Table 3: Outcome measures.

PLACONT HIIT (group × time)
BaselinePostBaselinePostES (95% CI) BaselinePostES (95% CI) ES (95% CI)  HIIT versus CONT

Body composition (DEXA)
Trunk fat (g) Trunk fat (%)16562.1 (1203.6) 44.6 (2.3)17073.4 (1290.7) 45.6 (2.5)17337.5 (742.1)
45.4 (1.7)
16627.8 (721.8) 44.2 (1.9)−0.46 
(−1.25, 0.34)
16142.5 (1153.2) 43.8 (1.5)15840.5 (1158.5) 43.5 (1.6)0.64
(−0.17, 1.44)
−0.79
(−1.59, 0.01)
0.70
Android fat (g)
Android fat (%)
2724.0 (215.0) 48.2 (2.1)2874.5 (259.8)
49.2 (2.2)
2884.5 (135.3)
49.8 (1.5)
2736.3 (112.3)
48.6 (1.7)
−0.32
(−1.11, 0.47)
2791.2 (184.7)
48.7 (1.3)
2736.6 (200.7)
48.7 (1.3)
0.86 
(0.04, 1.68)
−0.91
(−1.72, −0.10)
0.04**
Gynoid fat (g)
Gynoid fat (%)
5792.1 (306.9)
49.4 (2.1)
5776.0 (321.3)
49.3 (2.5)
6273.0 (375.3)
49.2 (2.4)
6138.1 (424.1)
48.1 (2.9)
−0.59
(−1.39, 0.21)
5540.3 (391.2)
47.6 (2.0)
5468.8 (442.9)
46.7 (2.3)
−0.34
(−1.13, 0.45)
−0.28
(−1.05, 0.58)
0.28
Total body fat (g)
Total body fat (%)
31432.8 (2064.9)
42.8 (2.3)
32131.8 (2370.2)
43.4 (2.7)
33134.1 (1669.6)
43.2 (2.0)
32114.91 (184.0)
42.2 (2.3)
−0.64
(−1.45, 0.16)
30421.5 (2087.9)
41.5 (1.7)
30229.1 (2408.9)
41.0 (2.0)
0.22
(−0.57, 1.00)
−0.73
(−1.52, 0.07)
0.049**
Total lean body mass (g)42374.8 (2892.6)42516.5 (3531.1)43637.8 (1873.8)44205.2 (2364.3)0.36
(−0.43, 1.15)
42211.6 (1360.7)42787.9 (1608.8)0.35
(−0.44, 1.14)
0.05
(−0.72, 0.82)
0.89

Anthropometrics
Weight (kg)77.2 (3.5)78.6 (3.8)80.7 (1.5)79.9 (1.8)−0.52
(−1.32, 0.28)
76.1 (2.7)76.3 (3.0)0.21
(−0.58, 1.00)
−0.84
(1.64, 0.04)
0.30
Waist circumference (cm)90.9 (3.1)90.1 (3.2)90.8 (2.1)87.2 (1.7)0.24
(−0.55, 1.03)
92.4 (2.5)90.6 (2.5)0.27
(−0.52, 1.06)
−0.05
(−0.82, 0.72)
0.76
Hip circumference (cm)108.0 (1.6)108.8 (1.7)108.7 (1.4)107.5 (1.5)0.19
(−0.60, 0.97)
104.9 (2.1)106.2 (1.9)0.25
(−0.54, 1.04)
−0.13
(−0.9, 0.64)
0.53

Fitness
Work peak (W)114.4 (16.6)118.4 (17.5)128.8 (10.2)160.2 (12.3)1.41
(0.53, 2.29)
134.7 (8.5)164.7 (10.8)1.17
(0.32, 2.01)
0.49
(−0.29, 1.28)
<0.001**
VO2peak  (mL/kg/min)*22.3 (1.8)22.3 (1.7)24.0 (1.2)28.3 (1.5)1.63
(0.72, 2.53)
25.3 (10.4)30.4 (1.4)1.76
(0.83, 2.68)
0.23
(−0.54, 1.00)
<0.001**

Biochemistry
AST (U/L)23.5 (2.4)18.7 (1.0)21.9 (2.1)20.1 (1.2)−0.14
(−0.92, 0.65)
27.3 (3.9)22.5 (1.8)−0.27
(−1.06, 0.51)
0.12
(−0.65, 0.89)
0.24
ALT (U/L)26.7 (5.5)17.6 (2.5)22.0 (4.5)17.0 (1.8)−0.12
(−0.91, 0.66)
36.7 (8.8)24.2 (4.8)−0.23
(−1.02, 0.56)
0.08
(−0.69, 0.85)
0.22
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.1 (0.2)4.3 (0.1)4.3 (0.1)4.4 (0.1)−0.45
(−1.24, 0.35)
4.4 (0.2)4.3 (0.1)−0.32
(−1.11, 0.47)
−0.19
(−0.96, 0.58)
0.41
Insulin (mU/L)7.3 (0.7)8.7 (1.2)8.6 (1.4)7.9 (1.1)−0.39
(−1.18, 0.00)
8.0 (1.1)7.4 (0.7)−0.47
(−1.26, 0.33)
0.12
(−0.65, 0.89)
0.31
hs-CRP (mg/L)1.9 (0.4)1.7 (0.3)4.0 (1.6)2.9 (0.8)−0.49
(−1.28, 0.31)
3.4 (0.8)3.6 (1.3)−0.71
(−1.52, 0.10)
0.03
(−0.74, 0.79)
0.45

Lipids
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.1 (0.2)5.4 (0.2)5.3 (0.3)5.5 (0.2)−1.55
(−2.44, −0.65)
5.4 (0.3)5.4 (0.2)−1.46
(−2.34, −0.58)
0.25
(−1.02, 0.53)
0.02**
HDL (mmol/L)1.6 (0.1)1.5 (0.1)1.4 (0.1)1.4 (0.1)−0.21
(−1.00, 0.57)
1.7 (0.2)1.7 (0.2)−0.59
(−1.39, 0.21)
0.46
(−0.32, 1.24)
0.20
LDL (mmol/L)4.0 (0.1)3.4 (0.1)3.3 (0.3)3.6 (0.2)−1.70
(−2.61, −0.78)
3.2 (0.2)3.2 (0.2)−1.21
(−2.06, −0.35)
−0.38
(−1.16, 0.39)
0.02**
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.2 (0.1)1.1 (0.1)1.2 (0.2)1.1 (0.1)−0.30
(−1.09, 0.49)
1.3 (0.1)1.3 (0.2)−0.39
(−1.18, 0.40)
0.20
(−0.57, 0.97)
0.40
Free fatty acids   (umol/L)318.9 (34.5)484.6 (106.5)426.6 (42.0)460.6 (54.1)−0.89
(−1.71, −0.06)
415.6 (47.9)493.8 (119.4)−0.34
(−1.13, 0.45)
−0.48
(−1.26, 0.30)
0.71

Blood pressure
SBP (mmHg)117.7 (5.3)116.5 (4.7)122.8 (4.6)118.5 (3.2)0.32
(−0.47, 1.11)
116.2 (3.9)110.6 (3.2)0.81
(0.00, 1.63)
−0.27
(−1.04, 0.50)
0.10
DBP (mmHg)74.3 (2.5)73.7 (2.8)78.4 (2.8)74.9 (2.5)1.00
(0.17, 1.84)
76.8 (2.3)73.9 (2.4)0.61
(−0.19, 1.42)
0.25
(−0.52, 1.02)
0.13

Presented as Mean (SE). PLA: placebo; CONT: continuous aerobic exercise; HIIT: high intensity interval training; DEXA: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; VO2peak: peak aerobic capacity; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; hs-CRP: high sensitivity C-reactive protein; HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure. *Estimated from W peak, = 12/13/13 for PLA/CONT/HIIT, respectively, at baseline, 10/11/11 for PLA/CONT/HIIT, respectively, at postintervention testing for body composition (DEXA), and 11/11/11 for PLA/CONT/HIIT, respectively, at postintervention testing for anthropometrics, fitness, biochemistry, lipids, and blood pressure. **Significant group × time interaction ( ). ES: Hedge’s bias corrected effect size; CI: confidence interval.