Table 2: Ethnic differences in the relationship between circulating inflammatory markers and insulin resistance.

Inflammatory markerEthnic differenceModerating factorsAssociation with riskReferences

hsCRPBlack > whiteBMI and SES attenuate the difference between ethnic groupsSignificant association with IR in both black and white populationsFesta et al. [49]
IL-6Black > whiteMinor attenuation after adjusting for body fatnessSignificant association with IR in white women onlyHyatt et al. [50]
IL-18Black > white/HispanicNot definedSignificant associations with IR glucose in both black and white populationsZirlik et al. [51]
AdiponectinWhite > blackStill significant after adjustment for age, BMI, or WHRSignificant associations with IR in white women onlyFerris et al. [52]; Hulver et al. [53]

hsCRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; BMI: body mass index; SES: socioeconomic status; IL: interleukin; IR: insulin resistance; WHR: waist-hip ratio.