Fong, D. Gallagher, and A. Pietrobelli, “Body circumferences: clinical implications emerging from a new geometric model,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 5, no. 1, article 24, 2008.
- M. Bolanowski and B. E. Nilsson, “Assessment of human body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1029–1033, 2001.
- N. G. Norgan, “Laboratory and field measurements of body composition,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 7A, pp. 1108–1122, 2005.
- G. Sun, C. R. French, G. R. Martin et al., “Comparison of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for assessment of percentage body fat in a large, healthy population,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 74–78, 2005.
- P. Deurenberg, J. A. Weststrate, and J. C. Seidell, “Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 105–114, 1991.
- T. C. Mills, “Predicting body fat using weight—height indices,” Journal of Applied Statistics, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 1131–1138, 2008.
- I. Larsson, B. Henning, A. K. Lindroos, I. Näslund, C. D. Sjöström, and L. Sjöström, “Optimized predictions of absolute and relative amounts of body fat from weight, height, other anthropometric predictors, and age,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 252–259, 2006.
- D. Gallagher, S. B. Heymsfield, M. Heo, S. A. Jebb, P. R. Murgatroyd, and Y. Sakamoto, “Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 694–701, 2000.
- P. Deurenberg, M. Yap, and W. A. Van Staveren, “Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1164–1171, 1998.
- K. G. M. M. Alberti, R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy et al., “Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; World heart federation; International atherosclerosis society; And international association for the study of obesity,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 16, pp. 1640–1645, 2009.
- W. T. Friedewald, R. I. Levy, and D. S. Fredrickson, “Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 499–502, 1972.
- G. Mancia, G. De Backer, A. Dominiczak, et al., “Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1462–1536, 2007.
- WHO, Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycaemia, WHO, 2006.
- J. C. K. Wells, J. E. Williams, D. Haroun, M. S. Fewtrell, A. Colantuoni, and M. Siervo, “Aggregate predictions improve accuracy when calculating metabolic variables used to guide treatment,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 491–499, 2009.
- A. Ramel, T. I. Halldorsson, E. A. Tryggvadottir et al., “Relationship between BMI and body fatness in three European countries,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 254–258, 2013.
- M. Nelis, T. Esko, R. Mägi, et al., “Genetic structure of Europeans: a view from the North-East,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 5, Article ID e5472, 2009.
- M. J. Pencina, R. B. D'Agostino Sr., R. B. D'Agostino Jr., and R. S. Vasan, “Evaluating the added predictive ability of a new marker: from area under the ROC curve to reclassification and beyond,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 157–172, 2008.
- N. R. Cook and P. M. Ridker, “Advances in measuring the effect of individual predictors of cardiovascular risk: the role of reclassification measures,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 150, no. 11, pp. 795–802, 2009.
- E. Völgyi, F. A. Tylavsky, A. Lyytikäinen, H. Suominen, M. Alén, and S. Cheng, “Assessing body composition with DXA and bioimpedance: effects of obesity, physical activity, and age,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 700–705, 2008.
- M. J. Goddard and I. Hinberg, “Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and non-normal data: an empirical study,” Statistics in Medicine, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 325–337, 1990.
- International Diabetes Federation, “The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome”.
- H. A. Paula, C. Ribeiro Rde, L. E. Rosado, M. V. Abranches, and C. Franceschini Sdo, “Classic anthropometric and body composition indicators can predict risk of metabolic syndrome in elderly,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 264–271, 2012.
- K. Maximova, A. Chiolero, J. O'Loughliin, A. Tremblay, M. Lambert, and G. Paradis, “Ability of different adiposity indicators to identify children with elevated blood pressure,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2075–2083, 2011.
- M. Elia, “Body composition by whole-body bioelectrical impedance and prediction of clinically relevant outcomes: overvalued or underused?” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, supplement 1, pp. S60–S70, 2013.
- J. Gómez-Ambrosi, C. Silva, J. C. Galofré et al., “Body mass index classification misses subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk factors related to elevated adiposity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 286–294, 2012.
- C. J. Lavie, A. De Schutter, and R. V. Milani, “Is there an obesity, overweight, or lean paradox in coronary heart disease? Getting to the “fat” of the matter,” Heart, vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 596–598, 2013.
- J. E. Park, J. H. Chung, K. H. Lee, and K. C. Shin, “The effect of body composition on pulmonary function,” Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 433–440, 2012.
- K. Blijdorp, M. M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, R. Pieters et al., “Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 8, Article ID e43269, 2012.
- eurostat, Migrants in Europe, 2011.
- P. Deurenberg, A. Andreoli, P. Borg et al., “The validity of predicted body fat percentage from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 973–979, 2001.
- C. Li, E. S. Ford, G. Zhao, L. S. Balluz, and W. H. Giles, “Estimates of body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in adults,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1457–1465, 2009.
- M. Heo, M. S. Faith, A. Pietrobelli, and S. B. Heymsfield, “Percentage of body fat cutoffs by sex, age, and race-ethnicity in the US adult population from NHANES 1999–2004,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 594–602, 2012.