Journal of Ophthalmology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. One-Year Results of Simultaneous Topography-Guided Photorefractive Keratectomy and Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Keratoconus Utilizing a Modern Ablation Software Sun, 23 Aug 2015 11:29:51 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate effectiveness of simultaneous topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy and corneal collagen cross-linking in mild and moderate keratoconus. Methods. Prospective nonrandomized interventional study including 20 eyes of 14 patients with grade 1-2 keratoconus that underwent topography-guided PRK using a Custom Ablation Transition Zone (CATz) profile with 0.02% MMC application immediately followed by standard 3 mw/cm2 UVA collagen cross-linking. Maximum ablation depth did not exceed 58 μm. Follow-up period: 12 months. Results. Progressive statistically significant improvement of UCVA from logMAR preoperative, reaching logMAR at 12 months (). Preoperative BCVA ( logMAR) showed a progressive improvement reaching logMAR at 12 months (). Mean max reduced from to  D at 12 months (), mean min reduced from  D to  D at 12 months (), mean keratometric asymmetry reduced from  D to  D at 12 months (). The safety index was 1.39 at 12 months and efficacy index 0.97 at 12 months. Conclusion. Combined topography-guided PRK and corneal collagen cross-linking are a safe and effective option in the management of mild and moderate keratoconus. Precis. To our knowledge, this is the first published study on the use of the CATz ablation system on the Nidek Quest excimer laser platform combined with conventional cross-linking in the management of mild keratoconus. A. M. Sherif, M. A. Ammar, Y. S. Mostafa, S. A. Gamal Eldin, and A. A. Osman Copyright © 2015 A. M. Sherif et al. All rights reserved. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:17:14 +0000 The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery on two different dates. The quality of evidence was rated as low to very low. None of the studies reported the prevalence of postoperative anisometropia. In conclusion, we cannot provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of ISBCS due to the lack of high quality evidence. Therefore, the decision to perform ISBCS should be taken after careful discussion between the surgeon and the patient. Line Kessel, Jens Andresen, Ditte Erngaard, Per Flesner, Britta Tendal, and Jesper Hjortdal Copyright © 2015 Line Kessel et al. All rights reserved. Preservation of the Photoreceptor Inner/Outer Segment Junction in Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated by Rheohemapheresis Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:09:27 +0000 Aim. To evaluate the long-term effect of rheohemapheresis (RHF) treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on photoreceptor IS/OS junction status. Methods. In our study, we followed 24 patients with dry AMD and drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) for a period of more than 2.5 years. Twelve patients (22 eyes) were treated by RHF and 12 controls (18 eyes) were randomized. The treated group underwent 8 RHF standardized procedures. We evaluated best-corrected visual acuity, IS/OS junction status (SD OCT), and macular function (multifocal electroretinography) at baseline and at 2.5-year follow-up. Results. RHF caused a decrease of whole-blood viscosity/plasma viscosity at about 15/12%. BCVA of treated patients increased insignificantly from median 74.0 letters (56.2 to 81.3 letters) to median 79.0 letters (57.3 to 83.4 letters), but it decreased significantly from 74.0 letters (25.2 to 82.6 letters) to 72.5 letters (23.4 to 83.1 letters) in the control group . The mfERG responses in the region of eccentricity between 1.8° and 7° were significantly higher in treated patients . Conclusions. RHF contributed to sparing of photoreceptor IS/OS junction integrity in the fovea, which is assumed to be a predictive factor for preservation of visual acuity. Eva Rencová, Milan Bláha, Jan Studnička, Vladimír Bláha, Miriam Lánská, Ondřej Renc, Alexander Stepanov, Věra Kratochvílová, and Hana Langrová Copyright © 2015 Eva Rencová et al. All rights reserved. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management Mon, 17 Aug 2015 11:56:38 +0000 Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3–7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy. An appropriate assessment of both severity and activity of the disease warrants an adequate treatment. The VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance), and the European Group of Graves’ Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) classifications are the two widely used grading systems conceived to assess the activity and severity of GO and guide the therapeutic decision making. A critical analysis of classification, assessment, and management systems is reported. A simplified “GO activity assessment checklist” for routine clinical practice is proposed. Current treatments are reviewed and management guidelines according to the severity and activity of the disease are provided. New treatment modalities such as specific monoclonal antibodies, TSH-R antagonists, and other immunomodulatory agents show a promising outcome for GO patients. Jesús Barrio-Barrio, Alfonso L. Sabater, Elvira Bonet-Farriol, Álvaro Velázquez-Villoria, and Juan C. Galofré Copyright © 2015 Jesús Barrio-Barrio et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Comorbidity in Children with Cataracts in Nigeria: Advocacy for Rubella Immunization Mon, 17 Aug 2015 11:54:17 +0000 Background. Congenital and developmental cataracts are leading causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment. They may be associated with systemic diseases including congenital heart diseases which are among the major causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The pattern of systemic comorbidities seen in children diagnosed with cataract in Calabar, Nigeria, was studied. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on the children who had cataract surgery between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis of the systemic condition was documented. Results. A total of 66 children were recruited for the study. Cardiac disease was seen in 26 children (39.9%), followed by delayed milestone in 16 (24.2%), intellectual disability in 14 (21.2%), deafness in 11 (16.7%), epilepsy in 4 (6.1%), and physical handicap in 3 (4.5%) of them. Clinically confirmed Congenital Rubella Syndrome was seen in 30 (45%) of the children. The pattern of CHD seen was as follows: patent ductus arteriosus in 16 (24.2%) followed by ventricular-septal defect in 5 (7.6%), atrial-septal defect in 3 (4.5%), and pulmonary stenosis in 2 (3%). Conclusion. Systemic comorbidities, especially cardiac anomalies, are common among children with cataract in Nigeria. Congenital Rubella Syndrome may be a prominent cause of childhood cataract in our environment. Routine immunization of school girls against rubella is advocated as a measure to mitigate this trend. Roseline Duke, Sidney Oparah, Adedayo Adio, Okon Eyo, and Friday Odey Copyright © 2015 Roseline Duke et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Visual Symptomatology Associated with Refractive, Accommodative, and Binocular Anomalies Sun, 16 Aug 2015 13:30:57 +0000 Purpose. To characterize the symptomatology of refractive, accommodative, and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the association between dysfunctions and symptoms. Methods. 175 randomised university students were examined. Subjects were given a subjective visual examination with accommodative and binocular tests, evaluating their symptomatology. Accommodative and binocular dysfunctions (AD, BD) were diagnosed according to the number of existing clinical signs: suspect AD or BD (one fundamental clinical sign), high suspect (one fundamental + 1 complementary clinical sign), and definite (one fundamental + 2 or more complementary clinical signs). A logistic regression was conducted in order to determine whether there was an association between dysfunctions and symptoms. Results. 78 subjects (44.6%) reported any kind of symptoms which were grouped into 18 categories, with “visual fatigue” being the most frequent (20% of the overall complaints). Logistic regression adjusted by the presence of an uncorrected refractive error showed no association between any grade of AD and symptoms. Subjects with BD had more likelihood of having symptoms than without dysfunction group (OR = 3.35), being greater when only definite BD were considered (OR = 8.79). Conclusions. An uncorrected refractive error is a confusion factor when considering AD symptomatology. For BD, the more the number of clinical signs used the greater the likelihood suffering symptoms. Pilar Cacho-Martínez, Mario Cantó-Cerdán, Stela Carbonell-Bonete, and Ángel García-Muñoz Copyright © 2015 Pilar Cacho-Martínez et al. All rights reserved. Childbearing May Increase the Risk of Nondiabetic Cataract in Chinese Women’s Old Age Sun, 16 Aug 2015 12:24:01 +0000 Backgrounds. Ocular changes may arise during pregnancy and after childbirth, but very few studies have reported the association between childbearing and cataract among older adults. Methods. 14,292 individuals aged 60+ years were recruited in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Physician-diagnosed cataract and diabetes status were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Childbearing status was measured by number of children (NOC). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to examine the relationships among NOC, diabetes, and cataract. Gender-specific logistic models regressing nondiabetic cataract on NOC were performed by adjusting some covariates. Results. 14,119 participants had complete data, of whom 5.01% suffered from cataract, with higher prevalence in women than men (6.41% versus 3.51%). Estimates of SEM models for women suggested that both NOC and diabetes were risk factors for cataract and that no correlation existed between NOC and diabetes. Women who had one or more children faced roughly 2–4 times higher risk of nondiabetic cataract than their childless counterparts (OR [95% CI] = 3.88 [1.24, 17.71], 3.21 [1.04, 14.52], 4.32 [1.42, 19.44], 4.41 [1.46, 19.74], and 3.98 [1.28, 18.10] for having 1, 2, 3, 4-5, and 6 or more children, resp.). Conclusions. Childbearing may increase the risk of nondiabetic cataract in Chinese women’s older age. Manqiong Yuan, Yaofeng Han, Ya Fang, and Cheng-I Chu Copyright © 2015 Manqiong Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Retinitis Pigmentosa Using Optic Coherence Tomography Sun, 16 Aug 2015 09:36:10 +0000 Aim. To evaluate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (Sd-OCT). Methods. We retrospectively examined medical records of forty-four eyes of twenty-two RP patients. The results were also compared with those of previously reported forty-four eyes of twenty-two normal subjects (controls). Records of average and four quadrants peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements using Sd-OCT were assessed. Results. In RP patients the mean RNFL thickness was 97.57 ± 3.21 μm. The RNFL in the superior, temporal, nasal, and inferior quadrants was 119.18 ± 4.47 μm, 84.68 ± 2.31 μm, 75.09 ± 3.34 μm, and 113.88 ± 4.25 μm, respectively. While the thinning of RNFL was predominantly observed in the inferior quadrant, the thickening was mostly noted in temporal quadrant. The differences between mean, superior, and nasal quadrant RNFL thicknesses were not statistically significant when compared with control group. The RP patients had thinner inferior quadrant and thicker temporal quadrant than control group (). Conclusion. Sd-OCT is highly sensitive and effective instrument to detect RNFL changes in RP patients. RNFL measurements can provide information about the progression of retinitis pigmentosa and may provide prognostic indices for future treatment modalities. Medine Aslı Yıldırım, Burak Erden, Mehmet Tetikoğlu, Özlem Kuru, and Mustafa Elçioğlu Copyright © 2015 Medine Aslı Yıldırım et al. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples Thu, 13 Aug 2015 08:50:01 +0000 Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability. Joshua S. Hardin, Giovanni Taibbi, Seth C. Nelson, Diana Chao, and Gianmarco Vizzeri Copyright © 2015 Joshua S. Hardin et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Laser Peripheral Iridotomy in Subgroups of Primary Angle Closure Based on Iris Insertion Thu, 13 Aug 2015 08:39:56 +0000 Purpose. To investigate the effect of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in subgroups of primary angle closure based on iris insertion configuration. Methods. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images were obtained before and two weeks after LPI. Qualitative classification of angle closure eyes according to iris insertion (basal insertion group (BG) and nonbasal insertion group (NBG)) was performed. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens vault (LV), iris curvature, iris area, iris thickness (IT750), and angle opening distance (AOD750) 750 microns from scleral spur were calculated. Uni- and multivariate regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors associated with AOD750 before and after LPI. Results. Ninety-two eyes of 92 subjects were categorized as NBG (39 eyes) or BG (53 eyes). The mean change after LPI was not significantly different between two groups in all parameters. In both groups, AOD750 was affected by ACD (, ) before LPI. AOD750 was affected by LV () in NBG, but by ACD () and IT750 () in BG after LPI. Conclusions. The outcomes of LPI are not significantly different between angle closure subgroups with different iris insertions. However, factors affecting AOD750 show differences between two subgroups after LPI. Sung-Cheol Yun, Ji Wook Hong, Kyung Rim Sung, and Jin Young Lee Copyright © 2015 Sung-Cheol Yun et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surgical Treatment of Malignant Glaucoma in Pseudophakic Eyes through Partial PPV with Establishment of Communication between the Anterior Chamber and the Vitreous Cavity Wed, 12 Aug 2015 07:32:21 +0000 Purpose. Determination of partial posterior vitrectomy (PPV) in the proposed modification for treatment of malignant glaucoma. Methods. The prospective, consecutive, single-center case series study involved patients in whom symptoms of malignant glaucoma occurred after combined cataract and glaucoma surgery or after glaucoma surgery in pseudophakic eye. When medical and laser treatment were not successful, partial PPV with establishment of communication between the anterior chamber and the vitreous cavity was performed. Efficacy measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), AND the number of antiglaucoma medications. Surgical success and occurring complications were also evaluated. Results. The study enrolled 20 eyes of 17 patients. Average IOP was reduced from 30.4 ± 14.2 (SD) mmHg to 14.6 ± 3.2 (SD) mmHg one year after surgery (). A statistically significant reduction of the number of antiglaucoma medications was obtained from 3.3 ± 1.1 (SD) preoperatively to 1.2 ± 1.1 (SD) at the end of follow-up. Statistically significant improvement of CDVA was observed 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Conclusions. Partial PPV with establishment of communication between the anterior chamber and the vitreous cavity enables effective IOP control over a 12-month observation; however, in most cases, it is necessary to use antiglaucoma medications for IOP control. Marek Rękas, Karolina Krix-Jachym, and Tomasz Żarnowski Copyright © 2015 Marek Rękas et al. All rights reserved. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis Wed, 12 Aug 2015 07:24:48 +0000 Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient’s PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual’s PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. Steven T. H. Yun, David M. Woo, Calum W. K. Chong, Ying Liu, Katherine E. Francis, Saumil A. Shah, Ashish Agar, and Ian C. Francis Copyright © 2015 Steven T. H. Yun et al. All rights reserved. New Eye Cleansing Product Improves Makeup-Related Ocular Problems Tue, 11 Aug 2015 06:52:57 +0000 Purpose. This study evaluated the effects of using a newly developed eye cleansing formulation (Eye Shampoo) to cleanse the eyelids for 4 weeks in a parallel-group comparative study in women with chronic eye discomfort caused by heavy use of eye makeup and poor eye hygiene habits. Methods. Twenty women participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 2 groups comprising 10 participants each. The participants were asked to use either artificial tears alone or artificial tears in conjunction with Eye Shampoo for 4 weeks. The participants answered the questionnaire again and were reexamined, and changes in symptoms within each group and variations of symptoms between the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results. In the group using only artificial tears, improvements in subjective symptoms but not in ophthalmologic examination results were found. In the group using Eye Shampoo together with artificial tears, significant improvements were observed in the subjective symptoms, meibomian orifice obstruction, meibum secretion, tear breakup time, and superficial punctate keratopathy. Conclusion. In patients with chronic eye discomfort thought to be caused by heavy eye makeup, maintaining eyelid hygiene using Eye Shampoo caused a marked improvement in meibomian gland blockage and dry eye symptoms. Masako Okura, Motoko Kawashima, Mikiyuki Katagiri, Takuji Shirasawa, and Kazuo Tsubota Copyright © 2015 Masako Okura et al. All rights reserved. Inconsistencies Exist in National Estimates of Eye Care Services Utilization in the United States Sun, 09 Aug 2015 14:01:32 +0000 Background. There are limited research and substantial uncertainty about the level of eye care utilization in the United States. Objectives. Our study estimated eye care utilization using, to our knowledge, every known nationally representative, publicly available database with information on office-based optometry or ophthalmology services. Research Design. We analyzed the following national databases to estimate eye care utilization: the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), Joint Canada/US Survey of Health (JCUSH), Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Subjects. US adults aged 18 and older. Measures. Self-reported utilization of eye care services. Results. The weighted number of adults seeing or talking with any eye doctor ranges from 87.9 million to 99.5 million, and the number of visits annually ranges from 72.9 million to 142.6 million. There were an estimated 17.2 million optometry visits and 55.8 million ophthalmology visits. Conclusions. The definitions and estimates of eye care services vary widely across national databases, leading to substantial differences in national estimates of eye care utilization. Fernando A. Wilson, Jim P. Stimpson, and Yang Wang Copyright © 2015 Fernando A. Wilson et al. All rights reserved. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Mon, 03 Aug 2015 16:24:51 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH) area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD) was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (, ), the mGCC thickness (, ), and the cpRNFL thickness (, ) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients. Nobuko Enomoto, Ayako Anraku, Kyoko Ishida, Asuka Takeyama, Fumihiko Yagi, and Goji Tomita Copyright © 2015 Nobuko Enomoto et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials on Safety and Efficacy of Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Treatments for Retinitis Pigmentosa Mon, 03 Aug 2015 09:37:55 +0000 Aims. Several treatments have been proposed to slow down progression of Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a hereditary retinal degenerative condition leading to severe visual impairment. The aim of this study is to systematically review data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating safety and efficacy of medical interventions for the treatment of RP. Methods. Randomized clinical trials on medical treatments for syndromic and nonsyndromic RP published up to December 2014 were included in the review. Visual acuity, visual field, electroretinogram, and adverse events were used as outcome measures. Results. The 19 RCTs included in this systematic review included trials on hyperbaric oxygen delivery, topical brimonidine tartrate, vitamins, docosahexaenoic acid, gangliosides, lutein, oral nilvadipine, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and valproic acid. All treatments proved safe but did not show significant benefit on visual function. Long term supplementation with vitamin A showed a significantly slower decline rate in electroretinogram amplitude. Conclusions. Although all medical treatments for RP appear safe, evidence emerging from RCTs is limited since they do not present comparable results suitable for quantitative statistical analysis. The limited number of RCTs, the poor clinical results, and the heterogeneity among studies negatively influence the strength of recommendations for the long term management of RP patients. Marta Sacchetti, Flavio Mantelli, Daniela Merlo, and Alessandro Lambiase Copyright © 2015 Marta Sacchetti et al. All rights reserved. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography of Preclinical Chloroquine Maculopathy in Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Sun, 02 Aug 2015 13:46:43 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the role of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in early detection of Chloroquine maculopathy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods. 40 left eyes of 40 female rheumatoid arthritis patients who received treatment chloroquine for more than one year were recruited in the study. All patients had no symptoms or signs of Chloroquine retinopathy. They were evaluated using SD-OCT, where the Central Foveal Thickness (CFT), parafoveal thickness and perifoveal thickness, average Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) thickness, and Ganglion Cell Complex (GCC) measurements were measured and compared to 40 left eyes of 40 normal females. Results. The mean CFT was found to be thinner in the Chloroquine group (238.15 µm ± 22.49) than the normal controls (248.2 µm ± 19.04), which was statistically significant ( value = 0.034). The mean parafoveal thickness was lesser in the Chloroquine group than the control group in all quadrants ( value ). The perifoveal thickness in both groups showed no statistically significant difference ( value ) in all quadrants. No significant difference was detected between the two groups regarding RNFL, GCC, or IS/OS junction. Conclusions. Preclinical Chloroquine toxicity can lead to early thinning in the central fovea as well as the parafoveal regions that is detected by SD-OCT. Riham S. H. M. Allam, Mai N. Abd-Elmohsen, Mohamed M. Khafagy, Karim A. Raafat, and Sherif M. Sheta Copyright © 2015 Riham S. H. M. Allam et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Retinal Changes and Visual Function in Late-Stage Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study Sun, 02 Aug 2015 12:55:26 +0000 Purpose. To characterize the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in late-stage Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and its correlation with visual function. Methods. The records of patients with late-stage VKH disease (defined as ≥12 months from disease onset) were retrospectively reviewed. The analysis focused on the OCT findings and microperimetry, in addition to the possible correlation between morphology and functional findings. Results. Twenty-nine patients (58 eyes) were included. Mean age at onset was 34.24 ± 10.67 years. The OCT revealed that the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were mainly affected. These effects included RPE thickening and breakage or disappearance of the cone outer segment tip (COST) line and/or inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. The COST line and IS/OS results were related to macular function and the interval between symptom onset and initiation of high-dose corticosteroid treatment (all ). Eyes with intact COST lines demonstrated intact IS/OS and normal RPE layers as well as better visual function and normal retinal sensitivity. Conclusions. The OCT findings are strongly correlated with macular function, as well as other clinical findings in late-stage VKH. With respect to the COST line and retinal sensitivity especially, the OCT and microperimetry findings may be useful for evaluating later-stage VKH. Min Zhou, Chunhui Jiang, Ruiping Gu, Zhongcui Sun, Nancy Huynh, and Qing Chang Copyright © 2015 Min Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes after Binocular Implantation of a New Trifocal Diffractive Intraocular Lens Sun, 02 Aug 2015 09:01:52 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate visual, refractive, and contrast sensitivity outcomes, as well as the incidence of pseudophakic photic phenomena and patient satisfaction after bilateral diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods. This prospective nonrandomized study included consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery with bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal IOL (AT LISA tri 839MP, Carl Zeiss Meditec). Distance, intermediate, and near visual outcomes were evaluated as well as the defocus curve and the refractive outcomes 3 months after surgery. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity, patient satisfaction, and halo perception were also evaluated. Results. Seventy-six eyes of 38 patients were included; 90% of eyes showed a spherical equivalent within ±0.50 diopters 3 months after surgery. All patients had a binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity of 0.00 LogMAR or better and a binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity of 0.10 LogMAR or better, 3 months after surgery. Furthermore, 85% of patients achieved a binocular uncorrected near visual acuity of 0.10 LogMAR or better. Conclusions. Trifocal diffractive IOL implantation seems to provide an effective restoration of visual function for far, intermediate, and near distances, providing high levels of visual quality and patient satisfaction. Florian T. A. Kretz, Detlev Breyer, Vasilios F. Diakonis, Karsten Klabe, Franziska Henke, Gerd U. Auffarth, and Hakan Kaymak Copyright © 2015 Florian T. A. Kretz et al. All rights reserved. Consensus on Severity for Ocular Emergency: The BAsic SEverity Score for Common OculaR Emergencies [BaSe SCOrE] Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:07:02 +0000 Purpose. To weigh ocular emergency events according to their severity. Methods. A group of ophthalmologists and researchers rated the severity of 86 common ocular emergencies using a Delphi consensus method. The ratings were attributed on a 7-point scale throughout a first-round survey. Then, the experts were provided with the median and quartiles of the ratings of each item to reevaluate the severity levels being aware of the group’s first-round responses. The final severity rating for each item corresponded to the median rating provided by the last Delphi round. Results. We invited 398 experts, and 80 (20%) of them, from 18 different countries, agreed to participate. A consensus was reached in the second round, completed by 24 experts (43%). The severity ranged from subconjunctival hemorrhages (median = 1, Q1 = 0; Q3 = 1) to penetrating eye injuries collapsing the eyeball with intraocular foreign body or panophthalmitis with infection following surgery (median = 5, Q1 = 5; Q3 = 6). The ratings did not differ according to the practice of the experts. Conclusion. These ratings could be used to assess the severity of ocular emergency events, to serve in composite algorithms for emergency triage and standardizing research in ocular emergencies. Jean-Louis Bourges, Isabelle Boutron, Dominique Monnet, and Antoine P. Brézin Copyright © 2015 Jean-Louis Bourges et al. All rights reserved. Ranibizumab for Visual Impairment due to Diabetic Macular Edema: Real-World Evidence in the Italian Population (PRIDE Study) Wed, 29 Jul 2015 14:51:46 +0000 Purpose. An expanded access program (PRIDE study) in Italy to provide ranibizumab 0.5 mg to diabetic macular edema (DME) patients, prior to reimbursement. Methods. Open-label, prospective, phase IIIb study. Majority of patients were not treatment-naïve before enrollment. Patients received ranibizumab as per the EU label (2011). Safety was assessed by incidences of ocular/systemic adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) and efficacy in terms of visual acuity (VA) change from baseline (decimal score or Snellen (20/value)). Results. Overall, 515 patients (83.5%) completed the study. In unilateral/bilateral patients, commonly observed AEs were cardiac disorders (1.3%/1.3%) and nervous system disorders (1.3%/1.1%); SAEs were reported in 4.5%/4.8% of patients. Acute renal failure, lung carcinoma, and cardiac arrest were the causes of death in one unilateral and two bilateral patients. Ranibizumab improved/maintained VA (Snellen (20/value)/decimal scores) in both unilateral (up to −16.7/1.5) and bilateral patients (up to −23.6/1.2) at Month 5, with a mean of 4.15 and 4.40 injections, respectively. Overall, no difference was observed in the VA outcomes and treatment exposure between unilateral/bilateral patients. Conclusions. The PRIDE study provided early ranibizumab access to >600 Italian patients. Ranibizumab was well-tolerated and improved/maintained VA in 40.2%–68.8% patients, with no differences in case of unilateral or bilateral pathology. The study is registered with EudraCT. Ugo Menchini, Francesco Bandello, Vincenzo De Angelis, Federico Ricci, Luigi Bonavia, Francesco Viola, Elisa Muscianisi, and Massimo Nicolò Copyright © 2015 Ugo Menchini et al. All rights reserved. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach Wed, 29 Jul 2015 07:02:32 +0000 Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL) stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60). Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%), vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%), transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%), and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%). No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved. Jeroni Nadal, Bachar Kudsieh, and Ricardo P. Casaroli-Marano Copyright © 2015 Jeroni Nadal et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Ultrasonic Pachymeter in Premature Infants Wed, 22 Jul 2015 06:42:54 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the repeatability of measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) by spectral domain optical coherence (SD-OCT) in premature infants and compare it to CCT measurement by ultrasonic pachymetry (USP). Methods. Three CCT measurements of the left eyes of 50 premature infants were obtained by SD-OCT using the iVue system. 10 CCT measurements of each 28 left eyes of 28 infants were obtained by USP using the Pacscan 300P system. Bland-Altman plots were developed and the limit of agreement (LoA) was determined to compare the mean of the SD-OCT and USP measurements. Results. No statistically significant difference was found among the 3 CCT measurements by SD-OCT. Both USP and SD-OCT have been performed for only left eyes of 28 of the 50 babies. Those results have been compared with each other. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean CCT measurements by SD-OCT and USP (). The LoA between the SD-OCT and USP measurements ranged from 11.4 to −64.1. Conclusions. CCT can be measured using the iVue SD-OCT system with a high level of repeatability. Although measurement of CCT by SD-OCT and USP is highly correlated, the 2 systems cannot be used interchangeably in premature infants. Emre Hekimoglu, Muhammet Kazım Erol, Devrim Toslak, Deniz Turgut Coban, Berna Doğan, and Ozgur Yucel Copyright © 2015 Emre Hekimoglu et al. All rights reserved. The Fundus Autofluorescence Spectrum of Punctate Inner Choroidopathy Wed, 22 Jul 2015 06:37:32 +0000 Purpose. To investigate the fundus autofluorescence (FAF) spectrum of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC). Methods. This is a retrospective observational case series of 27 consecutive patients with PIC admitted from October 2013 to March 2015, who underwent short-wavelength- (SW-) and near-infrared- (NIR-) FAF imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Results. There were three primary findings on the FAF imaging of patients with PIC. First, active PIC lesions revealed hypoautofluorescent spots with hyperautofluorescent margin. After the lesions regressed, the hyperautoflurescent margin faded. Second, subclinical and most of the atrophic PIC lesions appeared to be hypoautofluorescent spots. But subclinical PIC lesions were more distinctive on NIR-FAF imaging than on SW-FAF imaging. Third, hypoautofluorescent spots of PIC lesions coexisted with hyperautofluorescent patches on SW-FAF imaging. These hyperautofluorescent patches were demonstrated to be multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) or acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) lesions by subsequent multimodal imaging and faded during follow-up examinations. Conclusion. FAF imaging helps in noninvasively tracking the evolution of PIC lesions and identifying the combined MEWDS or AZOOR lesions, complementary to SD-OCT and angiographic studies. Miaoling Li, Xiongze Zhang, and Feng Wen Copyright © 2015 Miaoling Li et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Intraocular Pressure Elevations after Combined Phacoemulsification and Implantation of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents: Prednisolone versus Loteprednol Tue, 21 Jul 2015 09:10:01 +0000 Objective. To compare the effects of prednisolone and of loteprednol after combined phacoemulsification and trabecular micro-bypass stent implantation (phaco-iStent). Methods. Patients who underwent phaco-iStent between April 2013 and November 2014 were identified by retrospective chart review. Postoperatively, they received either prednisolone () or loteprednol (). Baseline data was compared. Primary outcomes including intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) were analyzed at preoperative visit, postoperative day 1, weeks 1-2, weeks 3-4, and months 2-3. Results. Both groups had similar preoperative parameters (). The mean IOP spike occurred at postoperative weeks 1-2 with an increase of 2.21 ± 7.30 mmHg in the loteprednol group and 2.54 ± 9.28 mmHg in the prednisolone group. It decreased by weeks 3-4 in both groups and continued to improve at months 2-3. NGM showed significant reduction () after the surgery and remained stable in both groups. No significant group effect or time-group interaction in IOP and NGM evolution was detected (). The proportions of patients needing paracentesis were similar between the two groups. Conclusion. Similar early IOP elevations after combined phaco-iStent occurred with both prednisolone and loteprednol. Facilitated glucocorticoid infusion, altered aqueous humor outflow, and local inflammation may be contributing factors. Qianqian Wang and Paul Harasymowycz Copyright © 2015 Qianqian Wang and Paul Harasymowycz. All rights reserved. Extraction of Iron from the Rabbit Anterior Chamber with Reverse Iontophoresis Wed, 15 Jul 2015 10:41:48 +0000 Ocular siderosis is a common eye disease caused by retention of an iron-containing intraocular foreign body in the eye. Iron-containing intraocular foreign bodies may cause severe inflammatory reaction and affect visual function. Currently the optimal treatment method of ocular siderosis is a moot point. This study used the reverse iontophoresis technique to noninvasively extract iron from the rabbit anterior chamber. By slit lamp observation and histological examination, reverse iontophoresis treatment has a good effect on ocular siderosis. Reverse iontophoresis seems to be a noninvasive and promising approach to extract iron from the anterior chamber to treat ocular siderosis. Shoubin Sun, Huijie Diao, Fali Zhao, Jianhai Bai, Yuan Zhou, Hao Cui, and Liqiong Zhang Copyright © 2015 Shoubin Sun et al. All rights reserved. Visual Electrodiagnostic Testing in Birdshot Chorioretinopathy Mon, 13 Jul 2015 12:31:23 +0000 Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) is a rare form of autoimmune posterior uveitis that can affect the visual function and, if left untreated, can lead to sight-threatening complications and loss of central vision. We performed a systematic search of the literature focused on visual electrophysiology studies, including electroretinography (ERG), electrooculography (EOG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP), used to monitor the progression of BSCR and estimate treatment efficacy. Many reports were identified, including using a variety of methodologies and patient populations, which makes a direct comparison of the results difficult, especially with some of the earlier studies using nonstandardized methodology. Several different electrophysiological parameters, like EOG Arden’s ratio and the multifocal ERG response densities, are reported to be widely affected. However, informal consensus emerged in the past decade that the full-field ERG light-adapted 30 Hz flicker peak time is one of the most sensitive electrophysiological parameters. As such, it has been used widely in clinical trials to evaluate drug safety and efficacy and to guide therapeutic decisions in clinical practice. Despite its wide use, a well-designed longitudinal multicenter study to systematically evaluate and compare different electrophysiological methods or parameters in BSCR is still lacking but would benefit both diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Radouil Tzekov and Brian Madow Copyright © 2015 Radouil Tzekov and Brian Madow. All rights reserved. Traumatic Wound Dehiscence after Keratoplasty: Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Visual Outcome Thu, 09 Jul 2015 11:11:56 +0000 Purpose. The study aimed at evaluating the patients’ characteristics, risk factors, complications, and visual outcome of traumatic wound dehiscence after keratoplasty. Patients and Methods. A retrospective case series that included 20 eyes of 20 patients who had undergone a previous keratoplasty procedure followed by traumatic wound dehiscence. Records of the selected patients were reviewed. The mean duration of follow-up after repair was 21 months. Included patients were recalled for the final follow-up visit. Results. The procedure of corneal transplantation was penetrating (PKP) in 16 eyes and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in 4 eyes. The associated anterior segment injuries included iris prolapse in 17 eyes and lens extrusion in 12 eyes. The associated posterior segment injuries included vitreous hemorrhage in 11 eyes and retinal detachment in 4 eyes. The final BSCVA was 0.1 or better in 5 cases (25 %) and was better than hand motions (HM) to less than 0.1 in 7 cases (35 %). Conclusion. Traumatic wound dehiscence following keratoplasty results in poor visual outcome. Cases following DALK may have less wound extent and better final visual outcome. The dehiscence seems most likely to occur during the first year. Mohamed Bahgat Goweida, Hany Ahmed Helaly, and Alaa Atef Ghaith Copyright © 2015 Mohamed Bahgat Goweida et al. All rights reserved. Optical Coherence Tomography Reveals New Insights into the Accommodation Mechanism Mon, 06 Jul 2015 08:41:53 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the movement of the anterior and posterior lens poles during naturally stimulated accommodation in children using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. This is a prospective, observational, noncomparative case series including 18 eyes of nine children. Analysis of the anterior segment in the accommodated and unaccommodated state (with cycloplegia) was done using anterior segment OCT. The main outcome measures were the position of the anterior and posterior lens poles (in relation to the cornea) and lens thickness (LT). Results. A Statistically significant forward movement of the anterior lens pole and backward movement of the posterior lens pole with an increase in LT were found during accommodation (). There was no significant difference between the degree of movement of the anterior lens pole and the posterior lens pole during accommodation (). Conclusions. Anterior segment OCT provides a rapid noncontact method for studying accommodation in children. The backward movement of the posterior lens pole during accommodation nearly equals the forward movement of its anterior pole. These data minimize the theoretical hydraulic effect of the vitreous during accommodation, adding more support to the capsular theory of Helmholtz. Mahmoud Mohamed Farouk, Takeshi Naito, Kayo Shinomiya, Hiroshi Eguchi, Khulood Mohammed Sayed, Toshihiko Nagasawa, Takashi Katome, and Yoshinori Mitamura Copyright © 2015 Mahmoud Mohamed Farouk et al. All rights reserved. Repeatability of Perimacular Ganglion Cell Complex Analysis with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:00:23 +0000 Purpose. To assess the repeatability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to measure macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses and compare retinal ganglion cell parameters between algorithms. Methods. Ninety-two nonglaucomatous eyes from 92 participants underwent macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thickness measurement using OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm and these measurements were repeated for 34 subjects. All subjects also had macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by Cirrus HD-OCT Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed. Results. Subfields of both macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses had high intraclass correlation coefficient values between 0.979 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.958–0.989) and 0.981 (95% CI: 0.963, 0.991) and between 0.70 (95% CI: 0.481–0.838) and 0.987 (95% CI: 0.956–0.989), respectively. The overall average ganglion cell complex and macular average ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thicknesses were strongly correlated .  Conclusions. The assessment of macular and perimacular retinal ganglion cell parameters by OCT-HS100 Glaucoma 3D algorithm is highly repeatable, and strongly correlates to retinal ganglion cell parameters assessed by Ganglion Cell Analysis algorithm. A comprehensive evaluation of retinal ganglion cells may be possible with OCT-HS100. Dorothy S. K. Ng, Preeti Gupta, Yih Chung Tham, Chye Fong Peck, Tien Yin Wong, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, and Carol Y. Cheung Copyright © 2015 Dorothy S. K. Ng et al. All rights reserved.