Table 1: Basic characteristics of Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes from Starr County, Texas.

VariablesNo DR + NPDR-E#NPDR-S + PDR#P-value§OR(95%CI)
(controls n=183)(cases n=103)

AgeMean±SD57.06±11.5458.67±9.27.19881.01(0.99–1.04)
GenderMale66 (36.07%)43 (41.75%).34221.00
Female117 (63.93%)60 (58.25%)0.79(0.48–1.29)
AlbuminNegative132 (74.58%)57 (60.64%).08021.00
20 mg/L22 (12.43%)14 (14.89%)1.47(0.70–3.08)
50 mg/L17 (9.60%)17 (18.09%)2.32(1.10–4.86)*
100 mg/L6 (3.39%)6 (6.38%)2.32(0.72–7.49)
Hypertension historyNo96 (54.24%)59 (59.60%).38951.00
Yes81 (45.76%)40 (40.40%)0.80(0.49–1.32)
Diabetes duration (yrs)mean±SD12.02±9.0918.10±8.22<.00011.08(1.05–1.11)***
HbA1C (%)mean±SD10.87±3.7212.29±3.90.00281.10(1.03–1.18)***
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)mean±SD185.54±68.71201.63±84.49.08831.03(0.99–1.06)
BMI (kg/m2)mean±SD31.82±6.4930.85±5.93.21750.98(0.94–1.02)
Systolic BP (mmHg)mean±SD126.79±17.86134.73±23.26.00371.21(1.07–1.38)***
   (every 10 unit)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)mean±SD72.69±10.0373.32±10.78.62901.06(0.84–1.35)
   (every 10 unit)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)mean±SD191.21±41.81199.06±42.13.13811.05(0.99–1.11)
   (every 10 unit)
Triglycerides (mg/dL)mean±SD184.79±120.92210.02±123.59.10311.02(0.99–1.04)
   (every 10 unit)
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)mean±SD42.86±11.7340.62±10.32.11530.83(0.66–1.05)
   (every 10 unit)
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)mean±SD111.49±30.71118.94±34.84.07901.08(0.99–1.16)

#No DR: normal or nondiabetic retinopathy; NPDR-E: early nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy
#NPDR-S: moderate-to-severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy; PDR: proliferative diabetic retinopathy
§P-value of χ2 test or Student t-test
*P-value<.05, **P-value<.01, ***P-value<.005.