Table 1: Reference data on bone mineral measurements in healthy, term infants.

ReferenceSample descriptionSample sizeBMC (g)¹Bone area (cm²)¹BMD (g/cm²)¹DXA manufacturer

Whole body

Venkataraman and Ahluwalia 1992 [43]1.5 ± 0.1 d2880.05 ± 6.63241.00 ± 13.000.324 1.00 0.1−4DXA (not specified)

0.2–0.5 mo76.00 ± 14.000.237 ± 0.022
Atkinson et al., 1992 [21]4 mo87147.00 ± 22.000.277 ± 0.028Hologic QDR 1000W (IWB V.5.56P)
6 mo190.00 ± 28.000.299 ± 0.031

1 mo91.90 ± 14.10
Phase I3 mo92123.05 ± 16.89
Specker et al., 1997² [44]6 mo161.78 ± 24.09Hologic QDR 1000W (IWB V.5.56)
6 mo161.99 ± 26.44
Phase II9 mo87198.58 ± 28.74
12 mo236.18 ± 35.78

1–8 d6568.20 ± 10.20308.00 ± 26.400.221 ± 0.017
9–90 d16103.40 ± 21.40431.00 ± 58.100.238 ± 0.022
Koo et al., 1998 [20]91–150 d17137.10 ± 20.00527.00 ± 45.400.259 ± 0.024Hologic QDR 1000W
151–270 d12196.40 ± 26.60650.00 ± 64.300.302 ± 0.018
271–390 d20253.20 ± 41.30754.00 ± 87.800.335 ± 0.029

Girls0.5 mo4368.00 ± 12.00
Butte et al, 2000 [45]12 mo42208.00 ± 31.00¹Hologic QDR 2000 (IWB 5.56–5.71P)
Boys0.5 mo3368.00 ± 13.00
12 mo32221.00 ± 33.00

33 ± 4 d3782.60 ± 11.90377.71 ± 36.60
63 ± 4 d35103.80 ± 16.00437.24 ± 61.84
Avila-Díaz et al., 2001 [19] 94 ± 11 d29111.00 ± 15.10467.65 ± 39.29Hologic R 1500 (IWB 5.67P)
126 ± 10 d18129.30 ± 17.70499.26 ± 43.51
147 ± 6 d16134.00 ± 20.00521.01 ± 46.00

Hammami et al., 2003 [46]3.0 ± 2.1 d7389.30 ± 14.10371.00 ± 32.700.240 ± 0.022Hologic QDR 4500A

Lumbar spine

Braillon et al., 1992 [11]1 d102.34 ± 0.420.268 ± 0.030Hologic QDR 1000, L1-5

Kurl et al., 2002 [12]
Girls2–6 mo221.93 ± 0.578.27 ± 1.100.230 ± 0.050Lunar DPX, L2-4 (IAP spine mode V.3.8E)
Boys192.26 ± 0.588.74 ± 1.200.250 ± 0.040

Zia-Ullah et al., 2002 [13]1–39 d992.20 ± 1.508.80 ± 4.200.231 ± 0.049Hologic QDR 1000W, L1-4

*BMC, bone area, and BMD reported as mean ± SD. WB: infant whole body, IAP: infant AP (front view).
¹Values are presented as per reported in original reference. ²Based on pooled average + SD from reported group mean, phase I (1–6 mo): human milk ( ), low mineral formula (Good Start; Carnation Nutritional Products) ( ), moderate mineral formula (Similac; Ross Laboratories) ( ); phase II (6–12 mo): moderate mineral formula (Similac) ( ), high mineral formula (Carnation followup) ( ), whole cow’s milk ( ).