- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 952916, 9 pages
The Role of Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance in Women of African Ancestry
1UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, South African Medical Research Council, Parow, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
2UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7725, South Africa
3Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 8001, South Africa
4Health Impact Assessment, Western Cape Department of Health, Cape Town 8001, South Africa
Received 9 November 2012; Accepted 13 December 2012
Academic Editor: Manisha S. Chandalia
Copyright © 2013 Julia H. Goedecke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. Peer, K. Steyn, C. Lombard, et al., “Rising diabetes prevalence among urban-dwelling black South Africans,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, article e43336, 2012.
- C. M. P. Duke, T. C. Plowden, and A. Y. Armstrong, “Disparate cardiovascular and diabetic outcomes in young adult black women: studies from across the Globe,” Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, vol. 6, pp. 251–258, 2012.
- J. Joubert, R. Norman, D. Bradshaw, J. H. Goedecke, N. P. Steyn, and T. Puoane, “Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight in South Africa in 2000,” South African Medical Journal, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 683–690, 2007.
- J. H. Goedecke, J. A. Dave, M. V. Faulenbach et al., “Insulin response in relation to insulin sensitivity: an appropriate beta-cell response in black South African women,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 860–865, 2009.
- J. C. Lovejoy, J. A. De La Bretonne, M. Klemperer, and R. Tulley, “Abdominal fat distribution and metabolic risk factors: effects of race,” Metabolism, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1119–1124, 1996.
- M. T. Van Der Merwe, N. J. Crowther, G. P. Schlaphoff et al., “Lactate and glycerol release from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese urban women from South Africa; important metabolic implications,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 4084–4091, 1998.
- S. M. Haffner, R. D'Agostino, M. F. Saad et al., “Increased insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic African-Americans and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 742–748, 1996.
- M. I. Goran, “Ethnic-specific pathways to obesity-related disease: The Hispanic vs. African-American paradox,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2561–2565, 2008.
- W. Boorsma, M. B. Snijder, G. Nijpels et al., “Body composition, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular disease profile in healthy Europeans,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2696–2701, 2008.
- S. R. Preis, J. M. Massaro, S. J. Robins et al., “Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and insulin resistance in the framingham heart study,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 2191–2198, 2010.
- C. M. Shay, M. R. Carnethon, T. R. Church, et al., “Lower extremity fat mass is associated with insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals: The CARDIA Study,” Obesity, vol. 19, pp. 2248–2253, 2011.
- J. H. Goedecke, N. S. Levitt, E. V. Lambert et al., “Differential effects of abdominal adipose tissue distribution on insulin sensitivity in black and white South African women,” Obesity, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1506–1512, 2009.
- J. C. Lovejoy, S. R. Smith, and J. C. Rood, “Comparison of regional fat distribution and health risk factors in middle-aged white and African American women: the healthy transitions study,” Obesity Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2001.
- J. H. Goedecke, J. Evans, D. Keswell, et al., “Reduced gluteal expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in black South African women is associated with obesity-related insulin resistance,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 96, pp. E2029–E2033, 2011.
- B. Richelsen, S. B. Pedersen, T. Moller-Pedersen, and J. F. Bak, “Regional differences in triglyceride breakdown in human adipose tissue: effects of catecholamines, insulin, and prostaglandin E2,” Metabolism, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 990–996, 1991.
- J. H. Goedecke, D. J. Wake, N. S. Levitt et al., “Glucocorticoid metabolism within superficial subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in South African women,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 2006.
- M. S. Gauthier, E. L. O'Brien, S. Bigornia et al., “Decreased AMP-activated protein kinase activity is associated with increased inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and with whole-body insulin resistance in morbidly obese humans,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 404, no. 1, pp. 382–387, 2011.
- M. Alvehus, J. Burén, M. Sjöström, J. Goedecke, and T. Olsson, “The human visceral fat depot has a unique inflammatory profile,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 879–883, 2010.
- J. P. H. Wilding, “The importance of free fatty acids in the development of Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 934–945, 2007.
- G. E. Walker, P. Marzullo, B. Verti et al., “Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue subcompartments: potential role in rosiglitazone effects,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1983–1991, 2008.
- J. R. Monzon, R. Basile, S. Heneghan, V. Udupi, and A. Green, “Lipolysis in adipocytes isolated from deep and superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue,” Obesity Research, vol. 10, pp. 266–269, 2002.
- J. Tordjman, A. Divoux, E. Prifti, et al., “Structural and inflammatory heterogeneity in subcutaneous adipose tissue: relation with liver histopathology in morbid obesity,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 56, pp. 1152–1158, 2012.
- J. Lundbom, A. Hakkarainen, N. Lundbom, and M. R. Taskinen, “Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue is more saturated than superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue,” International Journal of Obesity. In press.
- S. B. Votruba and M. D. Jensen, “Sex differences in abdominal, gluteal, and thigh LPL activity,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 292, no. 6, pp. E1823–E1828, 2007.
- K. N. Manolopoulos, F. Karpe, and K. N. Frayn, “Marked resistance of femoral adipose tissue blood flow and lipolysis to adrenaline in vivo,” Diabetologia, vol. 55, pp. 3029–3037, 2012.
- T. J. Tittelbach, D. M. Berman, B. J. Nicklas, A. S. Ryan, and A. P. Goldberg, “Racial differences in adipocyte size and relationship to the metabolic syndrome in obese women,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 990–998, 2004.
- K. N. Manolopoulos, F. Karpe, and K. N. Frayn, “Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 949–959, 2010.
- K. E. Pinnick, M. J. Neville, B. A. Fielding, et al., “Gluteofemoral adipose tissue plays a major role in production of the lipokine palmitoleate in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 61, pp. 1399–1403, 2012.
- M. J. Toth, A. Tchernof, C. K. Sites, and E. T. Poehlman, “Effect of menopausal status on body composition and abdominal fat distribution,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 226–231, 2000.
- S. R. Salpeter, J. M. E. Walsh, T. M. Ormiston, E. Greyber, N. S. Buckley, and E. E. Salpeter, “Meta-analysis: effect of hormone-replacement therapy on components of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 538–554, 2006.
- K. Casazza, M. I. Goran, and B. A. Gower, “Associations among insulin, estrogen, and fat mass gain over the pubertal transition in African-American and european-american girls,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 2610–2615, 2008.
- J. F. Randolph, “Reproductive hormones in the early menopausal transition: relationship to ethnicity, body size, and menopausal status,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 88, pp. 1516–1522, 2003.
- V. W. Setiawan, C. A. Haiman, F. Z. Stanczyk, L. Le Marchand, and B. E. Henderson, “Racial/ethnic differences in postmenopausal endogenous hormones: The Multiethnic Cohort Study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1849–1855, 2006.
- C. Kim, S. H. Golden, K. J. Mather, et al., “Racial/ethnic differences in sex hormone levels among postmenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 97, pp. 4051–4060, 2012.
- E. Enmark and J. Å. Gustafsson, “Oestrogen receptors—an overview,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 246, no. 2, pp. 133–138, 1999.
- A. Naaz, M. Zakroczymski, P. Heine et al., “Effect of ovariectomy on adipose tissue of mice in the absence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα): a potential role for estrogen receptor beta (ERβ),” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 34, no. 11-12, pp. 758–763, 2002.
- G. Bryzgalova, H. Gao, B. Ahren et al., “Evidence that oestrogen receptor-α plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice: insulin sensitivity in the liver,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 588–597, 2006.
- M. Boscaro, L. Barzon, F. Fallo, and N. Sonino, “Cushing's syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9258, pp. 783–791, 2001.
- E. Rask, T. Olsson, S. Söderberg, et al., “Tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism in human obesity,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, pp. 1418–1421, 2001.
- H. Masuzaki, J. Paterson, H. Shinyama, et al., “A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome,” Science, vol. 294, pp. 2166–2170, 2001.
- N. M. Morton, L. Ramage, and J. R. Seckl, “Down-regulation of adipose 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by high-fat feeding in mice: a potential adaptive mechanism counteracting metabolic disease,” Endocrinology, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 2707–2712, 2004.
- E. Rask, B. R. Walker, S. Söderberg, et al., “Tissue-specific changes in peripheral cortisol metabolism in obese women: increased adipose 11hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, pp. 3330–3336, 2002.
- J. B. Albu, M. Curi, M. Shur, L. Murphy, D. E. Matthews, and F. X. Pi-Sunyer, “Systemic resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in black and white women with visceral obesity,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 277, no. 3, pp. E551–E560, 1999.
- S. B. Racette, J. F. Horowitz, B. Mittendorfer, and S. Klein, “Racial differences in lipid metabolism in women with abdominal obesity,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 3, pp. R944–R950, 2000.
- H. Barakat, R. C. Hickner, J. Privette et al., “Differences in the lipolytic function of adipose tissue preparations from Black American and Caucasian women.,” Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1514–1518, 2002.
- S. K. Fried, T. Tittelbach, J. Blumenthal et al., “Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1193–1200, 2010.
- E. P. Buthelezi, M. T. Van Der Merwe, P. N. Lönnroth, I. P. Gray, and N. J. Crowther, “Ethnic differences in the responsiveness of adipocyte lipolytic activity to insulin,” Obesity Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 171–178, 2000.
- J. H. Goedecke, K. Utzschneider, M. V. Faulenbach, et al., “Ethnic differences in serum lipoproteins and their determinants in South African women,” Metabolism—Clinical and Experimental, vol. 59, pp. 1341–1350, 2010.
- A. Festa, R. D'Agostino, G. Howard, L. Mykkänen, R. P. Tracy, and S. M. Haffner, “Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS),” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2000.
- T. C. Hyatt, R. P. Phadke, G. R. Hunter, et al., “Insulin sensitivity in African-American and white women: association with inflammation,” Obesity, vol. 2, pp. 276–282, 2009.
- A. Zirlik, S. M. Abdullah, N. Gerdes, et al., “Interleukin-18, the metabolic syndrome, and subclinical atherosclerosis: results from the Dallas Heart Study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, pp. 2043–2049, 2007.
- W. F. Ferris, N. H. Naran, N. J. Crowther, et al., “The relationship between insulin sensitivity and serum adiponectin levels in three population groups,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 37, pp. 695–701, 2005.
- M. W. Hulver, O. Saleh, K. G. MacDonald, W. J. Pories, and H. A. Barakat, “Ethnic differences in adiponectin levels,” Metabolism, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2004.
- B. Gustafson, S. Gogg, S. Hedjazifar, et al., “Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity in man,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, pp. E999–E1003, 2009.
- A. T. Ali, C. B. Penny, J. E. Paiker et al., “Alkaline phosphatase is involved in the control of adipogenesis in the murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 354, no. 1-2, pp. 101–109, 2005.
- L. M. Smith, A. Yao-Borengasser, T. Starks, M. Tripputi, P. A. Kern, and N. Rasouli, “Insulin resistance in African-American and Caucasian women: differences in lipotoxicity, adipokines, and gene expression in adipose tissue and muscle,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 4441–4448, 2010.
- F. H. J. van Tienen, C. J. van der Kallen, P. J. Lindsey, et al., “Preadipocytes of type 2 diabetes subjects display an intrinsic gene expression profile of decreased differentiation capacity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 35, pp. 1154–1164, 2011.
- B. I. Joffe, R. B. Goldberg, and J. Feinstein, “Adipose cell size in obese Africans: evidence against the existence of insulin resistance in some patients,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 471–474, 1979.
- T. McLaughlin, A. Sherman, P. Tsao et al., “Enhanced proportion of small adipose cells in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive obese individuals implicates impaired adipogenesis,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1707–1715, 2007.
- M. Pasarica, J. Rood, E. Ravussin, J. M. Schwarz, S. R. Smith, and L. M. Redman, “Reduced oxygenation in human obese adipose tissue is associated with impaired insulin suppression of lipolysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 4052–4055, 2010.
- M. Pasarica, O. R. Sereda, L. M. Redman et al., “Reduced adipose tissue oxygenation in human obesity evidence for rarefaction, macrophage chemotaxis, and inflammation without an angiogenic response,” Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 718–725, 2009.
- D. J. Manalo, A. Rowan, T. Lavoie et al., “Transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial cell responses to hypoxia by HIF-1,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 659–669, 2005.
- C. J. Schofield and P. J. Ratcliffe, “Oxygen sensing by HIF hydroxylases,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 343–354, 2004.
- N. Halberg, T. Khan, M. E. Trujillo, et al., “Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 induces fibrosis and insulin resistance in white adipose tissue,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 29, pp. 4467–4483, 2009.
- M. C. Alessi, D. Bastelica, P. Morange et al., “Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, transforming growth factor-β1, and BMI are closely associated in human adipose tissue during morbid obesity,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1374–1380, 2000.
- A. Festa, R. D'Agostino, S. S. Rich, N. S. Jenny, R. P. Tracy, and S. M. Haffner, “Promoter (4G/5G) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 genotype and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in blacks, hispanics, and non-hispanic whites: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 19, pp. 2422–2427, 2003.
- N. Matsuzawa-Nagata, T. Takamura, H. Ando, et al., “Increased oxidative stress precedes the onset of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity,” Metabolism, vol. 57, pp. 1071–1077, 2008.
- G. Fisher, J. A. Alvarez, A. C. Ellis, et al., “Race differences in the association of oxidative stress with insulin sensitivity in African- and European-American women,” Obesity, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 972–977, 2009.
- G. S. Hotamisligil, “Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and the role of the adipocyte,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 24, supplement 4, pp. S23–S27, 2000.
- T. McLaughlin, A. Deng, O. Gonzales et al., “Insulin resistance is associated with a modest increase in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue of moderately obese women,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2303–2308, 2008.
- A. K. Madan, D. S. Tichansky, M. Coday, and J. N. Fain, “Comparison of IL-8, IL-6 and PGE2 formation by visceral (omental) adipose tissue of obese caucasian compared to African-American women,” Obesity Surgery, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1342–1350, 2006.
- J. Evans, J. H. Goedecke, I. Söderström, et al., “Depot- and ethnic-specific differences in the relationship between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 74, pp. 51–59, 2010.
- C. X. Kim, K. R. Bailey, G. G. Klee et al., “Sex and ethnic differences in 47 candidate proteomic markers of cardiovascular disease: The Mayo Clinic proteomic markers of arteriosclerosis study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 2, article e9065, 2010.
- M. Snel, J. T. Jonker, J. Schoones, et al., “Ectopic fat and insulin resistance: pathophysiology and effect of diet and lifestyle interventions,” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2012, pp. 1–18, 2012.
- J. H. Hwang, D. T. Stein, N. Barzilai, et al., “Increased intrahepatic triglyceride is associated with peripheral insulin resistance: in vivo MR imaging and spectroscopy studies,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 293, pp. E1663–E1669, 2007.
- R. Guerrero, G. L. Vega, S. M. Grundy, and J. D. Browning, “Ethnic differences in hepatic steatosis: an insulin resistance paradox?” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 791–801, 2009.
- J. D. Browning, L. S. Szczepaniak, R. Dobbins et al., “Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1387–1395, 2004.
- D. Liska, S. Dufour, T. L. Zern et al., “Interethnic differences in muscle, liver and abdominal fat partitioning in obese adolescents,” PLoS ONE, vol. 2, no. 6, article e569, 2007.
- J. B. Albu, A. J. Kovera, L. Allen et al., “Independent association of insulin resistance with larger amounts of intermuscular adipose tissue and a greater acute insulin response to glucose in African American than in white nondiabetic women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1210–1217, 2005.
- A. S. Ryan, B. J. Nicklas, and D. M. Berman, “Racial differences in insulin resistance and mid-thigh fat deposition in postmenopausal women,” Obesity Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 336–344, 2002.
- J. C. Lawrence, B. R. Newcomer, S. D. Buchthal et al., “Relationship of intramyocellular lipid to insulin sensitivity may differ with ethnicity in healthy girls and women,” Obesity, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2011.
- E. S. Berk, A. J. Kovera, C. N. Boozer, F. X. Pi-Sunyer, and J. B. Albu, “Metabolic inflexibility in substrate use is present in African-American but not Caucasian healthy, premenopausal, nondiabetic women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 10, pp. 4099–4106, 2006.
- J. D. Privette, R. C. Hickner, K. G. MacDonald, W. J. Pories, and H. A. Barakat, “Fatty acid oxidation by skeletal muscle homogenates from morbidly obese black and white American women,” Metabolism, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 735–738, 2003.
- B. Sirikul, “Relationship between insulin sensitivity and in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 291, pp. E724–E728, 2006.
- C. J. Tanner, H. A. Barakat, G. L. Dohm, et al., “Muscle fiber type is associated with obesity and weight loss,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 282, pp. E1191–E1196, 2002.
- L. R. Silveira, J. Fiamoncini, S. M. Hirabara, et al., “Updating the effects of fatty acids on skeletal muscle,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 217, pp. 1–12, 2008.