Journal of Obesity http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:04:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/194838/ Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i) waist circumference (WC) and (ii) waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14;   −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05) and WtHR (  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01;   −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49). Associations among boys were contingent upon age (  ) and robust to adjustment for socioeconomic variables. The benefits of greener neighbourhoods appeared from age 7, with mean WC and WtHR for boys aged 13 y with >40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys. Taren Sanders, Xiaoqi Feng, Paul P. Fahey, Chris Lonsdale, and Thomas Astell-Burt Copyright © 2015 Taren Sanders et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Metabolites on the Relationship between BMI and Cardiometabolic Health Risk Thu, 20 Aug 2015 11:53:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/687914/ The objective was to determine whether detectable levels of OP metabolites influence the relationship between BMI and cardiometabolic health. This cross-sectional study was conducted using 2227 adults from the 1999–2008 NHANES datasets. Urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate metabolites were dichotomized to above and below the detection limit. Weighted multiple regression analysis was performed adjusting for confounding variables. Independent of BMI, individuals with detectable metabolites had higher diastolic blood pressure (for dimethylphosphate, diethylphosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate; ), lower HDL (for diethyldithiophosphate; ), and higher triglyceride (for dimethyldithiophosphate; ) than those below detection. Contrarily, those with detectable dimethylthiophosphate had better LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, independent of BMI. Individuals at a higher BMI range who had detectable diethylphosphate (interaction: ) and diethylthiophosphate (interaction: ) exhibited lower HDL, while little difference existed between OP metabolite detection statuses at lower BMIs. Similarly, individuals with high BMIs and detectable diethylphosphate had higher triglyceride than those without detectable levels, while minimal differences between diethylphosphate detection statuses were observed at lower BMIs (interaction: ). Thus, cardiometabolic health outcome differs depending on the specific OP metabolite being examined, with higher BMIs amplifying health risk. Mahsa Ranjbar, Michael A. Rotondi, Chris I. Ardern, and Jennifer L. Kuk Copyright © 2015 Mahsa Ranjbar et al. All rights reserved. Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:42:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/343479/ We have studied how spontaneous or carcinogen-induced intestinal tumorigenesis was affected by genetic or diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J- X C57BL/6J- mice. Obesity was induced by the obese (ob) mutation in the lep gene coding for the hormone leptin, or by a 45% fat diet. The effects of obesity were examined on spontaneous intestinal tumors caused by the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and on tumors induced by the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). F1 ob/ob (homozygous mutated) mice had increased body weight (bw) and number of spontaneous and PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors (in mice), versus ob/wt (heterozygous mutated) and wt/wt mice (homozygous wild-type). A 45% fat diet exacerbated bw and spontaneous tumor numbers versus 10% fat, but not PhIP-induced tumors. Except for bw, ob/wt and wt/wt were not significantly different. The obesity caused hyperglucosemia and insulinemia in ob/ob mice. A 45% fat diet further increased glucose, but not insulin. Inflammation was seen as increased TNFα levels in ob/ob mice. Thus the results implicate disturbed glucose regulation and inflammation as mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis. Ob/ob mice had shorter lifespan than ob/wt and wt/wt mice. Ha Thi Ngo, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Unni Cecilie Nygaard, and Inger-Lise Steffensen Copyright © 2015 Ha Thi Ngo et al. All rights reserved. Response to: Comment on “Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes” Sun, 09 Aug 2015 08:42:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/347590/ Susanne Kobel, Tamara Wirt, Anja Schreiber, Dorothea Kesztyüs, Sarah Kettner, Nanette Erkelenz, Olivia Wartha, and Jürgen M. Steinacker Copyright © 2015 Susanne Kobel et al. All rights reserved. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial Sun, 12 Jul 2015 11:26:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/365604/ Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications. Scott A. Shikora, Bruce M. Wolfe, Caroline M. Apovian, Mehran Anvari, David B. Sarwer, Robert D. Gibbons, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Christopher J. Miller, Mark B. Knudson, Katherine S. Tweden, Michael G. Sarr, and Charles J. Billington Copyright © 2015 Scott A. Shikora et al. All rights reserved. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study Tue, 23 Jun 2015 11:18:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/693829/ Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, ), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, ), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (), reduced consumption of ready meals (), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. Friedrich C. Jassil, Sean Manning, Neville Lewis, Siri Steinmo, Helen Kingett, Fiona Lough, Andrea B. F. Pucci, W. H. Cheung, Nicholas Finer, Judith Walker, Jaqueline Doyle, and Rachel L. Batterham Copyright © 2015 Friedrich C. Jassil et al. All rights reserved. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children Tue, 23 Jun 2015 10:13:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/964249/ Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ ) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, ) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, ). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. Ihuoma U. Eneli, Tracy L. Tylka, Rosanna P. Watowicz, Jessica Hummel, Jan Ritter, and Julie C. Lumeng Copyright © 2015 Ihuoma U. Eneli et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea) Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats Thu, 11 Jun 2015 12:34:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/846041/ This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1), medium dose (200 mg kg−1), or high dose (300 mg kg−1) or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (). Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS) (). Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (). This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs. Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir, Asmah Rahmat, and Hawa Z. E. Jaafar Copyright © 2015 Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity” Thu, 11 Jun 2015 08:14:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/183528/ Peng Li, Andrew W. Brown, J. Michael Oakes, and David B. Allison Copyright © 2015 Peng Li et al. All rights reserved. Health Care Consumption during Pregnancy in relation to Maternal Body Mass Index: A Swedish Population Based Observational Study Tue, 26 May 2015 08:49:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/215683/ Objective. To assess whether antenatal health care consumption is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI). Design. A register based observational study. Methods. The Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Maternal Health Care Register, and the Inpatient Register were used to determine antenatal health care consumption according to BMI categories for primiparous women with singleton pregnancies, from 2006 to 2008, . Pairwise comparisons among BMI groups are obtained post hoc by Tukey HSD test. Result. Obese women were more often admitted for in-patient care (), had longer antenatal hospital stays (), and were more often sick-listed by an obstetrician () during their pregnancy, compared to women with normal weight women. Preeclampsia was more than four times as common, hypertension five times as common, and gestational diabetes 11 times as common when comparing in-patient care, obese to normal weight women ( for all comparisons). Underweight mothers had longer stay in hospitals () and hydronephrosis and hyperemesis gravidarum were more than twice as common (both ). Conclusion. Obese and underweight mothers consumed significantly more health care resources and obese women were significantly more often sick-listed during their pregnancy when compared to pregnant women of normal weight. Elisabeth S. Lindholm, Daniel Altman, Margareta Norman, and Marie Blomberg Copyright © 2015 Elisabeth S. Lindholm et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes” Mon, 25 May 2015 10:48:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/708181/ Peng Li, Andrew W. Brown, J. Michael Oakes, and David B. Allison Copyright © 2015 Peng Li et al. All rights reserved. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students Mon, 25 May 2015 06:51:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/876524/ Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. Richard Lowry, Shannon Michael, Zewditu Demissie, Laura Kann, and Deborah A. Galuska Copyright © 2015 Richard Lowry et al. All rights reserved. The Molecular Mechanism Underlying Continuous Exercise Training-Induced Adaptive Changes of Lipolysis in White Adipose Cells Wed, 13 May 2015 11:37:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/473430/ Physical exercise accelerates the mobilization of free fatty acids from white adipocytes to provide fuel for energy. This happens in several tissues and helps to regulate a whole-body state of metabolism. Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TG) that is found in white adipocytes is known to be augmented via the activation of these lipolytic events, which is referred to as the “lipolytic cascade.” Indeed, evidence has shown that the lipolytic responses in white adipocytes are upregulated by continuous exercise training (ET) through the adaptive changes in molecules that constitute the lipolytic cascade. During the past few decades, many lipolysis-related molecules have been identified. Of note, the discovery of a new lipase, known as adipose triglyceride lipase, has redefined the existing concepts of the hormone-sensitive lipase-dependent hydrolysis of TG in white adipocytes. This review outlines the alterations in the lipolytic molecules of white adipocytes that result from ET, which includes the molecular regulation of TG lipases through the lipolytic cascade. Junetsu Ogasawara, Tetsuya Izawa, Tomonobu Sakurai, Takuya Sakurai, Ken Shirato, Yoshinaga Ishibashi, Hitoshi Ishida, Hideki Ohno, and Takako Kizaki Copyright © 2015 Junetsu Ogasawara et al. All rights reserved. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults Tue, 12 May 2015 06:22:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/763680/ Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM)) as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019) was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002) such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted. Carly R. Pacanowski and David A. Levitsky Copyright © 2015 Carly R. Pacanowski and David A. Levitsky. All rights reserved. Early Obesity Prevention: A Randomized Trial of a Practice-Based Intervention in 0–24-Month Infants Mon, 11 May 2015 13:19:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/795859/ Objective. A pediatric office-based intervention was implemented following a randomized, controlled design, aimed at improving child feeding practices and growth patterns and ultimately reducing risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Methods. Four clinics (232 infants) were randomized to control or intervention (I), the latter delivered by health care provider at each of 7–9 well-baby visits over 2 years, using a previously developed program (Growing Leaps and Bounds) that included verbal, visual, and text advice and information for parents. Results. The I group offered significantly less soda , sweetened tea , punch and/or cow’s milk to infants and delayed the introduction of drink/food other than breast milk . Parents in the I group had a higher perceived parental monitoring and restriction on infant feeding. While the I group exhibited at baseline more adverse socioeconomic indicators than the control group, growth trajectory or body size indices did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions. Education provided by health care providers in addition to follow-up monthly phone calls may help modify parental behaviors related to child feeding and increase parental sense of responsibility toward child eating behaviors. Natalia Schroeder, Berenice Rushovich, Edward Bartlett, Sangita Sharma, Joel Gittelsohn, and Benjamin Caballero Copyright © 2015 Natalia Schroeder et al. All rights reserved. Edmonton Obesity Staging System Prevalence and Association with Weight Loss in a Publicly Funded Referral-Based Obesity Clinic Tue, 28 Apr 2015 08:29:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/619734/ Objectives. To determine the distribution of EOSS stages and differences in weight loss achieved according to EOSS stage, in patients attending a referral-based publically funded multisite weight management clinic. Subjects/Methods. 5,787 obese patients were categorized using EOSS staging using metabolic risk factors, medication use, and severity of doctor diagnosis of obesity-related physiological, functional, and psychological comorbidities from electronic patient files. Results. The prevalence of EOSS stages 0 (no risk factors or comorbidities), 1 (mild conditions), 2 (moderate conditions), and 3 (severe conditions) was 1.7%, 10.4%, 84.0%, and 3.9%, respectively. Prehypertension (63%), hypertension (76%), and knee replacement (33%) were the most common obesity-related comorbidities for stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In the models including age, sex, initial BMI, EOSS stage, and treatment time, lower EOSS stage and longer treatment times were independently associated with greater absolute (kg) and percentage of weight loss relative to initial body weight . Conclusions. Patients attending this publicly funded, referral-based weight management clinic were more likely to be classified in the higher stages of EOSS. Patients in higher EOSS stages required longer treatment times to achieve similar weight outcomes as those in lower EOSS stages. Karissa L. Canning, Ruth E. Brown, Sean Wharton, Arya M. Sharma, and Jennifer L. Kuk Copyright © 2015 Karissa L. Canning et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Obesity Management Using Mobile Technology: A Feasibility Study to Evaluate a Text Messaging Based Complex Intervention during Pregnancy Thu, 16 Apr 2015 11:24:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/814830/ Background. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are on the rise with negative impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research into managing GWG using accessible technology is limited. The maternal obesity management using mobile technology (MOMTech) study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of text messaging based complex intervention designed to support obese women (BMI ≥ 30) with healthier lifestyles and limit GWG. Methods. Participants received two daily text messages, supported by four appointments with healthy lifestyle midwife, diet and activity goal setting, and self-monitoring diaries. The comparison group were obese mothers who declined to participate but consented for their routinely collected data to be used for comparison. Postnatal interviews and focus groups with participants and the comparison group explored the intervention’s acceptability and suggested improvements. Results. Fourteen women completed the study which did not allow statistical analyses. However, participants had lower mean GWG than the comparison group (6.65 kg versus 9.74 kg) and few (28% versus 50%) exceeded the Institute of Medicine’s upper limit of 9 kg GWG for obese women. Conclusions. MOMTech was feasible within clinical setting and acceptable intervention to support women to limit GWG. Before further trials, slight modifications are planned to recruitment, text messages, and the logistics of consultation visits. Hora Soltani, Alexandra M. S. Duxbury, Madelynne A. Arden, Andy Dearden, Penny J. Furness, and Carolyn Garland Copyright © 2015 Hora Soltani et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:00:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/651460/ Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women) were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69) and one year later (week 121). Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight 5%, , and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, , respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655. Tuula Pekkarinen, Jarmo Kaukua, and Pertti Mustajoki Copyright © 2015 Tuula Pekkarinen et al. All rights reserved. Is Acculturation Related to Obesity in Hispanic/Latino Adults? Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sun, 29 Mar 2015 07:39:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/186276/ Background. The study examined the association of obesity with acculturation in a large and diverse sample of US Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a community-based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults aged 18–74 years () from four urban areas. Height and weight were directly measured using a standardized protocol. Acculturation was assessed by the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH). Other immigration related variables included place of birth, length of residency in the US, and age at immigration. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the association of overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity ( kg/m2) with acculturation and sociodemographic variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was 42.4% for women and 36.5% for men and varied by field center and Hispanic/Latino background. The strongest predictor of moderate and extreme obesity was length of residency in mainland US. This association was consistent across Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. Acculturation was not significantly associated with obesity. Discussion. The burden of obesity is high among Hispanic/Latino adults. The study findings suggest that prolonged exposure to the environments in these communities, rather than acculturation, is an important risk factor for obesity in this population. Carmen R. Isasi, Guadalupe X. Ayala, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Hala Madanat, Frank Penedo, Catherine M. Loria, John P. Elder, Martha L. Daviglus, Janice Barnhart, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Linda Van Horn, and Neil Schneiderman Copyright © 2015 Carmen R. Isasi et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Early Life Factors and Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight and Obesity Wed, 25 Mar 2015 13:55:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/964540/ Li Ming Wen, Chris Rissel, and Gengsheng He Copyright © 2015 Li Ming Wen et al. All rights reserved. Calorie Labeling in a Rural Middle School Influences Food Selection: Findings from Community-Based Participatory Research Sun, 22 Mar 2015 12:39:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/531690/ Background. Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. Objective. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. Methods. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6–8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Results. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Conclusion. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food. Monica Hunsberger, Paul McGinnis, Jamie Smith, Beth Ann Beamer, and Jean O’Malley Copyright © 2015 Monica Hunsberger et al. All rights reserved. Reducing Hispanic Children’s Obesity Risk Factors in the First 1000 Days of Life: A Qualitative Analysis Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:52:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/945918/ Objectives. Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months) mediate Hispanic children’s obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children < age 24 months. Domains included influences on childhood obesity risk factors and future intervention ideas. We analyzed data with immersion-crystallization methods until no new themes emerged. Results. Themes included coping with pregnancy may trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Conclusion. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers’ understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children. Jennifer A. Woo Baidal, Shaniece Criss, Roberta E. Goldman, Meghan Perkins, Courtney Cunningham, and Elsie M. Taveras Copyright © 2015 Jennifer A. Woo Baidal et al. All rights reserved. Blending Better Beverage Options: A Nutrition Education and Experiential Workshop for Youths Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:38:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/351734/ Objective. To reduce intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in youths as a means to reduce obesity risk. Methods. Youths 5–14 years old attending a summer program were given a two-hour workshop addressing the sugar content in SSBs, the health risks from drinking SSBs, and hands-on preparation as well as tastings of low-sugar beverage alternatives. Data on usual intake of SSBs was obtained at baseline, and pre- and postprogram surveys were conducted to gauge change in knowledge and/or attitudes regarding SSBs. Results. There were 128 participants (63% male) in the program. SSBs were commonly consumed with over 80% reporting regular consumption (mean daily intake 17.9 ounces). Significant increase in knowledge regarding the sugar content of commonly consumed SSBs was achieved; however change in attitudes was not significant. The large majority of youths reported enjoying the workshop and intention to reduce intake of SSBs following program participation. Conclusion. SSBs are commonly consumed by youths. Knowledge regarding the sugar content of SSBs is easier to impart to youths than influencing attitudes held about these beverages. Long-term interventions that reach out to parents and address the widespread availability of SSBs are needed to influence resistant attitudes and beverage choosing behaviors in youths. Kathy K. Isoldi and Veronika Dolar Copyright © 2015 Kathy K. Isoldi and Veronika Dolar. All rights reserved. The Intrauterine and Nursing Period Is a Window of Susceptibility for Development of Obesity and Intestinal Tumorigenesis by a High Fat Diet in Min/+ Mice as Adults Thu, 19 Mar 2015 14:14:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/624023/ We studied how obesogenic conditions during various life periods affected obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis in adult C57BL/6J-Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia)/+ mice. The mice were given a 10% fat diet throughout life (negative control) or a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, during adult life, or during their whole life-span, and terminated at 11 weeks for tumorigenesis (Min/+) or 23 weeks for obesogenic effect (wild-type). Body weight at 11 weeks was increased after a 45% fat diet during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, and throughout life, but had normalized at 23 weeks. In the glucose tolerance test, the early exposure to a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, or during both in utero and nursing, did not affect blood glucose, whereas a 45% fat diet given to adults or throughout life did. However, a 45% fat diet during nursing or during in utero and nursing increased the number of small intestinal tumors. So did exposures to a 45% fat diet in adult life or throughout life, but without increasing the tumor numbers further. The intrauterine and nursing period is a window of susceptibility for dietary fat-induced obesity and intestinal tumor development. Ha Thi Ngo, Ragna Bogen Hetland, and Inger-Lise Steffensen Copyright © 2015 Ha Thi Ngo et al. All rights reserved. Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review Thu, 19 Mar 2015 11:51:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/546925/ Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children’s physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents’ role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children’s PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents’ encouragement and support can increase children’s PA, and reducing parents’ own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children. Huilan Xu, Li Ming Wen, and Chris Rissel Copyright © 2015 Huilan Xu et al. All rights reserved. Latino Family Childcare Providers’ Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Promotion of Healthy Behaviors among Preschool Children: A Qualitative Study Thu, 19 Mar 2015 11:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/409742/ Background. The continuing rise of obesity among Latinos is a public health concern with an immediate need for early prevention. Changes in family structures have increased demand and reliance for child care for young children. Latino children are the fastest-growing segment of the child population in the United States, and research shows that Latino families use preschools and day care centers much less than those of other ethnic groups, apparently because of cultural preferences for family-like care. Objectives. Given that many low income Latino children attend family child care homes (FCCHs), there is a need to explore the role that FCCH providers may play in establishing and reinforcing children’s early healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and consequently in the prevention of childhood obesity. Design. Using purposive sampling, six focus groups were conducted in Spanish with licensed Latino FCCH providers . Data was analyzed to identify recurrent themes. Results. Latino FCCH providers described how they play an influential role in promoting healthful eating and physical activity behaviors of preschool children in their care. They also identified many barriers and challenges in establishing and maintaining healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors, including high cost of healthy foods, cold weather, and physical environment of FCCH. Conclusions. Latino FCCH providers can have a strong impact in promoting healthful behaviors in low-income, Latino communities. They may be able to effectively deliver interventions targeting low-income, minority families to promote healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and prevent child obesity. Ana C. Lindsay, Judith A. Salkeld, Mary L. Greaney, and Faith D. Sands Copyright © 2015 Ana C. Lindsay et al. All rights reserved. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:59:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/846376/ Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (, , and , resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. Camile Boscaini and Lucia Campos Pellanda Copyright © 2015 Camile Boscaini and Lucia Campos Pellanda. All rights reserved. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:58:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/570541/ Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI), subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity), and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity) in their children (). Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth. Kelsey N. Dancause, David P. Laplante, Kimberly J. Hart, Michael W. O’Hara, Guillaume Elgbeili, Alain Brunet, and Suzanne King Copyright © 2015 Kelsey N. Dancause et al. All rights reserved. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children Thu, 19 Mar 2015 09:45:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/534651/ The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children’s body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children’s lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children’s body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children’s body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. Tamara Wirt, Anja Schreiber, Dorothea Kesztyüs, and Jürgen M. Steinacker Copyright © 2015 Tamara Wirt et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Incarceration on Obesity: Are Prisoners with Chronic Diseases Becoming Overweight and Obese during Their Confinement? Wed, 18 Mar 2015 12:53:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/532468/ Introduction. The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration’s impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Methods. Objective data for weight, height, and chronic diseases, along with demographics, were extracted from an electronic health record. These data were analyzed statistically to determine changes over time and between groups. Results. As a total population, prisoners not only gained weight, but also reflected the distribution of BMIs for the state. There were differences within the population. Male prisoners gained significantly less weight than females. The population with chronic diseases gained less weight than the population without comorbid conditions. Prisoners with diabetes lost weight while hypertension’s impact was negligible. Conclusion. This study found that weight gain was a problem specifically to females. However, this prison system appears to be providing effective chronic disease management, particularly for prisoners with diabetes and hypertension. Additional research is needed to understand the impact incarceration has on the female population. Madison L. Gates and Robert K. Bradford Copyright © 2015 Madison L. Gates and Robert K. Bradford. All rights reserved.