- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 935245, 7 pages
Organized Sports, Overweight, and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children in Germany
1Division of Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ulm University Medical Centre, 89075 Ulm, Germany
2Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
3Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometrics, Ulm University, 89075 Ulm, Germany
4Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Ulm University Medical Centre, 89075 Ulm, Germany
Received 11 October 2012; Accepted 11 February 2013
Academic Editor: Jana Pařízková
Copyright © 2013 Clemens Drenowatz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- C. B. Ebbeling, D. B. Pawlak, and D. S. Ludwig, “Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9331, pp. 473–482, 2002.
- A. Beyerlein, A. M. Toschke, and R. von Kries, “Risk factors for childhood overweight: shift of the mean body mass index and shift of the upper percentiles: results from a cross-sectional study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 642–648, 2010.
- G. Nagel, M. Wabitsch, C. Galm et al., “Determinants of obesity in the Ulm Research on Metabolism, Exercise and Lifestyle in Children (URMEL-ICE),” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 168, no. 10, pp. 1259–1267, 2009.
- W. H. Dietz, “Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease,” Pediatrics, vol. 101, no. 3, part 2, pp. 518–525, 1998.
- A. Must and R. S. Strauss, “Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 23, supplement 2, no. 2, pp. S2–S11, 1999.
- J. S. Vander Wal and E. R. Mitchell, “Psychological complications of pediatric obesity,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1393–1401, 2011.
- L. J. Griffiths, T. J. Parsons, and A. J. Hill, “Self-esteem and quality of life in obese children and adolescents: a systematic review,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 282–304, 2010.
- W. D. Brettschneider, R. Naul, A. Bünemann, and D. Hoffmann, “Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents,” Spectrum, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 25–45, 2006 (German).
- J. J. Reilly, E. Methven, Z. C. McDowell et al., “Health consequences of obesity,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 748–752, 2003.
- J. L. Baker, L. W. Olsen, and T. I. A. Sørensen, “Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 23, pp. 2329–2337, 2007.
- A. Engeland, T. Bjørge, A. J. Søgaard, and A. Tverdal, “Body mass index in adolescence in relation to total mortality: 32-year follow-up of 227,000 Norwegian boys and girls,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 157, no. 6, pp. 517–523, 2003.
- E. P. Whitlock, S. B. Williams, R. Gold, P. R. Smith, and S. A. Shipman, “Screening and interventions for childhood overweight: a summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force,” Pediatrics, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. e125–e144, 2005.
- A. P. Hills, L. B. Andersen, and N. M. Byrne, “Physical activity and obesity in children,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 866–870, 2011.
- J. J. Reilly, J. Armstrong, A. R. Dorosty et al., “Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7504, pp. 1357–1359, 2005.
- J. F. Sallis, J. E. Alcaraz, T. L. McKenzie, M. F. Hovell, B. Kolody, and P. R. Nader, “Parental behavior in relation to physical activity and fitness in 9-year- old children,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 146, no. 11, pp. 1383–1388, 1992.
- D. Lange, S. Plachta-Danielzik, B. Landsberg, and M. J. Müller, “Social inequality, migration, and healthy environments as determinants of overweight of children and adolescents. Results of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS),” Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 707–715, 2010.
- A. M. Thompson, A. D. G. Baxter-Jones, R. L. Mirwald, and D. A. Bailey, “Secular trend in the development of fatness during childhood and adolescence,” American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 669–679, 2002.
- G. R. Tomkinson, L. A. Léger, T. S. Olds, and G. Cazorla, “Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980–2000): an analysis of 55 studies of the 20m shuttle run test in 11 countries,” Sports Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 285–300, 2003.
- K. Bös, “Motorische Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen,” in Erster Deutscher Kinder- und Jugendsportbericht, W. Schmidt, I. Hartmann-Tews, and W. Brettschneider, Eds., pp. 85–109, Hofmann, Schorndorf, Germany, 2003.
- G. Tomkinson and T. Olds, “Secular changes in pediatric aerobic fitness test performance: the global picture,” Medicine and Sport Science, vol. 50, pp. 46–66, 2007.
- M. Dencker, O. Thorsson, M. K. Karlsson, C. Lindén, P. Wollmer, and L. B. Andersen, “Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 705–710, 2012.
- L. Andersen, C. Riddoch, S. Kriemler, and A. Hills, “Physical Activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 871–876, 2011.
- S. J. Marshall, S. J. H. Biddle, T. Gorely, N. Cameron, and I. Murdey, “Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1238–1246, 2004.
- K. Patrick, G. J. Norman, K. J. Calfas et al., “Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight in adolescence,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 385–390, 2004.
- R. C. Brownson, T. K. Boehmer, and D. A. Luke, “Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors?” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 26, pp. 421–443, 2005.
- J. Dollman, K. Norton, and L. Norton, “Evidence for secular trends in children's physical activity behaviour,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 892–897, 2005.
- O. Samdal, J. Tynjälä, C. Roberts, J. F. Sallis, J. Villberg, and B. Wold, “Trends in vigorous physical activity and TV watching of adolescents from 1986 to 2002 in seven European Countries,” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 242–248, 2007.
- M. Westerståhl, M. Barnekow-Bergkvist, G. Hedberg, and E. Jansson, “Secular trends in sports: participation and attitudes among adolescents in Sweden from 1974 to 1995,” Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 602–609, 2003.
- T. Lampert, G. B. M. Mensink, N. Romahn, and A. Woll, “Physical activity among children and adolescents in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS),” Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 50, no. 5-6, pp. 634–642, 2007.
- L. Morris, J. Sallybanks, K. Willis, and T. Makkai, “Sport, physical activity and antisocial behaviour in youth,” Youth Studies Australia, vol. 23, pp. 47–52, 2004.
- V. Rittner and C. Breuer, Social Value and Community Orientation of Sports, Sportverlag Strauss, Köln, Germany, 2004.
- R. Jago and T. Baranowski, “Non-curricular approaches for increasing physical activity in youth: a review,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 157–163, 2004.
- P. A. Michaud, F. Narring, M. Cauderay, and C. Cavadini, “Sports activity, physical activity and fitness of 9- to 19-year-old teenagers in the canton of Vaud (Switzerland),” Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 129, no. 18, pp. 691–699, 1999 (German).
- L. Zahner, J. J. Puder, R. Roth et al., “A school-based physical activity program to improve health and fitness in children aged 6-13 years ("Kinder-Sportstudie KISS"): study design of a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN15360785],” BMC Public Health, vol. 6, article 147, 2006.
- World Health Organisation, Steps to Health: A European Framework to Promote Physical Activity for Health, WHO, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007.
- L. Zahner, T. Muehlbauer, M. Schmid, U. Meyer, J. J. Puder, and S. Kriemler, “Association of sports club participation with fitness and fatness in children,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 344–350, 2009.
- A. Quinto Romani, “Children's weight and participation in organized sports,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 687–695, 2011.
- M. F. Bergeron, “Improving health through youth sports: is participation enough?” New Directions for Youth Development, no. 115, pp. 27–41, 2007.
- K. Kromeyer-Hauschild, M. Wabitsch, D. Kunze et al., “Percentiles of body mass index in children and adolescents evaluated from different regional German studies,” Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde, vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 807–818, 2001.
- K. Bös and R. Wohlmann, “General motor abilities test for children (AST),” Lehrhilfen für den Sportunterricht, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 145–160, 1987 (German).
- Committee for the Development of Sport, Eurofit: Handbook for the Eurofit Test of Physical Fitness, Edigraf Editoiral Grafica, Rom, Italy, 1988.
- B. M. Kurth, “The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): an overview of its planning, implementation and results taking into account aspects of quality management,” Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 50, no. 5-6, pp. 533–546, 2007 (German).
- B. M. Kurth and A. S. Rosario, “The prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents living in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS),” Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 50, no. 5-6, pp. 736–743, 2007 (German).
- A. D. Liese, T. Hirsch, E. Von Mutius, and S. K. Weiland, “Burden of overweight in Germany: prevalence differences between former East and West German children,” European Journal of Public Health, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 526–531, 2006.
- T. Lobstein and M. L. Frelut, “Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 195–200, 2003.
- R. Ross and I. Janssen, “Physical activity, fitness, and obesity,” in Physical Activity and Health, C. Bouchard, S. Blair, and W. Haskell, Eds., pp. 173–189, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill, USA, 2007.
- I. Ara, G. Vicente-Rodríguez, J. Jimenez-Ramirez, C. Dorado, J. A. Serrano-Sanchez, and J. A. L. Calbet, “Regular participation in sports is associated with enhanced physical fitness and lower fat mass in prepubertal boys,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1585–1593, 2004.
- M. Saar and T. Jürimäe, “Sports participation outside school in total physical activity of children,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 559–562, 2007.
- C. Graf, B. Koch, S. Dordel et al., “Physical activity, leisure habits and obesity in first-grade children,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 284–290, 2004.
- J. Salmon, K. J. Campbell, and D. A. Crawford, “Television viewing habits associated with obesity risk factors: a survey of Melbourne schoolchildren,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 64–67, 2006.
- L. Kjønniksen, N. Anderssen, and B. Wold, “Organized youth sport as a predictor of physical activity in adulthood,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 646–654, 2009.
- E. Keane, R. Layte, J. Harrington, P. M. Kearney, and I. J. Perry, “Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 8, article e43503, 2012.
- L. Schenk and H. Knopf, “Oral health behaviour of children and adolescents in Germany: first results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS),” Bundesgesundheitsblatt—Gesundheitsforschung—Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 50, no. 5-6, pp. 653–658, 2007 (German).
- K. van der Horst, M. J. C. A. Paw, J. W. R. Twisk, and W. van Mechelen, “A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1241–1250, 2007.
- S. L. Gustafson and R. E. Rhodes, “Parental correlates of physical activity in children and early adolescents,” Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 79–97, 2006.
- L. B. Andersen, M. Harro, L. B. Sardinha et al., “Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study),” The Lancet, vol. 368, no. 9532, pp. 299–304, 2006.
- C. Graf, B. Koch, E. Kretschmann-Kandel et al., “Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILT-Project),” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2004.
- F. Bürgi, U. Meyer, U. Granacher et al., “Relationship of physical activity with motor skills, aerobic fitness and body fat in preschool children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study (Ballabeina),” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 937–944, 2011.
- W. van Mechelen, J. W. R. Twisk, G. B. Post, J. Snel, and H. C. G. Kemper, “Physical activity of young people: the Amsterdam Longitudinal Growth and Health Study,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1610–1616, 2000.
- V. Ebenegger, P. Marques-Vidal, S. Kriemler, et al., “Differences in aerobic fitness and lifestyle characteristics in preschoolers according to their weight status and sports club participation,” Obesity Facts, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 23–33, 2012.
- J. D. Coatsworth and D. E. Conroy, “Youth sport as a component of organized afterschool programs,” New Directions for Youth Development, no. 115, pp. 57–748, 2007.