Table 1: Effect of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions on body weight and metabolic disease risk.

ReferenceSubjectsInterventionsLengthWeight
loss %
Weight regain %Body compositionLipidsBlood pressureGlucoseInsulin
WeeksFMFFMVFMWCTotalLDLHDLTAGSystolicDiastolic

Studies reporting no weight regain*
Claessens et al., 2009 [17] = 14 MFWt loss: 50% CR5↓ 9%↓ 18%↓ 3%↓ 9%↓ 16%↓ 21%↓ 9%↓ 19%↓ 6%↓ 6%↓ 7%↓ 24%
45 ± 2 yWt maint: Ad libitum-HP12↓ 6%↑ 2%↓ 2%↑ 14%↑ 14%↑ 20%↓ 5%↓ 4%↓ 3%↑ 8%
ObeseWt maint: Ad libitum12↑ 2%↑ 18%↑ 17%↑ 17%
Straznicky et al., 2011 [18] = 8 MFWt loss: 25% CR12↓ 7%↓ 7%↓ 33%↓ 8%
54 ± 2 yWt maint: 100% needs16
Obese
Soenen et al., 2013
[19]
= 36 MFWt loss: 33% CR6↓ 7%↓ 13%↓ 15%↓ 16%↓ 18%↓ 9%↓ 6%↓ 6%
44 ± 4 yWt maint: 100% needs-HP17↓ 7%↑ 1%
ObeseWt maint: 100% needs17↓ 6%↑ 1%

Studies reporting weight regain*
Crujeiras et al., 2014 [20] = 61 MFWt loss: 50% CR8↓ 6%↓ 5%↓ 5%↓ 31%
42 ± 1 yWt maint: Not specified24↑ 2%↑ 2%↑ 8%↑ 33%
Obese
Wang et al., 2012 [21] = 125 MWt loss: 60% CR8↓ 12%↓ 25%↓ 17%↓ 27%↓ 8%↓ 11%↓ 6%
43 ± 6 yWt maint: Not specified24↑ 2%↑ 23%↑ 27%↑ 6%↑ 5%↑ 2%
Obese
Lien et al., 2009 [22] = 27 MFWt loss: 30% CR24↓ 6%↓ 11%↓ 2%↓ 22%↓ 18%
51 yWt maint: Behavioral 24↑ 2%↑ 7%
Obesetherapy + low salt diet
Linna et al., 2007 [23] = 68 MWt loss: 60% CR8↓ 14%↓ 30%↓ 14%↓ 21%↓ 28%↓ 9%↓ 10%
43 ± 5 yWt maint: Not specified104↑ 2%↑ 10%↑ 3%↑ 22%↑ 16%↑ 3%↑ 8%↑ 6%
Obese
Sumithran et al., 2011 [26] = 34 MFWt loss: 50% CR10↓ 14%↓ 11%↓ 10%↓ 11%
56 ± 11 yWt maint: Not specified52↑ 4%↑ 4%↑ 2%↑ 6%
Obese
Delbridge et al., 2009 [27] = 141 MFWt loss: 50% CR12↓ 15%↓ 8%↓ 12%↓ 45%↓ 10%↓ 10%
44 ± 1 yWt maint: Ad libitum-HP52↑ 4%↑ 9%↑ 14%↑ 19%↑ 4%↑ 5%
Obese
Matsuo et al., 2010
[28]
= 54 FWt loss: 30% CR14↓ 13%↓ 29%↓ 3%↓ 29%↓ 13%↓ 14%↓ 47%↓ 10%↓ 12%↓ 8%
56 ± 5 yWt maint: Not specified104↑ 4%↑ 13%↑ 14%↑ 14%↑ 9%↑ 44%↑ 10%↑ 9%
Obese
Márquez-Quiñones et al., 2010 [24] = 38 MFWt loss: 25% CR8↓ 10%↓ 8%↓ 10%↓ 15%↓ 8%↓ 7%↓ 6%↓ 30%
42 ± 1 yWt maint: Not specified24↑ 5%↑ 4%↑ 8%↑ 12%↑ 20%↑ 6%↑ 4%↑ 8%
Obese
Thomas et al., 2010
[25]
= 67 MFWt loss: 25% CR20—24↓ 7%↓ 26%↓ 8%↓ 11%↓ 12%↓ 2%↓ 13%↓ 6%↓ 5%↓ 3%↓25%
40 ± 1 yWt maint: Not specified20—24↑ 6%↑ 23%↑ 4%↑ 12%↑ 13%↑ 5%↑ 3%↑ 20%
Obese

*studies ordered by ascending degree of weight regain.
: no significant change, CR: calorie restriction, F: female, FFM: fat free mass, FM: fat mass, HP: high protein diet, M: male, TAG: triglycerides, WC: waist circumference, VFM: visceral fat mass by MRI or CT.