Journal of Obesity The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year? Mon, 23 May 2016 11:08:28 +0000 To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; , however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher () after the ad libitum lunch despite a 24% higher energy intake ( < 0.05). By 12 months, lactating women lost 5.3 ± 2.2 kg (), whereas control women () remained weight stable (); fifteen of the lactating women returned to within ±2.0 kg of prepregnancy weight but three retained >6.0 kg. The retainers had greater () postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration. D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Jessica Schueler, Erin Kyle, Kathleen J. Austin, Ann Marie Hart, and Brenda M. Alexander Copyright © 2016 D. Enette Larson-Meyer et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Long-Term Physical Activity Interventions for Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women on Adiposity Indicators, Physical Capacity, and Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review Mon, 16 May 2016 10:38:03 +0000 Physical activity interventions have recently become a popular strategy to help postmenopausal women prevent and manage obesity. The current systematic review evaluates the efficacy of physical activity interventions among overweight and obese postmenopausal women and sheds light on the behavioral change techniques that were employed in order to direct future research. Method. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all prospective RCT studies that examine the impact of physical activity on adiposity indicators, physical capacity, and/or mental health outcomes among healthy, sedentary overweight, and obese postmenopausal women in North America. The behavior change technique taxonomy was used to identify the various strategies applied in the programs. Results. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The findings showed that adiposity indicators and physical capacity outcomes significantly improved following long-term interventions; however, mental health outcomes showed nonsignificant changes. Furthermore, 17 behavior change techniques were identified with the taxonomy across all trials. The intrapersonal-level techniques were the most common. Conclusion. Physical activity interventions had a positive effect on adiposity measures and physical capacity. Future research should focus on testing the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on mental health and incorporate strategies at the individual and environmental level to maximize the health impact on the population. Amanda Baker, Héloïse Sirois-Leclerc, and Heather Tulloch Copyright © 2016 Amanda Baker et al. All rights reserved. Obesity May Be Protective against Severe Perineal Lacerations Thu, 05 May 2016 06:30:02 +0000 Objective. To determine if there is an association between BMI and 3rd- or 4th-degree perineal lacerations in normal spontaneous and operative vaginal deliveries. Study Design. We performed a retrospective case control study using a large obstetric quality improvement database over a six-year period. Cases were identified as singleton gestations with third- and fourth-degree lacerations. Controls were obtained randomly from the database of patients without third- or fourth-degree lacerations in a 1 : 1 ratio. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Of 32,607 deliveries, 22,011 (67.5%) charts with BMI documented were identified. Third- or fourth-degree lacerations occurred in 2.74% () of patients. 37% () were identified in operative vaginal deliveries. In the univariate analysis, obesity, older maternal age, non-Asian race, and birth weight <4000 g were all protective against 3rd- and 4th-degree lacerations. After controlling for age, race, mode of vaginal delivery, and birth weight, obesity remained significant. Conclusion. Being obese may protect against third- and fourth-degree lacerations independent of parity, race, birth weight, and mode of delivery. Diana Garretto, Brian B. Lin, Helen L. Syn, Nancy Judge, Karen Beckerman, Fouad Atallah, Arnold Friedman, Michael Brodman, and Peter S. Bernstein Copyright © 2016 Diana Garretto et al. All rights reserved. Racial Differences in Serum Adipokine and Insulin Levels in a Matched Osteoarthritis Sample: A Pilot Study Tue, 03 May 2016 07:16:36 +0000 Background. In an attempt to correlate biomarkers with disease, serum-based biomarkers often are compared between individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) and control subjects. However, variable results have been reported. Some studies have suggested an association between certain adipokines and insulin and OA. We know that there are racial differences in OA prevalence and incidence, and from general population-based studies, those of Asian race consistently demonstrate a unique adipokine/insulin serum concentration profile as compared to Caucasians. Whether similar racial differences exist within OA samples is unknown and may have implications for selecting appropriate controls in comparative studies. Methods. Serum levels of adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin, along with insulin, were determined by ELISA in patients scheduled for total hip or knee replacement surgery for OA. Fifteen Asian patients were matched 1 : 1 on age (±2 years), gender, body mass index (±1.5 kg/m2), and surgical joint with Caucasian patients. Differences in serum concentrations were tested using paired -tests. Results. Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly higher in Asians compared to Caucasians (). While serum adiponectin levels were lower among Asians, the difference did not reach statistical significance (). Conclusion. Findings from this work suggest that when studying serum biomarker concentrations in OA versus controls, race may be an important factor to consider. Our findings warrant confirmation in larger studies. Rajiv Gandhi, Anirudh Sharma, Mohit Kapoor, Kala Sundararajan, and Anthony V. Perruccio Copyright © 2016 Rajiv Gandhi et al. All rights reserved. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Thu, 28 Apr 2016 15:03:35 +0000 Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program. Buratta Livia, Reginato Elisa, Ranucci Claudia, Pippi Roberto, Aiello Cristina, Sbroma Tomaro Emilia, Perrone Chiara, Tirimagni Alberto, Russo Angelo, De Feo Pierpaolo, and Mazzeschi Claudia Copyright © 2016 Buratta Livia et al. All rights reserved. The Association of Physical Activity during Weekdays and Weekend with Body Composition in Young Adults Wed, 20 Apr 2016 12:50:17 +0000 Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. Clemens Drenowatz, Nicole Gribben, Michael D. Wirth, Gregory A. Hand, Robin P. Shook, Stephanie Burgess, and Steven N. Blair Copyright © 2016 Clemens Drenowatz et al. All rights reserved. Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents Wed, 16 Mar 2016 09:11:31 +0000 Objective. Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods. Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results. Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion. Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents. Mor-Li Hartman, J. Max Goodson, Ping Shi, Jorel Vargas, Tina Yaskell, Danielle Stephens, Maryann Cugini, Hatice Hasturk, Roula Barake, Osama Alsmadi, Sabiha Al-Mutawa, Jitendra Ariga, Pramod Soparkar, Jawad Behbehani, Kazem Behbehani, and Francine Welty Copyright © 2016 Mor-Li Hartman et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation” Wed, 02 Mar 2016 09:40:21 +0000 Ha Thi Ngo, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Unni Cecilie Nygaard, and Inger-Lise Steffensen Copyright © 2016 Ha Thi Ngo et al. All rights reserved. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery Wed, 24 Feb 2016 08:08:54 +0000 Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes. Olivier F. Noel, Christopher D. Still, George Argyropoulos, Michael Edwards, and Glenn S. Gerhard Copyright © 2016 Olivier F. Noel et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Severe Obesity and Weight Loss on Systolic Left Ventricular Function and Morphology: Assessment by 2-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography Tue, 23 Feb 2016 14:01:34 +0000 Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Little is known about the impact of dietary changes on the cardiac sequelae in obese patients. Twenty-one obese subjects underwent a 12-week low calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Transthoracic two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed to obtain systolic left ventricular strain before and after weight loss. Body mass index decreased significantly from to  kg/m2, and the total percentage fat loss was 19%. Weight reduction was associated with a reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Left ventricular longitudinal global peak systolic strain was in the lower normal range (−%) before weight loss and was unchanged (−%) after 12 weeks on diet with substantial weight loss. Also, no significant change in global radial strain after weight loss was noted ( versus , ). Left atrial and ventricular dimensions were in normal range before fasting and remained unchanged after weight loss. In our study obesity was associated with normal systolic left ventricular function. A 12-week low calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure and heart rate. Systolic left ventricular function and morphology were not affected by rapid weight reduction. Sevda Karimian, Jürgen Stein, Boris Bauer, and Claudius Teupe Copyright © 2016 Sevda Karimian et al. All rights reserved. Weight Fluctuation and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study Wed, 03 Feb 2016 09:28:52 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC) among women who gained weight in adult years. Methods. NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study (NHEFS) database was used in the study. Women that were cancers-free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers-free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index (BMI) at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index (BMI) regressed on age (started at 25 years) while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Results. A total of 158 women were included into the study. The conditional logistic regression adjusted for weight gain demonstrated positive association between weight fluctuation in adult years and postmenopausal breast cancers (odds ratio/OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval/CI: 1.06–2.66). Conclusions. The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation. Marina Komaroff Copyright © 2016 Marina Komaroff. All rights reserved. Implementation of an Internet Weight Loss Program in a Worksite Setting Thu, 28 Jan 2016 09:14:54 +0000 Background. Worksite wellness programs typically produce modest weight losses. We examined whether an efficacious Internet behavioral weight loss program could be successfully implemented in a worksite setting. Methods. Participants were 75 overweight or obese employees/dependents of a large healthcare system who were given access to a 12-week Internet-based, multicomponent behavioral weight loss program. Assessments occurred at baseline, Month 3 (end of intervention), and Month 6 (follow-up). Results. Retention was excellent (93% at Month 3 and 89% at Month 6). Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated that participants lost an average (±SE) of  kg from baseline to Month 3 and regained  kg from Month 3 to Month 6; overall, weight loss from baseline to Month 6 was  kg, . Men lost more weight than women, , and individuals who had a college degree or higher lost more weight than those with less education, . Adherence to viewing lessons (8 of 12) and self-monitoring (83% of days) was excellent and significantly associated with weight loss, . Conclusions. An Internet-based behavioral weight management intervention can be successfully implemented in a worksite setting and can lead to clinically significant weight losses. Given the low costs of offering this program, it could easily be widely disseminated. Kathryn M. Ross and Rena R. Wing Copyright © 2016 Kathryn M. Ross and Rena R. Wing. All rights reserved. The Obesity Paradox and Heart Failure: A Systematic Review of a Decade of Evidence Wed, 20 Jan 2016 11:08:46 +0000 There is scientific consensus that obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. However, among persons who already have heart failure, outcomes seem to be better in obese persons as compared with lean persons: this has been termed the obesity paradox, the mechanisms of which remain unclear. This study systematically reviewed the evidence of the relationship between heart failure mortality (and survival) and weight status. Search of the PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was done according to the PRISMA protocol. The initial search identified 9879 potentially relevant papers, out of which ten studies met the inclusion criteria. One study was a randomized clinical trial and 9 were observational cohort studies: 6 prospective and 3 retrospective studies. All studies used the BMI, WC, or TSF as measure of body fatness and NYHA Classification of Heart Failure and had single outcomes, death, as study endpoint. All studies included in review were longitudinal studies. All ten studies reported improved outcomes for obese heart failure patients as compared with their normal weight counterparts; worse prognosis was demonstrated for extreme obesity ( kg/m2). The findings of this review will be of significance in informing the practice of asking obese persons with heart failure to lose weight. However, any such recommendation on weight loss must be consequent upon more conclusive evidence on the mechanisms of the obesity paradox in heart failure and exclusion of collider bias. Emmanuel Aja Oga and Olabimpe Ruth Eseyin Copyright © 2016 Emmanuel Aja Oga and Olabimpe Ruth Eseyin. All rights reserved. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Mon, 18 Jan 2016 09:10:50 +0000 Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS. Ruth M. Fred-Jiménez, Mariangelí Arroyo-Ávila, Ángel M. Mayor, Grissel Ríos, and Luis M. Vilá Copyright © 2016 Ruth M. Fred-Jiménez et al. All rights reserved. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity Thu, 14 Jan 2016 09:08:39 +0000 Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. Margaret C. Ford, Nancy P. Gordon, Amanda Howell, Cheryl E. Green, Louise C. Greenspan, Malini Chandra, R. Grant Mellor, and Joan C. Lo Copyright © 2016 Margaret C. Ford et al. All rights reserved. A Copy Number Variant on Chromosome 20q13.3 Implicated in Thinness and Severe Obesity Thu, 31 Dec 2015 06:49:11 +0000 Background/Objectives. To identify copy number variants (CNVs) which are associated with body mass index (BMI). Subjects/Methods. CNVs were identified using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on members of pedigrees ascertained through severely obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) sib pairs (86 pedigrees) and thin (BMI ≤ 23 kg/m2) probands (3 pedigrees). Association was inferred through pleiotropy of BMI with CNV intensity ratio. Results. A 77-kilobase CNV on chromosome 20q13.3, confirmed by real-time qPCR, exhibited deletions in the obese subjects and duplications in the thin subjects (). Further support for the presence of a deletion derived from inference by likelihood analysis of null alleles for SNPs residing in the region. Conclusions. One or more of 7 genes residing in a chromosome 20q13.3 CNV region appears to influence BMI. The strongest candidate is ARFRP1, which affects glucose metabolism in mice. Sandra J. Hasstedt, Yuanpei Xin, Rong Mao, Tracey Lewis, Ted D. Adams, and Steven C. Hunt Copyright © 2015 Sandra J. Hasstedt et al. All rights reserved. Determinants of Weight Loss following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: The Role of Psychological Burden, Coping Style, and Motivation to Undergo Surgery Sun, 15 Nov 2015 07:28:40 +0000 Background. The amount of excess weight loss (%EWL) among obese patients after bariatric surgery varies greatly. However, reliable predictors have not been established yet. The present study evaluated the preoperative psychological burden, coping style, and motivation to lose weight as factors determining postoperative treatment success. Methods. The sample included 64 morbidly obese patients with a preoperative BMI of  kg/m2 who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Well-established questionnaires were applied before surgery to assess the psychological burden in terms of “perceived stress” (PSQ-20), “depression” (PHQ-9), “anxiety” (GAD-7), and “mental impairment” (ISR) as well as coping style (Brief COPE) and motivation to lose weight. %EWL as an indicator for treatment success was assessed on average 20 months after surgery. Results. Based on the %EWL distribution, patients were classified into three %EWL groups: low (14–39%), moderate (40–59%), and high (60–115%). LSG patients with high %EWL reported significantly more “active coping” behavior prior to surgery than patients with moderate and low %EWL. Patients’ preoperative psychological burden and motivation to lose weight were not associated with %EWL. Conclusion. An “active coping” style might be of predictive value for better weight loss outcomes in patients following LSG intervention. Andrea Figura, Anne Ahnis, Andreas Stengel, Tobias Hofmann, Ulf Elbelt, Jürgen Ordemann, and Matthias Rose Copyright © 2015 Andrea Figura et al. All rights reserved. Perceived and Ideal Body Image in Young Women in South Western Saudi Arabia Wed, 11 Nov 2015 07:09:01 +0000 Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived and ideal body image (BI) and associated factors among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 663 university female students. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, BMI, and BI perception (the 9-figure silhouette) were obtained. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results. An agreement between actual, perceived, and ideal BI was found in 23% of the participants. Behavioral (activity levels), social (presence of obese parents and fathers’ level of education), and economic factors (households’ monthly income, number of cars in the household, and kind of residence) were positively and significantly associated with the desire to be thinner. Similarly, socioeconomic associations (number of sisters and number of cars in the household) correlated positively and significantly with the desire to be heavier. Conclusions. The whole family should rather be considered in interventions related to appearance concerns and BI discrepancies. Furthermore, campaigns targeting improvement of adolescents’ physical self-image should be a major priority of the public health sector. Atika Khalaf, Albert Westergren, Vanja Berggren, Örjan Ekblom, and Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa Copyright © 2015 Atika Khalaf et al. All rights reserved. Gastrojejunal Anastomosis Complications and Their Management after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Sun, 18 Oct 2015 16:51:39 +0000 Background. Complications at the gastrojejunal anastomosis after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are challenging in terms of diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. This study aims at identifying these complications and discussing their management. Methods. Data of 228 patients who underwent a LRYGB between October 2008 and December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the frequency and treatment of complications such as stenoses, marginal ulcers, perforated marginal ulcers, or anastomotic leaks related to the operation. Results. Follow-up information was available for 209 patients (91.7%) with a median follow-up of 38 months (range 24–62 months). Of these patients 16 patients (7.7%) experienced complications at the gastrojejunostomy. Four patients (1.9%) had stenoses and 12 patients (5.7%) marginal ulcers, one of them with perforation (0.5%). No anastomotic leaks were reported. One case with perforated ulcer and one with recurrent ulcers required surgical revision. Conclusion. Gastrojejunal anastomotic complications are frequent and occur within the first few days or up to several years after surgery. Stenoses or marginal ulcers are usually successfully treated nonoperatively. Laparoscopic repair, meanwhile, is an appropriate therapeutic option for perforated ulcers. Yannick Fringeli, Marc Worreth, and Igor Langer Copyright © 2015 Yannick Fringeli et al. All rights reserved. Robotically Assisted Single Anastomosis Duodenoileal Bypass after Previous Sleeve Gastrectomy Implementing High Valuable Technology for Complex Procedures Wed, 30 Sep 2015 16:35:05 +0000 Staged bariatric procedures in high risk patients are a common used strategy for morbid obese patients nowadays. After previous sleeve gastrectomy, surgical treatments in order to complete weight loss or comorbidities improvements or resolutions are possible. One strategy is to perform a novel technique named SADI (single anastomosis duodenoileal bypass-sleeve). We present the technique for totally intracorporeal robotically assisted SADI using five ports and a liver retractor. We aim to see if the robotic technology offers more advantageous anastomosis and dissection obtained by the robotic approach in comparison to standard laparoscopy. The safety, feasibility, and reproducibility of a minimally invasive robotic surgical approach to complex abdominal operations such as SADI are discussed. Ramon Vilallonga, José Manuel Fort, Enric Caubet, Oscar Gonzalez, José Maria Balibrea, Andrea Ciudin, and Manel Armengol Copyright © 2015 Ramon Vilallonga et al. All rights reserved. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet Wed, 09 Sep 2015 14:18:59 +0000 We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., , , and ). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men () but not in women (; for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. Alexandra Bédard, Anne-Marie Hudon, Vicky Drapeau, Louise Corneau, Sylvie Dodin, and Simone Lemieux Copyright © 2015 Alexandra Bédard et al. All rights reserved. Weight Maintenance with Litramine (IQP-G-002AS): A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study Mon, 07 Sep 2015 11:40:03 +0000 Background. Litramine (IQP-G-002AS) was shown to be effective and safe for weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. However, long-term effectiveness on maintenance of body weight loss has yet to be ascertained. Objective. To assess effect of Litramine on maintenance of body weight loss. Methods. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial on overweight and obese patients was conducted over two sites in Germany for 24 weeks. Subjects with documented previous weight loss of 3% over the last 3–6 months were randomised to groups given either Litramine (3 g/day) or a matching placebo. Primary endpoints were difference of mean body weight (kg) between baseline and end of study and maintenance of initially lost body weight in verum group, where maintenance is defined as ≤1% weight gain. Results. Subjects who were taking Litramine lost significantly more body weight compared to the subjects taking placebo who gained weight instead ( kg versus  kg, ). More importantly, 92% of subjects in Litramine group were able to maintain their body weight after initial weight loss, versus 25% in placebo group. No serious adverse events were reported throughout. Conclusion. Litramine is effective and safe for long-term body weight maintenance. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with identifier: NCT01505387. Barbara Grube, Pee-Win Chong, Felix Alt, and Ralf Uebelhack Copyright © 2015 Barbara Grube et al. All rights reserved. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:04:01 +0000 Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i) waist circumference (WC) and (ii) waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14;   −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05) and WtHR (  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01;   −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49). Associations among boys were contingent upon age (  ) and robust to adjustment for socioeconomic variables. The benefits of greener neighbourhoods appeared from age 7, with mean WC and WtHR for boys aged 13 y with >40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys. Taren Sanders, Xiaoqi Feng, Paul P. Fahey, Chris Lonsdale, and Thomas Astell-Burt Copyright © 2015 Taren Sanders et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Urinary Concentrations of Organophosphate Metabolites on the Relationship between BMI and Cardiometabolic Health Risk Thu, 20 Aug 2015 11:53:48 +0000 The objective was to determine whether detectable levels of OP metabolites influence the relationship between BMI and cardiometabolic health. This cross-sectional study was conducted using 2227 adults from the 1999–2008 NHANES datasets. Urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate metabolites were dichotomized to above and below the detection limit. Weighted multiple regression analysis was performed adjusting for confounding variables. Independent of BMI, individuals with detectable metabolites had higher diastolic blood pressure (for dimethylphosphate, diethylphosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate; ), lower HDL (for diethyldithiophosphate; ), and higher triglyceride (for dimethyldithiophosphate; ) than those below detection. Contrarily, those with detectable dimethylthiophosphate had better LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, independent of BMI. Individuals at a higher BMI range who had detectable diethylphosphate (interaction: ) and diethylthiophosphate (interaction: ) exhibited lower HDL, while little difference existed between OP metabolite detection statuses at lower BMIs. Similarly, individuals with high BMIs and detectable diethylphosphate had higher triglyceride than those without detectable levels, while minimal differences between diethylphosphate detection statuses were observed at lower BMIs (interaction: ). Thus, cardiometabolic health outcome differs depending on the specific OP metabolite being examined, with higher BMIs amplifying health risk. Mahsa Ranjbar, Michael A. Rotondi, Chris I. Ardern, and Jennifer L. Kuk Copyright © 2015 Mahsa Ranjbar et al. All rights reserved. Genetic and Diet-Induced Obesity Increased Intestinal Tumorigenesis in the Double Mutant Mouse Model Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia X Obese via Disturbed Glucose Regulation and Inflammation Mon, 10 Aug 2015 12:42:54 +0000 We have studied how spontaneous or carcinogen-induced intestinal tumorigenesis was affected by genetic or diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J- X C57BL/6J- mice. Obesity was induced by the obese (ob) mutation in the lep gene coding for the hormone leptin, or by a 45% fat diet. The effects of obesity were examined on spontaneous intestinal tumors caused by the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and on tumors induced by the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). F1 ob/ob (homozygous mutated) mice had increased body weight (bw) and number of spontaneous and PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors (in mice), versus ob/wt (heterozygous mutated) and wt/wt mice (homozygous wild-type). A 45% fat diet exacerbated bw and spontaneous tumor numbers versus 10% fat, but not PhIP-induced tumors. Except for bw, ob/wt and wt/wt were not significantly different. The obesity caused hyperglucosemia and insulinemia in ob/ob mice. A 45% fat diet further increased glucose, but not insulin. Inflammation was seen as increased TNFα levels in ob/ob mice. Thus the results implicate disturbed glucose regulation and inflammation as mechanisms involved in the association between obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis. Ob/ob mice had shorter lifespan than ob/wt and wt/wt mice. Ha Thi Ngo, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Unni Cecilie Nygaard, and Inger-Lise Steffensen Copyright © 2015 Ha Thi Ngo et al. All rights reserved. Response to: Comment on “Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes” Sun, 09 Aug 2015 08:42:54 +0000 Susanne Kobel, Tamara Wirt, Anja Schreiber, Dorothea Kesztyüs, Sarah Kettner, Nanette Erkelenz, Olivia Wartha, and Jürgen M. Steinacker Copyright © 2015 Susanne Kobel et al. All rights reserved. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial Sun, 12 Jul 2015 11:26:24 +0000 Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc) is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI) of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88%) vBloc and 64 (83%) Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL) for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL) for Sham (). vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL). Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL) by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications. Scott A. Shikora, Bruce M. Wolfe, Caroline M. Apovian, Mehran Anvari, David B. Sarwer, Robert D. Gibbons, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Christopher J. Miller, Mark B. Knudson, Katherine S. Tweden, Michael G. Sarr, and Charles J. Billington Copyright © 2015 Scott A. Shikora et al. All rights reserved. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study Tue, 23 Jun 2015 11:18:10 +0000 Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2) completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT), physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL) were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL) outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, ), increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, ), increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (), reduced consumption of ready meals (), and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (). The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (). Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted. Friedrich C. Jassil, Sean Manning, Neville Lewis, Siri Steinmo, Helen Kingett, Fiona Lough, Andrea B. F. Pucci, W. H. Cheung, Nicholas Finer, Judith Walker, Jaqueline Doyle, and Rachel L. Batterham Copyright © 2015 Friedrich C. Jassil et al. All rights reserved. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children Tue, 23 Jun 2015 10:13:21 +0000 Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges’ g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges’ ) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child’s intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, ) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, ). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child’s eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. Ihuoma U. Eneli, Tracy L. Tylka, Rosanna P. Watowicz, Jessica Hummel, Jan Ritter, and Julie C. Lumeng Copyright © 2015 Ihuoma U. Eneli et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea) Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats Thu, 11 Jun 2015 12:34:55 +0000 This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1), medium dose (200 mg kg−1), or high dose (300 mg kg−1) or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (). Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS) (). Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (). This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs. Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir, Asmah Rahmat, and Hawa Z. E. Jaafar Copyright © 2015 Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir et al. All rights reserved.