Journal of Ophthalmology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Association between Ocular Pseudoexfoliation and Sensorineural Hearing Loss Thu, 17 Apr 2014 16:49:07 +0000 Background. Our study aimed to investigate an association between ocular pseudoexfoliation (PXF) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and to compare them with age and sex matched controls without pseudoexfoliation. Method. This was a case-control study of 123 patients which included 68 cases with PXF (at least one eye) and 55 controls without pseudoexfoliation. Pure-tone audiometry (PTA) was done for these patients at sound frequencies taken as important for speech comprehension, that is, 250 Hertz (Hz), 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, and 2000 Hz. Results. There were 41 patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXE) and 27 with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXEG). The majority of patients with hearing loss (60%; ) were PXF patients and the remaining 40% were controls. Below average hearing thresholds were significantly higher in the pseudoexfoliation group compared to the control group (; odds ratio (OR), 3.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–7.19). However, there was no significant difference in the mean hearing threshold levels between the three groups (PXE, PXEG, and controls) in either ear (ANOVA, right ear: and left ear ). Conclusion. Our study found an association between PXF and SNHL, confirming that PXF can involve organs in the body other than the eye. Nandini Vijaya Singham, Mimiwati Zahari, Mohammadreza Peyman, Narayanan Prepageran, and Visvaraja Subrayan Copyright © 2014 Nandini Vijaya Singham et al. All rights reserved. Impaired Corneal Biomechanical Properties and the Prevalence of Keratoconus in Mitral Valve Prolapse Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:00:41 +0000 Objective. To investigate the biomechanical characteristics of the cornea in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and the prevalence of keratoconus (KC) in MVP. Materials and Methods. Fifty-two patients with MVP, 39 patients with KC, and 45 control individuals were recruited in this study. All the participants underwent ophthalmologic examination, corneal analysis with the Sirius system (CSO), and the corneal biomechanical evaluation with Reichert ocular response analyzer (ORA). Results. KC was found in six eyes of four patients (5.7%) and suspect KC in eight eyes of five patients (7.7%) in the MVP group. KC was found in one eye of one patient (1.1%) in the control group (). A significant difference occurred in the mean CH and CRF between the MVP and control groups ( and , resp.). All corneal biomechanical and topographical parameters except IOPcc were significantly different between the KC-MVP groups (). Conclusions. KC prevalence is higher than control individuals in MVP patients and the biomechanical properties of the cornea are altered in patients with MVP. These findings should be considered when the MVP patients are evaluated before refractive surgery. Emine Kalkan Akcay, Murat Akcay, Betul Seher Uysal, Pinar Kosekahya, Abdullah Nabi Aslan, Mehtap Caglayan, Cemal Koseoglu, Fatma Yulek, and Nurullah Cagil Copyright © 2014 Emine Kalkan Akcay et al. All rights reserved. Ischemic Retinal Vasculitis and Its Management Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:58:55 +0000 Ischemic retinal vasculitis is an inflammation of retinal blood vessels associated with vascular occlusion and subsequent retinal hypoperfusion. It can cause visual loss secondary to macular ischemia, macular edema, and neovascularization leading to vitreous hemorrhage, fibrovascular proliferation, and tractional retinal detachment. Ischemic retinal vasculitis can be idiopathic or secondary to systemic disease such as in Behçet’s disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive medication are the mainstay treatment in retinal vasculitis together with laser photocoagulation of retinal ischemic areas. Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab are used to treat neovascularization secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus but should be timed with retinal laser photocoagulation to prevent further progression of retinal ischemia. Antitumor necrosis factor agents have shown promising results in controlling refractory retinal vasculitis excluding multiple sclerosis. Interferon has been useful to control inflammation and induce neovascular regression in retinal vasculitis secondary to Behçet’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The long term effect of these management strategies in preventing the progression of retinal ischemia and preserving vision is not well understood and needs to be further studied. Lazha Talat, Sue Lightman, and Oren Tomkins-Netzer Copyright © 2014 Lazha Talat et al. All rights reserved. Orbital Tumors Excision without Bony Marginotomy under Local and General Anesthesia Mon, 14 Apr 2014 09:00:33 +0000 To present our experience of removing middle to deep orbital tumors using a combination of minimally invasive soft tissue approaches, sometimes under local anesthesia. Methods. In this retrospective case series, 30 patients (13 males and 17 females) underwent tumor removal through eyelid crease (17 eyes), conjunctival (nine eyes), lateral canthal (two eyes), and transcaruncular (two eyes) approaches. All tumors were located in the posterior half of the orbit. Six cases were removed under monitored anesthesia care with local block, and 24 were under general anesthesia. Results. The median (range) age and follow-up duration were 48.5 (31–87) years old and 24.5 (4–375) weeks, respectively. Visual acuity and ocular motility showed improvement or no significant change in all but one patient at the latest followup. Confirmed pathologies revealed cavernous hemangioma (15 cases), pleomorphic adenoma (5 cases), solitary fibrous tumor (4 cases), neurofibroma (2 cases), schwannoma (2 cases), and orbital varix (1 case). None of the patients experienced recurrence. Conclusions. Creating a bony marginotomy increases intraoperative exposure of the deep orbit but adds substantial time and morbidity. Benign orbital tumors can often be removed safely through small soft-tissue incisions, without bone removal and under local anesthesia. Robert A. Goldberg, Daniel B. Rootman, Nariman Nassiri, David B. Samimi, and Joseph M. Shadpour Copyright © 2014 Robert A. Goldberg et al. All rights reserved. Retinal-Image Quality and Night-Vision Performance after Alcohol Consumption Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:37:46 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L) and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. José J. Castro, Antonio M. Pozo, Manuel Rubiño, Rosario G. Anera, and Luis Jiménez del Barco Copyright © 2014 José J. Castro et al. All rights reserved. The Injection of Air/Oxygen Bubble into the Anterior Chamber of Rabbits as a Treatment for Hyphema in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Mon, 07 Apr 2014 06:36:57 +0000 Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (), there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (), both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (), and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (). Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD) for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout. Emre Ayintap, Uğurcan Keskin, Fariz Sadigov, Mesut Coskun, Nilufer İlhan, Sedat Motor, Hilal Semiz, and Nihan Parlakfikirer Copyright © 2014 Emre Ayintap et al. All rights reserved. Human Gaze Following Response Is Affected by Visual Acuity Sun, 06 Apr 2014 17:04:41 +0000 The present study investigated how gaze following eye movements are affected by stimulus contrast and spatial frequency and by aberrations in central visual acuity due to refractive errors. We measured 30 healthy subjects with a range of visual acuities but without any refractive correction. Visual acuity was tested using a Landolt-C chart. Subjects were divided into three groups with low, intermediate, or good visual acuity. Gaze following responses (GFR) to moving Gabor patches were recorded by video-oculography. In each trial, the subjects were presented with a single Gabor patch with a specific spatial frequency and luminance contrast that moved sinusoidally in the horizontal plane. We observed that GFR gain decreased with increasing spatial frequency and decreasing contrast and was correlated with visual acuity. GFR gain was lower and decreased more for subjects with lower visual acuity; this was especially so for lower stimulus contrasts that are not tested in standard acuity tests. The largest differences between the groups were observed at spatial frequencies around 4 cpd and at contrasts up to 10%. Aberrations in central visual acuity due to refractive errors affect the GFR response depending on the contrast and spatial frequency of the moving stimulus. Measuring this effect may contribute to a better estimate of changes in visual function as a result of aging, disease, or treatments meant to improve vision. Marcella Spoor, Behdokht Hosseini, Bart van Alphen, Maarten A. Frens, and Jos N. van der Geest Copyright © 2014 Marcella Spoor et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Optic Nerve Parameters Obtained Using 3D Nonmydriatic Retinal Camera and Optical Coherence Tomography: Interobserver Agreement on the Disc Damage Likelihood Scale Wed, 02 Apr 2014 13:04:01 +0000 Purpose. To compare stereometric parameters obtained by three-dimensional (3D) optic disc photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and assess interobserver agreement on the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS). Methods. This retrospective study included 190 eyes from 190 patients classified as normal, glaucoma suspect, or glaucomatous. Residents at different levels of training completed the DDLS for each patient before and after attending a training module. 3D optic disc photography and OCT were performed on each eye, and correlations between the DDLS and various parameters obtained by each device were calculated. Results. We found moderate agreement (weighted kappa value, 0.59 ± 0.03) between DDLS scores obtained by 3D optic disc photography and the glaucoma specialist. The weighted kappa values for agreement and interobserver concordance increased among residents after the training module. Interobserver concordance was the poorest at DDLS stages 5 and 6. The DDLS scored by the glaucoma specialist had the highest predictability value (0.941). Conclusions. The DDLS obtained by 3D optic disc photography is a useful diagnostic tool for glaucoma. A supervised teaching program increased trainee interobserver agreement on the DDLS. DDLS stages 5 and 6 showed the poorest interobserver agreement, suggesting that caution is required when recording these stages. Jae Wook Han, Soon Young Cho, and Kui Dong Kang Copyright © 2014 Jae Wook Han et al. All rights reserved. Central Corneal Thickness Measurements in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Patients: A Controlled Study Wed, 02 Apr 2014 10:56:28 +0000 Purpose. To measure central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with history of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Patients and Methods. Patients older than 40 years with a history of NAION (group 1) were prospectively evaluated including full eye examination and central corneal thickness (CCT) pachymetry. Patients with a history of intraocular surgery, corneal disease, glaucoma, and contact lens wear were excluded. Measurements were also performed in a gender and age matched control group (group 2). Results. Thirty-one eyes of 31 NAION patients in group 1 were included and 30 eyes of 30 participants in group 2. There were 15 men in group 1 and 9 in group 2 , and mean age of the patients was years in group 1 versus years in group 2 . Mean CCT was microns in group 1 and microns in group 2 . Conclusion. Patients with NAION have no special characteristic of CCT in contrast to the crowded optic disc known to be a significant anatomic risk factor for NAION. More studies should be carried out to investigate CCT and other structure related elements in NAION patients. Haneen Jabaly-Habib, Modi Naftali, and George Habib Copyright © 2014 Haneen Jabaly-Habib et al. All rights reserved. Role of Autofluorescence in Inflammatory/Infective Diseases of the Retina and Choroid Tue, 01 Apr 2014 16:12:38 +0000 Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) has recently emerged as a novel noninvasive imaging technique that uses the fluorescent properties of innate fluorophores accumulated in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to assess the health and viability of the RPE/photoreceptor complex. Recent case reports suggest FAF as a promising tool for monitoring eyes with posterior uveitis helping to predict final visual outcome. In this paper we review the published literature on FAF in these disorders, specifically patterns in infectious and noninfectious uveitis, and illustrate some of these with short case histories. Ahmed Samy, Sue Lightman, Filis Ismetova, Lazha Talat, and Oren Tomkins-Netzer Copyright © 2014 Ahmed Samy et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy on the Development of Neovascular Glaucoma after Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Retrospective Analysis Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:35:52 +0000 Purpose. Ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) eyes are at high risk of developing neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Our purpose is to investigate the effect of anti-VEGF therapy for macular edema after CRVO on the development of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) in ischemic CRVO eyes. Methods. This is a retrospective case series of 44 eyes from 44 patients with CRVO treated with anti-VEGF therapy for macular edema. The primary outcome was the development of NVG. Results. Of the 44 eyes, 14 eyes had ischemic CRVO, and 30 eyes had nonischemic CRVO. Nonischemic eyes received a mean of 8.4 anti-VEGF doses, over mean follow-up of 24 months. One nonischemic eye (3.3%) developed NVD but not NVG. The 14 ischemic eyes received a mean of 5.6 anti-VEGF doses, with mean follow-up of 23 months. Of these 14 ischemic eyes, two eyes (14%) developed iris neovascularization and 3 eyes (21%) developed posterior neovascularization. Three of these 5 eyes with neovascularization progressed to NVG, at 19.7 months after symptom onset, on average. Conclusion. Anti-VEGF therapy for macular edema may delay, but does not prevent, the development of ocular NV in ischemic CRVO. Significant risk of NVG still exists for ischemic CRVO eyes. Christina L. Ryu, Adrian Elfersy, Uday Desai, Thomas Hessburg, Paul Edwards, and Hua Gao Copyright © 2014 Christina L. Ryu et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Epigenetics in the Fibrotic Processes Associated with Glaucoma Mon, 31 Mar 2014 09:24:46 +0000 Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that affects 60 million people worldwide. The main risk factor for glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP), this is currently the only target for treatment of glaucoma. However, some patients show disease progression despite well-controlled IOP. Another possible therapeutic target is the extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in glaucoma. There is an accumulation of ECM in the lamina cribrosa (LC) and trabecular meshwork (TM) and upregulation of profibrotic factors such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), collagen1α1 (COL1A1), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). One method of regulating fibrosis is through epigenetics; the study of heritable changes in gene function caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to drive renal and pulmonary fibrosis by upregulating profibrotic factors. Hypoxia alters epigenetic mechanisms through regulating the cell’s response and there is a hypoxic environment in the LC and TM in glaucoma. This review looks at the role that hypoxia plays in inducing aberrant epigenetic mechanisms and the role these mechanisms play in inducing fibrosis. Evidence suggests that a hypoxic environment in glaucoma may induce aberrant epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to disease fibrosis. These may prove to be relevant therapeutic targets in glaucoma. Fiona McDonnell, Colm O’Brien, and Deborah Wallace Copyright © 2014 Fiona McDonnell et al. All rights reserved. Corneal Biomechanical Assessment Using Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology in Keratoconic and Normal Eyes Sun, 30 Mar 2014 15:53:37 +0000 Purpose. To compare the corneal biomechanical properties of keratoconic patients and age-matched controls using corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (Corvis ST). Methods. Sixty keratoconic eyes from 47 keratoconus patients and 60 normal eyes from 60 controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Tomography and biomechanical parameters of all eyes were obtained with the Pentacam and Corvis ST, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Results. The tomography and biomechanical parameters of the keratoconic corneas were significantly different from those of the normal corneas except for the anterior chamber angle, first applanation length, the highest concavity time, and peak distance. The deformation amplitude was the best predictive parameter (area under the curve: 0.882), with a sensitivity of 81.7%, although there was a significant overlap between keratoconic and normal corneas that ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 mm. In both the keratoconus and control groups, the deformation amplitude was negatively correlated with intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and corneal volume at 3 and 5 mm. Conclusions. Corvis ST offers an alternative method for measuring corneal biomechanical properties. The possibility of classifying keratoconus based on deformation amplitude deserves clinical attention. Lei Tian, Yi-Fei Huang, Li-Qiang Wang, Hua Bai, Qun Wang, Jing-Jing Jiang, Ying Wu, and Min Gao Copyright © 2014 Lei Tian et al. All rights reserved. Costs and Quality of Life in Diabetic Macular Edema: Canadian Burden of Diabetic Macular Edema Observational Study (C-REALITY) Wed, 26 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Purpose. To characterize the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic macular edema (DME) in Canadian patients. Patients and Methods. 145 patients with DME were followed for 6 months with monthly telephone interviews and medical chart reviews at months 0, 3, and 6. Visual acuity in the worst-seeing eye was assessed at months 0 and 6. DME-related healthcare costs were determined over 6 months, and vision-related (National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire) and generic (EQ-5D) quality of life was assessed at months 0, 3, and 6. Results. Mean age of patients was 63.7 years: 52% were male and 72% had bilateral DME. At baseline, visual acuity was categorized as normal/mild loss for 63.4% of patients, moderate loss for 10.4%, and severe loss/nearly blind for 26.2%. Mean 6-month DME-related costs/patient were as follows: all patients (), $2,092; normal/mild loss (), $1,776; moderate loss (), $1,845; and severe loss/nearly blind (), $3,007. Composite scores for vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity loss; generic quality of life scores were highest for moderate loss and lowest for severe loss/nearly blind. Conclusions. DME-related costs in the Canadian healthcare system are substantial. Costs increased and vision-related quality of life declined with increasing visual acuity severity. John R. Gonder, Valery M. Walker, Martin Barbeau, Nancy Zaour, Bryan H. Zachau, James R. Hartje, and Ruihong Li Copyright © 2014 John R. Gonder et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization Using Anti-VEGF Bevacizumab Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:39:58 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate antiangiogenic effect of local use of bevacizumab (anti-VEGF antibody) in patients with corneal neovascularization. Methods. Patients were divided into two groups. All patients suffered from some form of corneal neovascularization (NV). Patients in group A received 0.2–0.5 mL of bevacizumab solution subconjunctivally (concentration 25 mg/mL) in a single dose. Group A included 28 eyes from 27. Patients in group B applied bevacizumab eye drops twice daily (concentration 2.5 mg/mL) for two weeks. Group B included 38 eyes from 35 patients. We evaluated the number of corneal segments affected by NV, CDVA, and the incidence of complications and subjective complaints related to the treatment. The minimum follow-up period was six months. Results. By the 6-month follow-up, in group A the percentage reduction of the affected peripheral segments was 21.6% and of the central segments was 9.6%; in group B the percentage reduction of the central segments was 22.7% and of the central segments was 38.04%. In both groups we noticed a statistically significant reduction in the extent of NV. Conclusion. The use of bevacizumab seems to be an effective and safe method in the treatment of corneal neovascularization, either in the subconjunctival or topical application form. Deli Krizova, Magdalena Vokrojova, Katerina Liehneova, and Pavel Studeny Copyright © 2014 Deli Krizova et al. All rights reserved. Age Macular Degeneration: Etiology, Prevention, Individualized Therapies, Cell Therapy, and Tissue Engineering Sun, 23 Mar 2014 12:34:15 +0000 Alfredo García-Layana, Gabriele Thumann, and Jürgen Groll Copyright © 2014 Alfredo García-Layana et al. All rights reserved. Disturbance of Inorganic Phosphate Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus: Its Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy Thu, 20 Mar 2014 17:41:00 +0000 Early in the progression of diabetes, a paradoxical metabolic imbalance in inorganic phosphate () occurs that may lead to reduced high energy phosphate and tissue hypoxia. These changes take place in the cells and tissues in which the entry of glucose is not controlled by insulin, particularly in poorly regulated diabetes patients in whom long-term vascular complications are more likely. Various conditions are involved in this disturbance in . First, the homeostatic function of the kidneys is suboptimal in diabetes, because elevated blood glucose concentrations depolarize the brush border membrane for reabsorption and lead to lack of intracellular phosphate and hyperphosphaturia. Second, during hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic intervals, high amounts of glucose enter muscle and fat tissues, which are insulin sensitive. Intracellular glucose is metabolized by phosphorylation, which leads to a reduction in plasma , and subsequent deleterious effects on glucose metabolism in insulin insensitive tissues. Hypophosphatemia is closely related to a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the aging process and in uremia. Any interruption of optimal ATP production might lead to cell injury and possible cell death, and evidence will be provided herein that such cell death does occur in diabetic retinopathy. Based on this information, the mechanism of capillary microaneurysms formation in diabetic retinopathy and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy must be reevaluated. H. Vorum and J. Ditzel Copyright © 2014 H. Vorum and J. Ditzel. All rights reserved. Clinical Characteristics of Alternaria Keratitis Thu, 20 Mar 2014 14:00:26 +0000 Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks) were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis , 14 (44%) infections followed trauma, 10 (31%) were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16%) occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72%) patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48%) treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28%) cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated. Ching-Hsi Hsiao, Lung-Kun Yeh, Hung-Chi Chen, Hsin-Chiung Lin, Phil Y. F. Chen, David H. K. Ma, and Hsin-Yuan Tan Copyright © 2014 Ching-Hsi Hsiao et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery Tue, 18 Mar 2014 08:32:05 +0000 LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2), were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week). Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy) after eye surgery was not justified. David Crouzier, Vincent Dabouis, Edgar Gentilhomme, Rodolphe Vignal, Fréderic Bourbon, Florence Fauvelle, and Jean-Claude Debouzy Copyright © 2014 David Crouzier et al. All rights reserved. Gender and Ocular Manifestations of Connective Tissue Diseases and Systemic Vasculitides Mon, 17 Mar 2014 16:23:23 +0000 Ocular manifestations are present in many connective tissue diseases which are characterized by an immune system that is directed against self. In this paper, we review the ocular findings in various connective tissue diseases and systemic vasculitides and highlight gender differences in each disease. In rheumatoid arthritis, we find that dry eyes affect women nine times more than men. The other extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis affect women three times more commonly than men. Systemic lupus erythematosus can involve all ocular structures and women are nine times more affected than men. Systemic sclerosis is a rare disease but, again, it is more common in women with a female to male ratio of 8 : 1. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis also affect women more commonly than men but no gender differences have been found in the incidence or disease course in the systemic vasculitides associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis). Finally, Behcet’s disease is more common in males, and male gender is a risk factor for Behcet’s disease. There is a slight female preponderance in sarcoidosis with female gender carrying a worse prognosis in the outcome of ocular disease. Maria M. Choudhary, Rula A. Hajj-Ali, and Careen Y. Lowder Copyright © 2014 Maria M. Choudhary et al. All rights reserved. Management of the Large Upper Eyelid Defects with Cutler-Beard Flap Mon, 17 Mar 2014 08:16:52 +0000 Background. To assess Cutler-Beard procedure results in patients after wide excision of malignant eyelid tumours. Materials and Methods. The records of two women and two men (four patients) referred to our clinic with eyelid mass complaints and malign eyelid tumour diagnosis according to the histopathological examination were examined retrospectively. Results. The patients were 60–73 years old and their average age was . The follow-up period of the cases was 16 (6–25) months. Total excisional biopsy was applied to all patients and then Cutler-Beard full thickness lid reconstruction was done because of the wide localization of the tumour. The patients’ diagnoses were consistent with basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, eyelid lymphoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. The patients’ eyelids were separated from each other 1 month postoperatively with a second operation. Superior eyelid entropium and blepharochalasis were seen in one patient during followup. Conclusions. Cutler-Beard flap is a successful procedure for superior eyelid tumours accompanied by wide tissue loss. The long-time closure of the eyelids and the need for secondary surgery are the major disadvantages of this procedure. Our experience with this procedure will reveal better results with large case series. Duman Rahmi, Balcı Mehmet, Başkan Ceyda, and Özdoğan Sibel Copyright © 2014 Duman Rahmi et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method for the Localization and Management of Traumatic Cyclodialysis Cleft Tue, 11 Mar 2014 16:31:45 +0000 Purpose. To propose a novel surgical method for the localization and management of traumatic cyclodialysis clefts. Methods. Five patients with traumatic cyclodialysis clefts who underwent the innovative surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The new method was introduced to repair a cyclodialysis cleft with two running sutures from the middle to each end of the cleft under the guidance of a probe. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and gonioscopic results, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were recorded. Results. Cyclodialysis clefts were completely closed postoperatively in four patients (four eyes); this was confirmed by progressively improved VA, restoration into the normal range of the IOP, disappearance of suprachoroidal fluid, and reduced macular edema. Only one patient with multiple clefts had an incomplete reattachment. Conclusions. This clinical study offers a novel and efficient method to localize and repair the cyclodialysis clefts. Mingling Wang, Shufang Hu, Zhenquan Zhao, and Tianlin Xiao Copyright © 2014 Mingling Wang et al. All rights reserved. Molteno3 Implantation as Primary Glaucoma Surgery Tue, 11 Mar 2014 09:41:42 +0000 Purpose. To determine the outcome of Molteno3 implantation as primary glaucoma surgery and to analyze the factors influencing the surgical outcome. Methods. This is a retrospective clinical study of 106 consecutive eyes (97 patients) with no previous glaucoma surgery. Surgical failure was defined as an IOP > 21 mmHg or less than a 20% reduction below baseline, or IOP ≤ 5 mmHg, on two consecutive visits after 3 months follow-up, or reoperation for glaucoma or loss of light perception. Results. At the end of the follow-up (mean, 35 months; range, 12–71 months), the mean postoperative IOP ( mmHg) was statistically significantly lower than the preoperative IOP ( mmHg) (). Life-table success rates were 97%, 94%, and 91% after follow-up of 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Success rate for an IOP ≤ 18 mmHg was 77% at the last visit. Success was not influenced by previous cataract surgery, sex, age, laser trabeculoplasty (LTP), preoperative IOP, or number of antiglaucoma medications. Forty-seven eyes had 66 postoperative complications. Conclusions. The primary Molteno3 implant provided significant IOP lowering with minimal and manageable complications in uncontrolled glaucoma. Neither previous cataract surgery nor LTP had any detrimental effect on surgical success. Juha O. Välimäki and Ari-Pekka A. Ylilehto Copyright © 2014 Juha O. Välimäki and Ari-Pekka A. Ylilehto. All rights reserved. Intravitreal and Subconjunctival Melphalan for Retinoblastoma in Transgenic Mice Mon, 10 Mar 2014 15:27:37 +0000 Purpose. To measure the chemotherapeutic effects of focal melphalan (intravitreal and subconjunctival) on tumor burden, hypoxia, and vasculature in LHBETATAG murine retinoblastoma model. Methods. LHBETATAG transgenic mice were treated with a single 1 mcg intravitreal injection of melphalan, 100 mcg subconjunctival injection, or semiweekly 10 mcg subconjunctival injections for 3 weeks. At 1 or 3 weeks, eyes were enucleated, serially sectioned, and processed with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for tumor burden measurements and probed with immunofluorescence to analyze tumor hypoxia and vasculature. Results. Focal melphalan significantly reduced retinal tumor size (P < 0.02) when given intravitreally or subconjunctivally. Eyes treated with a one-time intravitreal injection of 1 mcg melphalan had significantly smaller tumors at both 1 week (P = 0.017) and at 3 weeks after injection (P = 0.005). Intratumoral hypoxia showed a significant decline in hypoxia at 1 week following intravitreal injection and after maximum dosage of subconjunctival melphalan. Total vasculature was not significantly affected following intravitreal administration. Conclusion. Focal delivery of melphalan via intravitreal or subconjunctival injection has a significant effect on reducing tumor burden, hypoxia, and vasculature, in the treatment of murine retinoblastoma tumors. Nisha V. Shah, D. G. Pham, T. G. Murray, C. Decatur, E. Hernandez, Nikesh N. Shah, M. Cavalcante, and S. K. Houston Copyright © 2014 Nisha V. Shah et al. All rights reserved. Solitary Sarcoid Granuloma of the Iris Mimicking Tuberculosis: A Case Report Mon, 10 Mar 2014 10:02:40 +0000 Introduction. We report a case of a male patient presented with sarcoid lesions of the iris and conjunctiva, mimicking tuberculosis due to epithelioid cell granulomas with small central necrosis in conjunctival biopsy. Patient. A 25-year-old man was referred to our department for further management of an “iris tumor with iridocyclitis” in his right eye. Initial examination showed an isolated vascular tumor of the iris and ciliary body with anterior uveitis and mutton-fat keratic precipitates, suggesting the diagnosis of a granulomatous disease. Conjunctival biopsy revealed granulomatous epithelioid cell inflammation with small central necrosis without acid-fast bacilli. Extensive systemic examination, including bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy, provided the diagnosis of sarcoidosis stage 2 with pulmonary involvement, thus ruling out tuberculosis. Systemic and local steroid therapy was initiated, leading to complete recovery of our patient with complete disappearance of the iris lesion and improvement of the pulmonary function. Conclusion. Although noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas are typical for sarcoidosis, small central necrosis can be found in some granulomas, leading to presumption of tuberculosis. Extensive systemic checkup in cooperation with other specialists is essential to confirm the correct diagnosis and to initiate the appropriate therapy. Robert Rejdak, Pavel Pogorelov, Christian Y. Mardin, Małgorzata Szkaradek, and Anselm G. M. Juenemann Copyright © 2014 Robert Rejdak et al. All rights reserved. Gender Differences in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease and Sympathetic Ophthalmia Wed, 05 Mar 2014 11:58:13 +0000 Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) and sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) are types of T-cell mediated autoimmune granulomatous uveitis. Although the two diseases share common clinical features, they have certain differences in gender predilections. VKH classically has been reported as more prevalent in females than males, yet some studies in Japan and China have not found differences in gender prevalence. Male patients have a higher risk of chorioretinal degeneration, vitiligo, and worse prognosis. Conversely, the changing levels of estrogen/progesterone during pregnancy and the menstrual cycle as well as higher levels of TGF- show a protective role in females. Potential causes of female predilection for VKH are associated with HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles. SO, a bilateral granulomatous uveitis, occurs in the context of one eye after a penetrating injury due to trauma or surgery. In contrast to the female dominance in VKH, males are more frequently affected by SO due to a higher incidence of ocular injury, especially during wartime. However, no gender predilection of SO has been reported in postsurgical cases. No clinically different manifestations are revealed between males and females in SO secondary to either ocular trauma or surgery. The potential causes of the gender difference may provide hints on future treatment and disease evaluation. Yujuan Wang and Chi-Chao Chan Copyright © 2014 Yujuan Wang and Chi-Chao Chan. All rights reserved. Comparison of Latanoprost/Timolol with Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor and Dorzolamide/Timolol with Prostaglandin Analog in the Treatment of Glaucoma Wed, 05 Mar 2014 09:47:15 +0000 Purpose. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of glaucoma patients to investigate how switching medications may affect intraocular pressure (IOP) management. Three concomitant medications were changed to two medications: one combination drop and one single-action drop. Associated adverse effects were also examined. Subjects and Methods. A total of 112 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were examined. All patients were concomitantly using a prostaglandin (PG) analog, a β-blocker, and a carbonic anhydrate inhibitor (CAI). Fifty-five patients began using latanoprost (PG analog)/timolol (β-blocker) fixed-combination (LTFC) drops and a CAI (group 1), and 57 patients began using dorzolamide (CAI)/timolol fixed-combination (DTFC) drops and a PG analog (group 2). The IOP was measured every 6 months for 2 years following medication changes. Changes in visual field mean deviation (MD) and medication discontinuations were also examined. Results. There were no significant differences in IOP or MD values before and after medication changes in either group. The proportion of medication discontinuations, uncontrolled IOP, and adverse reactions was similar in both groups. Conclusion. Switching patients from multiple single-action medications to combination medications was not associated with changes in IOP, visual field testing results, or adverse event frequency. Kenji Inoue, Shoichi Soeda, and Goji Tomita Copyright © 2014 Kenji Inoue et al. All rights reserved. Corneal Backscatter Analysis by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy: Fellow Eye Comparison of Small Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted LASIK Wed, 05 Mar 2014 09:47:10 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate and compare corneal backscatter from anterior stroma between small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (femto-LASIK). Methods. A cohort of 60 eyes of 30 patients was randomized to receive SMILE in one eye and femto-LASIK in the fellow eye. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The main outcome measurements were maximum backscattered intensity and the depth from which it was measured, the backscattered light intensity 30 μm below Bowman’s membrane at the flap interface and 150 μm below the superficial epithelium, and the number of refractive particles at the flap interface. Results. The mean backscattered light intensity (LI) at all measured depths and the maximum backscattered LI were higher in the SMILE group than the femto-LASIK group at all postoperative visits. LI differences at 1 week and 1- and 3-month visits were statistically significant (,05). LI differences at 6 months were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the number of refractive particles at the flap interface between the groups at any visit. Conclusions. SMILE results in increased backscattered LI in the anterior stroma when compared with femto-LASIK were evaluated. Alper Agca, Engin Bilge Ozgurhan, Yusuf Yildirim, Kadir Ilker Cankaya, Nimet Burcu Guleryuz, Zeynep Alkin, Abdullah Ozkaya, Ahmet Demirok, and Omer Faruk Yilmaz Copyright © 2014 Alper Agca et al. All rights reserved. Age-Matched, Case-Controlled Comparison of Clinical Indicators for Development of Entropion and Ectropion Wed, 05 Mar 2014 06:46:25 +0000 Purpose. To analyze the clinical findings associated with involutional entropion and ectropion and compare them to each other and to age-matched controls. Methods. Prospective, age-matched cohort study involving 30 lids with involutional entropion, 30 lids with involutional ectropion, and 52 age-matched control lids. Results. The statistically significant differences associated with both the entropion and ectropion groups compared to the control group were presence of a retractor dehiscence, presence of a “white line,” occurrence of orbital fat prolapse in the cul-de-sac, decreased lower lid excursion, increased lid laxity by the snapback test, and an increased lower lid distraction. Entropion also differed from the control group with an increased lid crease height and decreased lateral canthal excursion. Statistically significant differences associated with entropion compared to ectropion were presence of a retractor dehiscence, decreased lateral canthal excursion, and less laxity in the snapback test. Conclusion. Entropic and ectropic lids demonstrate clinically and statistically significant anatomical and functional differences from normal, age-matched lids. Many clinical findings associated with entropion are also present in ectropion. Entropion is more likely to develop with a pronounced retractor deficiency. Ectropion is more likely to develop with diminished elasticity as measured by the snapback test. Kevin S. Michels, Craig N. Czyz, Kenneth V. Cahill, Jill A. Foster, John A. Burns, and Kelly R. Everman Copyright © 2014 Kevin S. Michels et al. All rights reserved. Medium-Term Visual Outcomes of Apodized Diffractive Multifocal Intraocular Lens with +3.00 D Addition Power Mon, 03 Mar 2014 12:44:56 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate 2-year visual acuities and questionnaire after bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) or SN60WF IOL. Methods. Patients randomly scheduled for bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 MIOL and SN60WF IOL with 2-year follow-up were enrolled. Uncorrected/corrected distance and near visual acuity, uncorrected intermediate visual acuity at 63 cm under high and low contrast, reading activity, the defocus curve, and a quality-of-life questionnaire were evaluated. Results. Each group comprised 20 patients. Uncorrected intermediate visual acuities and uncorrected near visual acuity were better in SN6AD1 group than in SN60WF group (, , and ). In SN6AD1 group, the uncorrected intermediate and near visual acuities 1 year and 2 years postoperatively were reduced than postoperative 3-month outcomes, respectively. SN6AD1 group reported superior overall spectacle independence and inferior satisfaction. SN6AD1 group had a longer reading newspaper duration than SN60WF group (). When using mobile phone, SN6AD1 group had a more comfortable distance than SN60WF group () and higher speed of reading fixed text message (). Conclusion. SN6AD1 MIOL provided a satisfactory full range of visual acuities and questionnaire performance 2 years postoperatively. One-year and 2-year uncorrected near and intermediate visual acuities of SN6AD1 MIOL were lower than those 3 months postoperatively. Xiaohong Guo, Yi Sun, Bowen Zhang, and Danying Zheng Copyright © 2014 Xiaohong Guo et al. All rights reserved.