Table 2: Identification of serum metabolites from human subjects controlled by obesity with BSP using UPLC-MS and their fold change analysis.a

No.IdentityExact massActual massMass errorMs fragmentsP valueVIP
(M + H)(M + H)(mDa)

1Aminobutyric acid104.0712104.0723 104, 87, 580.040.66
2L-proline116.0712116.0718 700.033.98
3Betaine 118.0868118.0878 118, 580.0263.23
4Valine 118.0868118.0901 720.0420.96
5Benzoic acid123.0434123.0462 95, 790.0240.49
6Pyroglutamic acid130.0504130.0521 84, 720.0211.81
7Pipecolic acid130.0868130.0880 105, 91, 840.0421.54
8Leucine/isoleucine 132.1025132.1034 119, 91, 86, 72, 690.0482.91
9N-phenylacetamide136.0762136.0777 119, 107, 910.0110.30
10Hypoxanthine137.0463137.0475 119, 110, 94, 820.0362.29
11Glutamine147.0770147.0784 130, 101, 840.0281.17
12L-methionine 150.0589150.0602 133, 104, 87, 74, 610.0391.07
132-phenylglycine152.0712152.0719 105, 780.0132.00
14L-carnitine 162.1130162.1140 103, 85, 600.021.77
15Phenylpyruvic acid165.0552165.0565 147, 123, 119, 91.770.0412.16
16Phenylalanine166.0868166.0883 121, 120, 103, 930.0451.58
17Uric acid169.0362169.0991 169, 152, 141, 126, 700.020.49
18Arginine175.1195175.1208 130, 116, 70, 600.0440.70
19Tyrosine182.0817182.0830 165, 136, 123, 910.012.58
20Tryptophan205.0977205.0994 188, 159, 146, 118, 910.0432.56
21Propionylcarnitine 218.1392218.1406 159, 144, 85, 600.051.35
22Butyrylcarnitine232.1549232.1564 217, 173, 144, 113, 850.051.15
23L-hexanoylcarnitine 260.1858260.1875 232, 201, 144, 850.060.83
24L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine281.1137281.1152 235, 166, 120, 880.00021.62
25L-octanoylcarnitine 288.2170288.2185 229, 127, 850.0142.34
26Palmitoylcarnitine400.3427400.3441 341, 144, 850.0340.85
27Linoleylcarnitine 424.3427424.3433 352, 144, 850.020.87
28 LysoPC (14:0)468.3090468.3092 450, 357, 285, 184, 104, 860.0450.99
29LysoPC (P 16:0)480.3454480.3424 339, 240, 184, 104, 860.021.80
30LysoPC (15:0)482.3247482.3256 385, 299, 184, 104, 860.0121.95
31LysoPC (16:0)496.3403496.3407 478, 313, 258, 184, 104, 860.01812.02
32LysoPC (17:1)508.3767508.3429 492, 327, 258, 184, 104, 860.020.55
33LysoPC (18:2)520.3403520.3379 502, 337, 258, 184, 104, 860.0455.48
34LysoPC (18:1)522.3560522.3513 504, 339, 258, 184, 104, 860.0373.63
35LysoPC (18:0)524.3716524.3672 506, 341, 258, 184, 104, 860.0365.25
36LysoPC (20:4)544.3403544.3400 361, 184, 104, 860.032.48
37LysoPC (20:1)550.3873550.3895 532, 418, 258, 184, 104, 860.0080.64
38LysoPC (22:0)572.3716572.3731 554, 295, 184, 104, 860.0290.58

No. was the number of metabolites marked in Figure 2(b), and fold change was calculated by dividing the mean of normalized intensities of each metabolite from 12 weeks after subjects by the mean intensity of the same metabolite from 0 week subjects. -value was analyzed by independent t-test with the Mann-Whitney -test. VIP is variable importance in the project and its value of above 1.00 showing high relevance for explaining the differences of sample groups.