Journal of Oral Implants The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Composition and Modifications of Dental Implant Surfaces Mon, 12 Jan 2015 05:59:20 +0000 Since Brånemark discovered the favorable effects of titanium in bone healing in 1965, titanium has emerged as the gold standard bulk material for present-time dental implantology. In the course of years researchers aimed for improvement of the implants performance in bone even at compromised implant sites and multiple factors were investigated influencing osseointegration. This review summarizes and clarifies the four factors that are currently recognized being relevant to influence the tissue-implant contact ratio: bulk materials and coatings, topography, surface energy, and biofunctionalization. The macrodesigns of bulk materials (e.g., titanium, zirconium, stainless steel, tantalum, and magnesium) provide the mechanical stability and their influence on bone cells can be additionally improved by surface treatment with various materials (calcium phosphates, strontium, bioglasses, diamond-like carbon, and diamond). Surface topography can be modified via different techniques to increase the bone-implant contact, for example, plasma-spraying, grit-blasting, acid-etching, and microarc oxidation. Surface energy (e.g., wettability and polarity) showed a strong effect on cell behavior and cell adhesion. Functionalization with bioactive molecules (via physisorption, covalent binding, or carrier systems) targets enhanced osseointegration. Despite the satisfying clinical results of presently used dental implant materials, further research on innovative implant surfaces is inevitable to pursuit perfection in soft and hard tissue performance. Michela Bruschi, Doris Steinmüller-Nethl, Walter Goriwoda, and Michael Rasse Copyright © 2015 Michela Bruschi et al. All rights reserved. Inferior Level of Maxillary Sinus and Cortical Bone Thickness at Maxillary Posterior Quadrant, in Three Different Growth Patterns: 3D-Computed Tomographic Study Mon, 15 Dec 2014 07:01:35 +0000 Objective of this retrospective study was to measure cortical bone thickness and lowest level of maxillary sinus at maxillary posterior quadrant in different growth pattern (hypodivergent, average, and hyperdivergent) at prospective microimplant placement sites in order to understand both safety and stability aspects of microimplant placement by using cone-beam 3-dimensional computed tomographic images. In posterior quadrant, vertical distance from cementoenamel junction to lowest level of maxillary sinus at interradicular region was measured. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 3 different vertical levels at interradicular space. The cortical bone thickness was found more at sinus floor level and above it than below the sinus floor. In perspective of miniscrew placement, study shows that maxillary sinus floor is safer with average and hyperdivergent growth pattern than hypodivergent growth pattern. In the proximity of maxillary sinus floor, 1 mm or more cortical bone can be expected in maxillary posterior region in average and hyperdivergent growth patterns. However, it was thicker in hypodivergent than hyperdivergent growth patterns. Hypodivergent patients require either more horizontal insertion (more parallel to occlusal plane) or shorter length of miniscrew to avoid damage to maxillary sinus. Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute and Pushkar A. Patil Copyright © 2014 Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute and Pushkar A. Patil. All rights reserved. Meta-Analysis of Oral Implant Fracture Incidence and Related Determinants Thu, 02 Jan 2014 11:11:02 +0000 Dental implant fracture is a rare biomechanical complication, however, one of the most serious and frustating ones as it is generally associated with implant and prosthesis failure as well as the surgical hazards of explantation and reimplantation. To gain insights into implant fracture rates and the impact of patient-, surgery-, and prosthetic-related factors, systematic review and meta-analysis of the English literature were performed. Electronic and hand searches yielded 69 relevant publications reporting on 827 fractures out of 44521 implants investigated. The overall incidence of implant fractures was 1.6%. Mean patient age at the time of implant fracture was 54 ± 11 years, and 70% occurred in males. The vast majority (85%) occurred in posterior regions of the mouth (premolar or molar positions). No tendency of increased fracture rates could be noted for short implant lengths or narrow implant diameters. Implant fractures occurred after 4.1 ± 3.5 years of loading, on average, in most cases (88%) supporting fixed restorations; however, only 56% were preceded by screw loosening. Although further investigations are needed to fully explore the characteristics and causes of this rare complication, it can be concluded that no more than 2.8% of implants fracture is within a mean loading period of 8.3 years. Bernhard Pommer, Lavinia Bucur, Konstantin Zauza, Gabor Tepper, Markus Hof, and Georg Watzek Copyright © 2014 Bernhard Pommer et al. All rights reserved.