Journal of Ophthalmology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Steroids in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Is There a Role in Current Treatment Practice? Thu, 08 Oct 2015 07:18:18 +0000 With the current widespread use of anti-VEGFs in the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), the role for steroids has become greatly diminished. Recent large scale randomized control trials (RCTs) have established the efficacy and safety of anti-VEGFs in the treatment of CRVO. Steroids are known to cause elevations in intraocular pressure as well as increase the risk of cataract formation. With that in mind many ophthalmologists are injecting steroids less frequently. This paper aims to review some of the data pertaining to the use of steroids either as a first line monotherapy, adjunct therapy, or an alternative therapy to help answer the question: Is there currently any role for steroids in the management of CRVO? Mohammed Ashraf and Ahmed A. R. Souka Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Ashraf and Ahmed A. R. Souka. All rights reserved. Clinical Validation of Adjusted Corneal Power in Patients with Previous Myopic Lasik Surgery Wed, 07 Oct 2015 11:43:10 +0000 Purpose. To validate clinically a new method for estimating the corneal power () using a variable keratometric index () in eyes with previous laser refractive surgery. Setting. University of Alicante and Medimar International Hospital (Oftalmar), Alicante, (Spain). Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. This retrospective study comprised 62 eyes of 62 patients that had undergone myopic LASIK surgery. An algorithm for the calculation of was used for the estimation of the adjusted keratometric corneal power (). This value was compared with the classical keratometric corneal power (), the True Net Power (TNP), and the Gaussian corneal power (). Likewise, was compared with other previously described methods. Results. Differences between and values obtained with all methods evaluated were statistically significant (). Differences between and were in the limit of clinical significance (, loA [−0.33,0.60] D). Differences between and TNP were not statistically and clinically significant (, loA [−0.50,0.44] D). Differences between and previously described methods were statistically significant (), except with (, loA [−0.37,0.29] D). Conclusion. The use of the adjusted keratometric index () is a valid method to estimate the central corneal power in corneas with previous myopic laser refractive surgery, providing results comparable to . Vicente J. Camps, David P. Piñero, Veronica Mateo, Celia García, Alberto Artola, Rafael Pérez-Cambrodi, and Pedro Ruiz-Fortes Copyright © 2015 Vicente J. Camps et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma” Wed, 07 Oct 2015 09:08:06 +0000 Nobuko Enomoto, Ayako Anraku, Kyoko Ishida, Asuka Takeyama, Fumihiko Yagi, and Goji Tomita Copyright © 2015 Nobuko Enomoto et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Retinal Function in Rabbits after Panretinal Selective Retina Therapy versus Conventional Panretinal Photocoagulation Wed, 07 Oct 2015 09:01:37 +0000 Purpose. This study evaluates functional changes in electroretinographic findings after selective retina therapy (SRT) compared to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in rabbits. Methods. The right eyes of 12 Chinchilla rabbits received 200 laser treatment spots. The right eyes of six rabbits received SRT (SRT group), whereas the other six animals were treated using PRP on the right eye (PRP group). The eyes were investigated using full-field ERG 1 hour and 3 weeks after treatment. Histologic exam to assess the tissue response of lasers was performed on 3 weeks. Results. No significant changes in the mean ROD or CR b-wave amplitudes of the SRT lesions were evident, compared to baseline, 1 h after laser treatment ( and 0.278, resp.). In addition, the OPs and 30 Hz flickers of the SRT lesions were not significantly altered ( and 0.243, resp.). At 3 weeks, similar results were found. Comparing the two groups, the ROD b-wave amplitude was reduced in the PRP and SRT groups to % and % of baseline (). Histologically, there was no visible photoreceptor alterations on week 3. Conclusions. SRT in rabbit eyes induced less functional loss than PRP in both rod-mediated retinal function and cone-mediated retinal function. In addition, SRT irradiated eyes had no functional loss compared to its control. Young Gun Park, Seungbum Kang, Ralf Brinkmann, and Young-Jung Roh Copyright © 2015 Young Gun Park et al. All rights reserved. Vision Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Glaucoma Patients Wed, 07 Oct 2015 07:41:32 +0000 This cross-sectional study evaluated VRQOL in Chinese glaucoma patients and the potential factors influencing VRQOL. The VRQOL was assessed using the Chinese-version low vision quality of life questionnaire. Visual field loss was classified by the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson method. The correlations of VRQOL to the best corrected visual acuity and the VF loss were investigated. The potential impact factors to VRQOL of glaucoma patients were screened by single factor analysis and were further analyzed by multiple regression analysis. There were significant differences in VRQOL scores between mild VF loss group and moderate VF loss group, moderate VF loss group and severe VF loss group, and mild VF loss group and severe VF loss group according to the better eye. In multiple linear regression, the binocular weighted average BCVA significantly affected the VRQOL scores. Binocular MD was the second influencing factor. In logistic regression, binocular severe VF loss and stroke were significantly associated with abnormal VRQOL. Education was the next influencing factor. This study showed that visual acuity correlated linearly with VRQOL, and VF loss might reach a certain level, correlating with abnormal VRQOL scores. Stroke was significantly associated with abnormal VRQOL. Lei Zuo, Haidong Zou, Jianhong Zhang, Xinfeng Fei, and Xun Xu Copyright © 2015 Lei Zuo et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of Effects of Different Mydriatics on Choroidal Thickness by Examining Anterior Chamber Parameters: The Scheimpflug Imaging and Enhanced Depth Imaging-OCT Study Mon, 05 Oct 2015 09:04:21 +0000 Aim. To assess the effects of mydriatics commonly used in clinical practice on choroidal thickness and anterior chamber change. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study including a single eye of the participants. The subjects were assigned into 4 groups to receive tropicamide 1%, phenylephrine 2.5%, cyclopentolate 1%, and artificial tears. At the baseline, anterior chamber parameters were assessed using a Pentacam Scheimpflug camera system, and choroidal thickness (CT) was measured using a spectral-domain OCT with Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) modality. All measurements were repeated again after drug administration. Results. Increases in pupil diameter, volume, and depth of anterior chamber were found to be significant (, , and , resp.), while decreases in the choroidal thickness were found to be significant in subjects receiving mydriatics (). Conclusions. The study has shown that while cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and phenylephrine cause a decrease in choroidal thickness, they also lead to an increase in the volume and depth of anterior chamber. However, no correlation was detected between anterior chamber parameters and choroidal changes after drug administration. These findings suggest that the mydriatics may affect the choroidal thickness regardless of anterior chamber parameters. This study was registered with trial registration number 2014/357. İsa Yuvacı, Emine Pangal, Sümeyra Yuvacı, Nurettin Bayram, Mustafa Ataş, Burhan Başkan, Süleyman Demircan, and Ali Akal Copyright © 2015 İsa Yuvacı et al. All rights reserved. Epigenetic Regulation of Werner Syndrome Gene in Age-Related Cataract Mon, 05 Oct 2015 09:02:30 +0000 Purpose. To examine the promoter methylation and histone modification of WRN (Werner syndrome gene), a DNA repair gene, and their relationship with the gene expression in age-related cataract (ARC) lens. Methods. We collected the lenses after cataract surgery from 117ARC patients and 39 age-matched non-ARC. WRN expression, DNA methylation and histone modification around the CpG island were assessed. The methylation status of Human-lens-epithelium cell (HLEB-3) was chemically altered to observe the relationship between methylation and expression of WRN. Results. The WRN expression was significantly decreased in the ARC anterior lens capsules comparing with the control. The CpG island of WRN promoter in the ARC anterior lens capsules displayed hypermethylation comparing with the controls. The WRN promoter was almost fully methylated in the cortex of ARC and control lens. Acetylated H3 was lower while methylated H3-K9 was higher in ARC anterior lens capsules than that of the controls. The expression of WRN in HLEB-3 increased after demethylation of the cells. Conclusions. A hypermethylation in WRN promoter and altered histone modification in anterior lens capsules might contribute to the ARC mechanism. The data suggest an association of altered DNA repair capability in lens with ARC pathogenesis. Xi Zhu, Guowei Zhang, Lihua Kang, and Huaijin Guan Copyright © 2015 Xi Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Glyceraldehyde Cross-Linking on a Rabbit Bullous Keratopathy Model Mon, 05 Oct 2015 08:26:34 +0000 Background. To evaluate the effects of corneal glyceraldehyde CXL on the rabbit bullous keratopathy models established by descemetorhexis. Methods. Fifteen rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group A () is the control group. The right eyes of animals in Groups B,C, D, and E (, resp.) were suffered with descemetorhexis procedures. From the 8th day to the 14th day postoperatively, the right eyes in Groups C and D were instilled with hyperosmolar drops and glyceraldehyde drops, respectively; the right eyes in Group E were instilled with both hyperosmolar drops and glyceraldehyde drops. Central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal transparency score, and histopathological analysis were applied on the eyes in each group. Results. Compared with Group A, statistically significant increase in CCT and corneal transparency score was found in Groups B, C, D, and E at 7 d postoperatively () and in Groups C, D, and E at 14 d postoperatively (). Conclusion. Chemical CXL technique using glyceraldehyde improved the CCT and corneal transparency of the rabbit bullous keratopathy models. Topical instillation with glyceraldehyde and hyperosmolar solutions seems to be a good choice for the bullous keratopathy treatment. Mengmeng Wang Copyright © 2015 Mengmeng Wang. All rights reserved. The Ocular Biometry of Adult Cataract Patients on Lifeline Express Hospital Eye-Train in Rural China Mon, 05 Oct 2015 08:24:33 +0000 Aims. To describe and explore the distribution of ocular biometric parameters of adult cataract patients in rural China. Methods. Three Lifeline Express Hospital Eye-Train missions of Peking University People’s Hospital in China were chosen. 3828 adult cataract patients aged 29 to 88 years with axial length (AL) less than 27.0 mm were enrolled. The ocular biometry including visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure, AL, corneal power (1 and 2), and corneal endothelial counting (CEC) were collected and analysis. Corneal radius (CR) was calculated from the corneal power. Results. The participants in Zhoukou of these three missions had the worse preoperative VA (), the lowest 1 (), 2 (), and () and the highest (), moreover AL/CR more closely to 3.0. The AL, , and AL/CR were normally distributed. But the 1, 2, , and CEC were not normal distributions. Except 1, all parameters were positively skewed and peaked. Conclusion. Our study provides normative ocular biometry in a large, representative rural Chinese population. The AL is normally distributed with a positive skew and big kurtosis. The corneal powers are not normal distribution. The corneal astigmatism might have a significant effect on the visual acuity. Xiaoguang Cao, Xianru Hou, and Yongzhen Bao Copyright © 2015 Xiaoguang Cao et al. All rights reserved. Continuous Curvilinear Capsulorhexis in Cataract Surgery Using a Modified 3-Bend Cystotome Mon, 05 Oct 2015 07:57:34 +0000 We modified a 2-bend cystotome for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) in manual or phacoemulsification cataract surgery to improve the safety and ease of performance. A 26G needle was converted into a cystotome with 3 bends. In this retrospective study, the performance of modified 3-bend cystotome was compared with conventional 2-bend cystotome. During cataract surgery, in the 3-bend cystotome group, mean completion time of CCC was shorter, mean times of viscoelastic agent supplement were less, and CCC success rate was higher than that in 2-bend group. Complication incidence, such as postoperative transient corneal edema and irreparable V-shaped tear, was also lower in 3-bend group. No posterior capsular rupture or no other complication was observed in either group. A polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lens or a hydrogel intraocular lens was implanted in the capsular bag in all eyes. We conclude that it is safe and efficient to accomplish a CCC using the 3-bend cystotome due to its ability to sustain the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and keep the posterior lip intact. Using the 3-bend cystotome also allowed for an adequate view into the anterior chamber from lack of wound deformation. Yuan Zeng and Jian-hua Gao Copyright © 2015 Yuan Zeng and Jian-hua Gao. All rights reserved. Wavefront-Guided Photorefractive Keratectomy with the Use of a New Hartmann-Shack Aberrometer in Patients with Myopia and Compound Myopic Astigmatism Sun, 04 Oct 2015 15:52:16 +0000 Purpose. To assess refractive and visual outcomes and patient satisfaction of wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in eyes with myopia and compound myopic astigmatism, with the ablation profile derived from a new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Methods. In this retrospective study, 662 eyes that underwent wavefront-guided PRK with a treatment profile derived from a new generation Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (iDesign aberrometer, Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) were analyzed. The preoperative manifest sphere ranged from −0.25 to −10.75 D, and preoperative manifest cylinder was between 0.00 and −5.25 D. Refractive and visual outcomes, vector analysis of the change in refractive cylinder, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results. At 3 months, 91.1% of eyes had manifest spherical equivalent within 0.50 D. The percentage of eyes achieving uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better was 89.4% monocularly and 96.5% binocularly. The mean correction ratio of refractive cylinder was 1.02 ± 0.43, and the mean error of angle was 0.00 ± 14.86° at 3 months postoperatively. Self-reported scores for optical side effects, such as starburst, glare, halo, ghosting, and double vision, were low. Conclusion. The use of a new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer for wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy resulted in high predictability, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. Steven C. Schallhorn, Jan A. Venter, Stephen J. Hannan, and Keith A. Hettinger Copyright © 2015 Steven C. Schallhorn et al. All rights reserved. Human Serum Eye Drops in Eye Alterations: An Insight and a Critical Analysis Sun, 04 Oct 2015 13:00:13 +0000 Human serum contains a physiological plethora of bioactive elements naturally released by activated platelets which might have a significant effect on the regeneration of corneal layers by stimulating the cell growth. This mechanism supported the use of human serum eye drops in some ocular diseases associated with dystrophic changes and alterations of the tear film, such as persistent corneal epithelial defects and dry eye syndrome. We focused our effort on potential benefits and limitations of the use of human serum eye drops when conventional therapies failed. We reviewed the recent literature by reporting published studies from 2010 to 2014. Despite the limited evaluated study populations, most of the clinical studies have confirmed that serum eye drop therapy is effective in corneal healing by reducing ocular symptom, particularly during the short-term follow-up. In addition, three recent published studies have shown the efficacy of the serum eye drop therapy in comparison to traditional ones in intractable patients. Besides, reported ongoing clinical studies confirmed the open debate regarding the use of biologic tools for cornea regeneration. Results from these studies might open novel challenges and perspectives in the therapy of such refractory patients. Maria Rosaria De Pascale, Michele Lanza, Linda Sommese, and Claudio Napoli Copyright © 2015 Maria Rosaria De Pascale et al. All rights reserved. Choroidal Thickness in Eyes with Unilateral Ocular Ischemic Syndrome Sun, 04 Oct 2015 12:37:29 +0000 Aim. To analyze the subfoveal choroid thickness and choroidal volume in unilateral ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS). Methods. A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with unilateral OIS from October 2010 through June 2014. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) and choroidal volume of both eyes were compared. Results. 19 unilateral OIS patients were included in this study. The mean SFChT of OIS eyes was significantly lower than that of fellow eyes (OIS eyes: 208.89 ± 82.62 μm and fellow eyes: 265.31 ± 82.77 μm, ). The choroidal volume of OIS eyes was significantly smaller than that of fellow eyes (OIS eyes: 0.16 ± 0.05 mm3 and fellow eyes: 0.21 ± 0.05 mm3, ). Conclusion. The choroidal thickness and volume of OIS eyes were smaller than those of unaffected fellow eyes. Decreased choroidal circulation caused by carotid artery stenosis might affect the discordance of choroidal thickness and choroidal volume. Dong Yoon Kim, Soo Geun Joe, Joo Yong Lee, June-Gone Kim, and Sung Jae Yang Copyright © 2015 Dong Yoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Determination of a New Parameter, Elevated Epiretinal Membrane, by En Face OCT as a Prognostic Factor for Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Safer Epiretinal Membrane Peeling Sun, 04 Oct 2015 11:14:28 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the significance of the area of epiretinal membrane (EM) that is not in contact with the retinal structure as a preoperative parameter for safer grasping of the EM and a prognostic factor for visual improvement/outcome. Methods. This prospective observational study included 73 consecutive patients (80 eyes) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and EM peeling. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) were evaluated preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. The number of initial peeling grasps was recorded in the operation protocol. The elevated EM portion was identified by en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and processed digitally to calculate its area. Results. Surgery was found to significantly improve CDVA and decrease CFT. CDVA improvement correlated with elevated EM, preoperative CFT, and the number of grasping attempts. Conclusion. The detection of elevated EM via en face OCT could assist safer grasping of the EM and indicate the potential for visual outcome improvement after PPV and EM peeling. Mitrofanis Pavlidis, Ilias Georgalas, and Norbert Körber Copyright © 2015 Mitrofanis Pavlidis et al. All rights reserved. Acute-Onset Vitreous Hemorrhage of Unknown Origin before Vitrectomy: Causes and Prognosis Sun, 04 Oct 2015 11:13:25 +0000 Purpose. To analyze causes and prognosis of acute-onset preoperatively unknown origin vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Methods. This study included patients who underwent vitrectomy for acute-onset preoperatively unknown origin VH. The underlying causes of VH, which were identified after vitrectomy, were analyzed. And overall visual prognosis of unknown origin VH was analyzed. Risk scoring system was developed to predict visual prognosis after vitrectomy. Results. 169 eyes were included. Among these, retinal vein occlusion (RVO), retinal break, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were identified in 74 (43.8%), 50 (29.6%), and 21 (12.4%) patients, respectively. After vitrectomy, logMAR BCVA significantly improved from to . However, postoperative BCVA in AMD eyes were significantly poorer than others. Poor visual prognosis after vitrectomy was associated with old age, poor preoperative vision in both eyes, and drusen in the fellow eye. Conclusions. RVO, retinal break, and AMD are the most common causes of acute-onset preoperatively unknown origin VH and the most common causes of VH change with age. The visual prognosis of unknown origin VH is relatively good, except among AMD patients. Older patients with poor preoperative BCVA in both eyes and patients with AMD in the fellow eye are at a higher risk of poor visual prognosis following vitrectomy. Dong Yoon Kim, Soo Geun Joe, Seunghee Baek, June-Gone Kim, Young Hee Yoon, and Joo Yong Lee Copyright © 2015 Dong Yoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcome of Hypertensive Uveitis Sun, 04 Oct 2015 10:26:11 +0000 Purpose. To review the clinical outcome of patients with hypertensive uveitis. Methods. Retrospective review of uveitis patients with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) > 25 mmHg and >1-year follow-up. Data are uveitis type, etiology, viral (VU) and nonviral uveitis (NVU), IOP, and medical and/or surgical treatment. Results. In 61 patients, IOP values are first 32.9 mmHg (SD: 9.0), highest 36.6 mmHg (SD: 9.9), 3 months after the first episode 19.54 mmHg (SD: 9.16), and end of follow-up 15.5 mmHg (SD: 6.24). Patients with VU () were older (50.6 y/35.7 y, ) and had more unilateral disease (100%/72.22%  ) than those with NVU (). Thirty patients (49.2%) had an elevated IOP before topical corticosteroid treatment. Patients with viral uveitis might have higher first elevated IOP (36.0/27.5 mmHg, ) and maximal IOP (40.28/34.06 mmHg, ) but this was not significant when limited to the measurements before the use of topical corticosteroids ( and 0.160). Glaucoma occurred in 15 patients (24.59%) and was suspected in 11 (18.03%) without difference in viral and nonviral groups (). Conclusion. Patients with VU were older and had more unilateral hypertensive uveitis. Glaucoma frequently complicates hypertensive uveitis. Half of the patients had an elevated IOP before topical corticosteroid treatment. Deborah Lewkowicz, François Willermain, Lia Judice Relvas, Dorine Makhoul, Sarah Janssens, Xavier Janssens, and Laure Caspers Copyright © 2015 Deborah Lewkowicz et al. All rights reserved. Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Management of Symptomatic Posterior Vitreous Detachment after Phacoemulsification and Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation: A Pilot Study from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group Sun, 04 Oct 2015 10:02:27 +0000 Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and indirect ophthalmoscopy at baseline and 1, 7, 30, and 180 days postoperatively. Ultrasonography and aberrometry were performed. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25) was administered preoperatively and at 30 days postoperatively. Both the postoperative UCVA and questionnaire results were compared to preoperative findings using the Wilcoxon test. Results. Sixteen eyes of 8 patients were included. VA significantly improved from 0.17 to 0.09 postoperatively (). All patients reported improvement of halos, glare, and floaters. VFQ-25 scores significantly improved in general vision (), near activities (), distance activities (), mental health (), role difficulties (), and driving (). Conclusion. PPV may increase UCVA and quality of vision in patients with bilateral multifocal IOLs and symptomatic PVD. Larger studies are advised. Rodrigo M. Navarro, Leonardo M. Machado, Ossires Maia Jr., Lihteh Wu, Michel E. Farah, Octaviano Magalhaes Jr., J. Fernando Arevalo, and Mauricio Maia Copyright © 2015 Rodrigo M. Navarro et al. All rights reserved. Lutein Leads to a Decrease of Factor D Secretion by Cultured Mature Human Adipocytes Sun, 04 Oct 2015 10:01:03 +0000 Purpose. Complement plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and trials are currently being conducted to investigate the effect of complement inhibition on AMD progression. We previously found that the plasma level of factor D (FD), which is the rate limiting enzyme of the complement alternative pathway, was significantly decreased following lutein supplementation. FD is synthesized by adipose tissue, which is also the main storage site of lutein. In view of these findings we tested the hypothesis whether lutein could affect FD synthesis by adipocytes. Methods. A cell line of mature human adipocytes was incubated with 50 μg/mL lutein for 24 and 48 h, whereafter FD mRNA and protein expression were measured. Results. Lutein significantly inhibited adipocyte FD mRNA expression and FD protein release into adipocyte culture supernatants. Conclusions. Our earlier observations showing that a daily lutein supplement in individuals with early signs of AMD lowered the level of circulating FD might be caused by blocking adipocyte FD production. Yuan Tian, Aize Kijlstra, Johan Renes, Martin Wabitsch, Carroll A. B. Webers, and Tos T. J. M. Berendschot Copyright © 2015 Yuan Tian et al. All rights reserved. Responses of Multipotent Retinal Stem Cells to IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17 Sun, 04 Oct 2015 09:32:20 +0000 Purpose. To investigate how multipotent retinal stem cells (RSCs) isolated from mice respond to the proinflammatory signaling molecules, IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-17A. Materials and Methods. RSCs were cultured in a specific culture medium and were treated with these cytokines. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay; ultrastructure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy; expression of IL-17rc and proapoptotic proteins was detected by immunocytochemistry and expression of Il-6 and Il-17a was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. As a comparison, primary mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were also treated with IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17A and analyzed for the expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc. Results. Treatment with IL-1β, IL-18, or IL-17A decreased RSC viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to damage in cellular ultrastructure including pyroptotic and/or necroptotic cells. IL-1β and IL-18 could induce proapoptotic protein expression. All treatments induced significantly higher expression of Il-6 and Il-17rc in both cells. However, neither IL-1β nor IL-18 could induce Il-17a expression in RSCs. Conclusions. IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-17A induce retinal cell death via pyroptosis/necroptosis and apoptosis. They also provoke proinflammatory responses in RSCs. Though IL-1β and IL-18 could not induce Il-17a expression in RSCs, they both increase Il-17rc expression, which may mediate the effect of Il-17a. Shida Chen, Defen Shen, Nicholas A. Popp, Alexander J. Ogilvy, Jingsheng Tuo, Mones Abu-Asab, Ting Xie, and Chi-Chao Chan Copyright © 2015 Shida Chen et al. All rights reserved. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Vascular Dysregulation in Glaucoma Thu, 01 Oct 2015 12:15:10 +0000 Purpose. To investigate blood pressure and heart rate variability in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to detect disturbed blood pressure regulation. Methods. Thirty-one patients with POAG (mean age 68 ± 10 years) and 48 control subjects (mean age 66 ± 10 years) were included in a prospective study. Continuous blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously and noninvasively recorded over 30 min (Glaucoscreen, aviant GmbH, Jena, Germany). Data were analyzed calculating univariate linear (time domain and frequency domain), nonlinear (Symbolic Dynamics, SD) and bivariate (Joint Symbolic Dynamics, JSD) indices. Results. Using nonlinear methods, glaucoma patients were separated with more parameters compared to linear methods. In POAG, nonlinear univariate indices (pW113 and pW120_Sys) were increased while the indices pTH10_Sys and pTH11_Sys reflect a reduction of dominant patterns. Bivariate indices (JSDdia29, JSDdia50, and JSDdia52; coupling between heart rate and diastolic blood pressure) were increased in POAG. The optimum set consisting of six parameters (JSDdia29, JSDdia58, pTH9_Sys, pW231, pW110_Sys and pW120_Sys) revealed a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusions. Nonlinear uni- and bivariate indices of continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate are altered in glaucoma. Abnormal blood pressure variability suggests disturbed autonomic regulation in patients with glaucoma. Eva Charlotte Koch, Johanna Staab, Matthias Fuest, Katharina Witt, Andreas Voss, and Niklas Plange Copyright © 2015 Eva Charlotte Koch et al. All rights reserved. Safety and Efficacy of Adding Fixed-Combination Brinzolamide/Timolol Maleate to Prostaglandin Therapy for Treatment of Ocular Hypertension or Glaucoma Thu, 01 Oct 2015 12:05:17 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding brinzolamide 1%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination (BTFC) to a prostaglandin analog (PGA). Methods. This was a 12-week, open-label, single-arm study of patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with intraocular pressure (IOP) not sufficiently controlled after ≥4 weeks of PGA monotherapy. The primary outcome was mean IOP change from baseline at week 12. Other outcomes included IOP change from baseline at week 4, percentage of patients achieving IOP ≤18 mmHg at week 12, and patient experience survey responses at week 12. Results. Forty-seven patients were enrolled and received treatment. The most commonly used PGAs were latanoprost (47%) and travoprost (32%). Mean ± SD IOP was decreased at week 12 (17.2 ± 4.1 mmHg) compared with baseline (23.1 ± 3.0 mmHg; , paired -test); IOP at week 4 was 17.2 ± 3.3 mmHg. At week 12, 70% of patients achieved IOP ≤18 mmHg. Patient-reported symptoms (e.g., pain and redness) were mostly unchanged from baseline. Twenty-eight adverse events (AEs) were reported; the most frequently reported AE was headache (3 events in 2 patients). Conclusion. Adjunctive BTFC + PGA therapy was effective and well tolerated. IOP decreased by 6 mmHg at weeks 4 and 12. Anton Hommer, Douglas A. Hubatsch, and Juan Cano-Parra Copyright © 2015 Anton Hommer et al. All rights reserved. Canaloplasty: A Minimally Invasive and Maximally Effective Glaucoma Treatment Thu, 01 Oct 2015 12:03:00 +0000 Canaloplasty is a highly effective, minimally invasive, surgical technique indicated for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma that works by restoring the function of the eye’s natural outflow system. The procedure’s excellent safety profile and long-term efficacy make it a viable option for the majority of glaucoma patient types. It can be used in conjunction with existing drug based glaucoma treatments, after laser or other types of incisional surgery, and does not preclude or affect the outcome of future surgery. Numerous scientific studies have shown Canaloplasty to be safe and effective in lowering IOP whilst reducing medication dependence. A recent refinement of Canaloplasty, known as ab-interno Canaloplasty (ABiC), maintains the IOP-lowering and safety benefits of traditional (ab-externo) Canaloplasty using a more efficient, simplified surgical approach. This paper presents a review of Canaloplasty indications, clinical data, and complications, as well as comparisons with traditional incisional glaucoma techniques. It also addresses the early clinical evidence for ABiC. Mahmoud A. Khaimi Copyright © 2015 Mahmoud A. Khaimi. All rights reserved. Outcomes of Late-Onset Bleb-Related Endophthalmitis Treated with Pars Plana Vitrectomy Thu, 01 Oct 2015 08:36:56 +0000 Purpose. To investigate clinical results on bleb-related endophthalmitis (BRE) after trabeculectomy treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and to evaluate influence factors for visual prognosis. Methods. Investigating medical records retrospectively, BRE was defined as an endophthalmitis induced by bleb infection. A total of 2018 eyes of 1225 patients who had trabeculectomy between December 2000 and July 2013 were included in this study. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with BRE were performed with PPV. Results. The mean age was 56.6 years. The mean period between trabeculectomy and BRE onset was 7.4 years. The mean period from starting symptom to initiation of treatment for endophthalmitis (PSITE) was 2.3 days. Bleb leakages were observed in 7 eyes (64%). On culture examinations, highly pathogenic bacteria (HPB) were identified in 6 cases (55%). HPB infection was influence factors on visual disturbance (). Number of HPB infections is significantly higher in poor visual outcome than without poor visual outcome (). Conclusion. Visual prognosis of BRE treated by PPV is significantly better when the pathogenic bacteria are not HPB. Severe visual loss occurred with HPB infection even though patients had appropriate treatments. Physicians need to have careful consideration to prevent bleb infection after trabeculectomy with MMC. Kazuyoshi Ohtomo, Chihiro Mayama, Takashi Ueta, and Miyuki Nagahara Copyright © 2015 Kazuyoshi Ohtomo et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Full-Eye Response to Osmotic Stress in Mouse Model In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Tomography Wed, 30 Sep 2015 12:47:07 +0000 NaCl based solutions were applied as osmotic stress agents to alter the hydration state of the mouse eye. Full-eye responses to these osmotic challenges were monitored in vivo using a custom-built optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an extended imaging range of 12.38 mm. Dynamic changes in the mouse eye were quantified based on the OCT images using several parameters, including the central corneal thickness (CCT), the anterior chamber depth (ACD), the crystalline lens thickness (LT), the cornea-retina distance (CRD), the iris curvature (IC), and the lens scattering intensity (LSI). Apparent but reversible changes in the morphology of almost all the ocular components and the light transparency of the lens are exhibited. Particularly, the ocular dehydration induced by the hypertonic challenges resulted in a closing of the iridocorneal angle and an opacification of the lens. Our results indicated that the ocular hydration is an important physiological process which might be correlated with various ocular disorders, such as dry eye, cataract, and angle-closure glaucoma, and would affect the biometry and imaging of the eye. OCT uniquely enables the comprehensive study of the dynamic full-eye responses to the ocular hydration in vivo. Yang Ni, Baisheng Xu, Lan Wu, Chixin Du, Bo Jiang, Zhihua Ding, and Peng Li Copyright © 2015 Yang Ni et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Factors for Open Globe Injuries and Correlation of Ocular Trauma Score in Tianjin, China Tue, 29 Sep 2015 13:49:21 +0000 Purpose. To investigate prognostic factors that influence the final visual acuity (VA) and to correlate the ocular trauma score (OTS) with the final VA in open globe injuries. Methods. A retrospective review of 298 patients with open globe injuries admitted to Tianjin Medical University General Hospital was carried out from January 1, 2010, till December 31, 2014. Prognostic factors influencing the final VA in patients with open globe injuries and the correlation between OTS and the final VA were examined. Results. Three hundred and fourteen eyes from 298 patients with open globe injuries were analyzed. Males had a higher rate of open globe injury than females (83.56% versus 16.44%). Mean age was 45.46 ± 17.48 years (5–95 years). In a univariate analysis, prognostic factors influencing the final VA included initial VA, relative afferent papillary defect (RAPD), vitreous hemorrhage, lens injury, endophthalmitis, hyphema, retinal detachment, and the zone of injury. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, initial VA, RAPD, and the zone of injury were considered to be independent risk factors. The OTS correlated with final VA (, ). Conclusion. In our study, the most important prognostic factors influencing the final VA were initial VA, RAPD, and the zone of injury. The OTS was of great importance for patients and ophthalmologists. Yu Meng and Hua Yan Copyright © 2015 Yu Meng and Hua Yan. All rights reserved. Ocular Angiogenesis Mon, 28 Sep 2015 12:56:04 +0000 Juliana L. Dreyfuss, Ricardo J. Giordano, and Caio V. Regatieri Copyright © 2015 Juliana L. Dreyfuss et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization by Subconjunctival Injection of Fc-Endostatin, a Novel Inhibitor of Angiogenesis Mon, 28 Sep 2015 08:43:18 +0000 We assessed the antiangiogenic effects of subconjunctival injection of Fc-endostatin (FcE) using a human vascular endothelial growth factor-induced rabbit corneal neovascularization model. Angiogenesis was induced in rabbit corneas through intrastromal implantations of VEGF polymer implanted 2 mm from the limbus. NZW rabbits were separated into groups receiving twice weekly subconjunctival injections of either saline; 25 mg/mL bevacizumab; 2 mg/mL FcE; or 20 mg/mL FcE. Corneas were digitally imaged at 5 time points. An angiogenesis index (AI) was calculated (vessel length (mm) × vessel number score) for each observation. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in the vessel length and AI compared to saline on all observation days (). By day 15, FcE 2 inhibited angiogenesis significantly better than FcE 20 (). There was no significant difference between FcE 2 and BV, although the values trended towards significantly increased inhibition by BV. BV was a significantly better inhibitor than FcE 20 by day 8 (). FcE was safe and significantly inhibited new vessel growth in a rabbit corneal neovascularization model. Lower concentration FcE 2 exhibited better inhibition than FcE 20, consistent with previous FcE studies referencing a biphasic dose-response curve. Additional studies are necessary to further elucidate the efficacy and clinical potential of this novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Junko Yoshida, Robert T. Wicks, Andrea I. Zambrano, Betty M. Tyler, Kashi Javaherian, Rachel Grossman, Yassine J. Daoud, Peter Gehlbach, Henry Brem, and Walter J. Stark Copyright © 2015 Junko Yoshida et al. All rights reserved. Antiproliferative, Apoptotic, and Autophagic Activity of Ranibizumab, Bevacizumab, Pegaptanib, and Aflibercept on Fibroblasts: Implication for Choroidal Neovascularization Sun, 27 Sep 2015 13:53:51 +0000 Purpose. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most common complications of retinal diseases accompanied by elevated secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Intravitreal anti-VEGFs (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, pegaptanib, and aflibercept) can suppress neovascularization, decrease vascular permeability and CNV size, and, thereby, improve visual function. The antiproliferative, apoptotic, and autophagic effect of anti-VEGF drugs on fibroblasts found in CNVs has not been yet explored. Methods. Concentration-dependent cellular effects of the four anti-VEGFs were examined in L929 fibroblasts over a 5-day period. The cell survival, mitotic and polykaryocytic indices, the level of apoptosis and autophagy, and the cellular growth kinetics were all assessed. Results. The anti-VEGFs could inhibit the survival, mitotic activity, and proliferation as well as increase the cellular heterogeneity, apoptosis, and autophagy of the fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular growth kinetics showed ranibizumab to be less aggressive, but three other anti-VEGFs showed higher antiproliferative and apoptotic activity and expressed negative cellular growth kinetics. Conclusions. The antiproliferative, apoptotic, and autophagic activity of anti-VEGFs upon fibroblasts may explain the cellular response and the etiology of CNV involution in vivo and serve as a good study model for CNV in vitro. Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk, Andrii Sergienko, Galina Lavrenchuk, and Goran Petrovski Copyright © 2015 Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Visual Outcome in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients Depending on the Number of Ranibizumab Injections Sun, 27 Sep 2015 13:52:51 +0000 Purpose. To analyse the visual outcome in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients depending on the number of ranibizumab injections. Methods. 51 naïve wet AMD patients were retrospectively recorded. Visual acuity (VA), central retinal thickness (CRT) measured with spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and number of intravitreal injections were compared at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival rates (SRs) based on VA outcomes were calculated depending on the number of ranibizumab injections performed. Results. VA improved compared with baseline at 6 and 12 months (). No differences were found at 18, 24, 30, and 36 months (). CRT measured with Cirrus OCT decreased () at all time points analysed. The mean number of injections received was . At 36 months, Kaplan-Meier SR was 76.5% (the proportion of patients without a decrease in vision of more than 0.3 logMAR units). VA remained stable (≤0.01 logMAR units) or improved in 62.7%. Within this group, SR was 92.9% in those who received 7 or more injections versus 51.4% receiving <7 treatments (; log-rank test). Conclusion. Better VA outcomes were found in stable wet AMD patients after 3 years of follow-up if they received ≥7 ranibizumab injections. Pilar Calvo, Beatriz Abadia, Antonio Ferreras, Oscar Ruiz-Moreno, Jesús Leciñena, and Clemencia Torrón Copyright © 2015 Pilar Calvo et al. All rights reserved. Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Monotherapy in Zone I Stage 3+ and Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Sun, 27 Sep 2015 12:54:28 +0000 Purpose. This study aims to evaluate the regression of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after one intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and the factors that influenced it. Methods. This retrospective case series was carried out at the “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. It includes all the consecutive infants treated for ROP with one intravitreal bevacizumab injection, from January 1, 2009, throughout July 31, 2013. The follow-up continued for 60 weeks after injection. We recorded ROP classification, regression, gender, gestational age, birth weight, postnatal age and postmenstrual age at treatment, and pregnancy type. Regression was analyzed according to each of the abovementioned factors, with the program IBM SPSS 20 (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results. This study includes 74 eyes of 37 infants of which 52 had aggressive posterior ROP (70.27%) and 22 had zone I stage 3+ ROP (29.72%). One week after the bevacizumab injection, ROP regressed in 63 eyes (85.13%), with a statistically significant higher rate in zone I stage 3+ ROP (100%), as compared with aggressive posterior ROP (78.84%) (). We recorded no complications subsequent to the intravitreal injections of bevacizumab. We identified no late retinal detachment. Conclusion. ROP regression rate after one intravitreal bevacizumab injection was 85.13%. This trial is registered with trial registration number IRCT2014101618966N2. Simona Delia Nicoară, Constanța Nascutzy, Cristina Cristian, Iulian Irimescu, Anne Claudia Ștefănuț, Gabriela Zaharie, and Tudor Drugan Copyright © 2015 Simona Delia Nicoară et al. All rights reserved.