Journal of Osteoporosis http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis Tue, 08 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2014/465987/ Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein () and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients. Claudiu Popescu, Violeta Bojincă, Daniela Opriş, and Ruxandra Ionescu Copyright © 2014 Claudiu Popescu et al. All rights reserved. The Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Propranolol Improves the Trabecular Microarchitecture and Mechanical Property in an Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Sun, 30 Mar 2014 17:12:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2014/586431/ We conducted the present study to investigate the therapeutic effects of propranolol (PRO), alone and in combination with the antiresorptive agent ZOL, in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were OVX or sham-operated at 3 months of age. Twelve weeks after surgery, rats were randomized into six groups: (1) sham + vehicle, (2) OVX + vehicle, (3) OVX + ZOL (100 μg/kg, i.v. single dose), (4) OVX + ZOL (50 μg/kg, i.v. single dose), (5) OVX + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week), and (6) OVX + ZOL (50 μg/kg, i.v. single dose) + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week) for 12 weeks. At the end of treatment study, various bone parameters were evaluated. With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the lumbar spine and the femoral mid-shaft, the combination treatment of ZOL and PRO was more effective than each drug administered as a monotherapy. Moreover, combination therapy using ZOL and PRO preserved the trabecular microarchitecture better than single-drug therapy using ZOL or PRO in OVX rats. These data suggest that combination therapy with ZOL plus PRO represents a potentially useful therapeutic option for patients with osteoporosis. Deepak Kumar Khajuria, Rema Razdan, and D. Roy Mahapatra Copyright © 2014 Deepak Kumar Khajuria et al. All rights reserved. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs of Women with Increased Risk of the Female Athlete Triad Sun, 09 Mar 2014 07:45:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2014/676304/ Women with increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) are more susceptible to osteoporosis compared to other women. The study included 65 women with increased risk of the Triad who had their osteoporosis health beliefs measured to assess their concern for the disease. Participants were female collegiate cross-country runners at different levels of competition, including National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Divisions III, II, and I. Although these participants have an increased risk of the Triad and are more susceptible to osteoporosis, on a scale of 1 to 5, results showed that they had low to moderate perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 2.81 and moderate perceived severity of osteoporosis with a mean score as high as 3.38. A statistically significant difference in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was found between female collegiate cross-country runners in the NAIA and those in the NCAA DIII. Reasons that could explain relatively low levels of concern for osteoporosis in female collegiate cross-country runners and reasons for significant differences in perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis are given, and recommendations for health education and intervention to help care for this population are provided. Vu H. Nguyen, Ze Wang, and Stephanie M. Okamura Copyright © 2014 Vu H. Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. A New Predictive Index for Osteoporosis in Men under 70 Years of Age: An Index to Identify Male Candidates for Osteoporosis Screening by Bone Mineral Density Mon, 03 Mar 2014 11:41:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2014/781897/ Background. Bone mineral density (BMD) screening guidelines for osteoporosis in men seem to have remained unclear. We aimed to set up a predictive index for the osteoporosis(PIO) in men under 70 years of age and present the optimal cutoff value of it, so that clinicians might use it to identify male candidates who benefit from taking the BMD screening. Methods. Adult men under 70 years old who met certain criteria were included. With the determined significant predictors for osteoporosis, we created a new index that presumably best predicts the osteoporosis and compared the predictability of it to other variables. Lastly, the optimal cutoff value of the PIO was calculated. Results. A total of 359 men were included. Age, weight, and current smoking status turned out to be significant predictors for osteoporosis. The PIO was as follows: [age(years) + 10 (for current smoker)]/weight(kg). Compared to other variables, the PIO showed the greatest predictive performance with the optimal cutoff point being 0.87 at which sensitivity and specificity were 71.9% and 70.0%, respectively. Conclusion. A new predictive index appeared to predict the presence of osteoporosis fairly well and thus can be used with its cutoff point to identify men under 70 years of age who need BMD screening. Lee Oh Kim, Hyeon-Ju Kim, and Mi Hee Kong Copyright © 2014 Lee Oh Kim et al. All rights reserved. Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth Index and Periodontal Health in Osteoporotic Patients Affected by BRONJ: An Observational Study Thu, 12 Dec 2013 10:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/231289/ The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal disease in 32 osteoporotic patients affected by bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Moreover, an investigation between the obtained data and 20 patients treated with bisphosphonate drugs and with no evidence of ONJ has been performed. Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a rare complication in a subset of patients receiving bisphosphonate drugs. Based on a growing number of case reports and institutional reviews, this kind of therapy can cause exposed and necrotic bone specifically in the jawbones. From April 2009 to June 2012, 32 osteoporotic patients treated with oral or intravenous (I.V.) bisphosphonates have been recorded. The patients’ oral health has been compared with 20 bisphosphonates patients with no ONJ. The incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal disease was recorded in all patients and student’s -test was applied for comparing the two investigated groups data. Data demonstrated how the poor dental hygiene and periodontal disease of the BRONJ patients’ are connected with the occurrence of jawbone necrosis. Giacomo Oteri, Ennio Bramanti, Valentina Nigrone, and Marco Cicciù Copyright © 2013 Giacomo Oteri et al. All rights reserved. Adherence and Persistence with Once-Daily Teriparatide in Japan: A Retrospective, Prescription Database, Cohort Study Thu, 12 Dec 2013 09:32:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/654218/ Adherence and persistence with osteoporosis treatments are essential for reducing fracture risk. Once-daily teriparatide is available in Japan for treating osteoporosis in patients with a high risk of fracture. The study objective was to describe real-world adherence and persistence with once-daily teriparatide 20 g during the first year of treatment for patients who started treatment during the first eight months of availability in Japan. This prescription database study involved patients with an index date (first claim) between October 2010 and May 2011, a preindex period ≥6 months, and a postindex period ≥12 months and who were aged >45 years. Adherence (medication possession ratio (MPR)) and persistence (time from the start of treatment to discontinuation; a 60-day gap in supply) were calculated. A total of 287 patients started treatment during the specified time period; 123 (42.9%) were eligible for inclusion. Overall mean (standard deviation) adherence was 0.702 (0.366), with 61.0% of patients having high adherence (MPR > 0.8). The percentage of patients remaining on treatment was 65.9% at 180 days and 61.0% at 365 days. Our findings suggest that real-world adherence and persistence with once-daily teriparatide in Japan are similar to that with once-daily teriparatide in other countries and with other osteoporosis medications. Ikuko Tanaka, Masayo Sato, Tomoko Sugihara, Douglas E. Faries, Shuko Nojiri, Peita Graham-Clarke, Jennifer A. Flynn, and Russel T. Burge Copyright © 2013 Ikuko Tanaka et al. All rights reserved. Nanohydroxyapatite Application to Osteoporosis Management Mon, 28 Oct 2013 08:51:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/679025/ Hydroxyapatite is chemically related to the inorganic component of bone matrix as a complex structure with the formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Previous studies have reported the application of microsized hydroxyapatite to bone regeneration, but the result is not satisfied. The limitation comes from the size of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the duration of treatment is very long. The advantages of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal are the osteoconduction, bioresorption, and contact in close distance. Crystal in osteoporotic bone is calcium phosphate hydroxide with the chemical formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Crystal of normal bone is sodium calcium hydrogen carbonate phosphate hydrate with the chemical formula of Ca8H2(PO4)6·H2O–NaHCO3–H2O. The recent development is applying nanobiology approach to hydroxyapatite. This is based on the concept that the mineral atoms arranged in a crystal structure of hydroxyapatite can be substituted or incorporated by the other mineral atoms. In conclusion, the basic elements of hydroxyapatite crystals, composed of atomic minerals in a certain geometric pattern, and their relationship to the bone cell biological activity have opened opportunities for hydroxyapatite crystals supplement application on osteoporosis. Understanding of the characteristics of bone hydroxyapatite crystals as well as the behavior of mineral atom in the substitution will have a better impact on the management of osteoporosis. Zairin Noor Copyright © 2013 Zairin Noor. All rights reserved. HIV and Bone Disease: A Perspective of the Role of microRNAs in Bone Biology upon HIV Infection Sun, 27 Oct 2013 14:52:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/571418/ Increased life expectancy and the need for long-term antiretroviral therapy have brought new challenges to the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures is increased in HIV-infected patients; thus optimal strategies for risk management and treatment in this group of patients need to be defined. Prevention of bone loss is an important component of HIV care as the HIV population grows older. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV infection affects bone biology leading to osteoporosis is crucial to delineate potential adjuvant treatments. This review focuses on HIV-induced osteoporosis within the context of microRNAs (miRNAs) by reviewing first basic concepts of bone biology as well as current knowledge of the role of miRNAs in bone development. Evidence that HIV-associated osteoporosis is in part independent of therapies employed to treat HIV (HAART) is supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and is the focus of this review. Fabiola E. Del Carpio-Cano, Raul A. DeLa Cadena, and Bassel E. Sawaya Copyright © 2013 Fabiola E. Del Carpio-Cano et al. All rights reserved. Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture Sun, 20 Oct 2013 12:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/791397/ Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity > 4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age < 6 months. After treatment, patients were followed through hospital discharge and returned for visits after 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Back pain severity improved 66% (), from 7.9 (95% CI: 7.1 to 8.6) at pretreatment to 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0) at 3 months. Back function improved 46% (), from 74 (95% CI: 69% to 79%) at pretreatment to 40 (95% CI: 33% to 47%) at 3 months. The percentage of patients regularly consuming pain medication was 70% at pretreatment and only 21% at 3 months. No adverse events related to the device or procedure were reported. RF-TVA reduces back pain severity, improves back function, and reduces pain medication requirements with no observed complications in patients with osteoporotic VCF. Franklin G. Moser, Marcel M. Maya, Laura Blaszkiewicz, Andrea Scicli, Larry E. Miller, and Jon E. Block Copyright © 2013 Franklin G. Moser et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Weight, Body Mass Index, and Bone Mineral Density in Men Referred for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan in Isfahan, Iran Thu, 03 Oct 2013 15:20:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/205963/ Objective. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD), the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between BMI, weight and BMD in an Iranian men population. Methods. A total of 230 men 50-79 years old were examined. All men underwent a standard BMD scans of hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft) and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) using a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan and examination of body size. Participants were categorised in two BMI group: normal weight <25.0 kg/m2 and overweight and obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results. Compared to men with BMI ≥ 25, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 2.2 (95% CI 0.85, 5.93) and for osteoporosis was 4.4 (1.51, 12.87) for men with BMI < 25. It was noted that BMI and weight was associated with a high BMD, compatible with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Conclusions. These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis. The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women. Mohammad Reza Salamat, Amir Hossein Salamat, Iraj Abedi, and Mohsen Janghorbani Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Reza Salamat et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Health Beliefs, and Self-Efficacy regarding Osteoporosis in Perimenopausal Women Wed, 11 Sep 2013 08:30:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/853531/ The aims of this pilot study were to (1) determine if having a family history of osteoporosis impacts knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding osteoporosis among perimenopausal women aged 42–52 and to (2) describe the impact of an osteoporosis-specific educational intervention had on the knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy of this population. Participants completed three surveys measuring knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis before and two months after the educational program. At baseline, no differences were noted in knowledge of osteoporosis among women with and without a family history of osteoporosis, although women with a family history perceived a greater susceptibility for developing osteoporosis than women without the family history. Findings indicate that both groups increased in knowledge of osteoporosis (). Benefits of calcium increased in the women without a family history of osteoporosis () and benefits of exercise increase in women with a family history of osteoporosis (). There were no significant statistical findings regarding self-efficacy between the two groups of women. Findings indicate that an osteoporosis-specific educational program improves perimenopausal women’s knowledge and some health beliefs. Renée D. Endicott Copyright © 2013 Renée D. Endicott. All rights reserved. Effects of Vitamin E on Bone Biomechanical and Histomorphometric Parameters in Ovariectomized Rats Thu, 05 Sep 2013 14:10:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/825985/ The present study examined the dose-dependent effect of vitamin E in reversing bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were either Sham-operated (Sham) or Ovx and fed control diet for 120 days to lose bone. Subsequently, rats were divided into 5 groups (/group): Sham, Ovx-control, low dose (Ovx + 300 mg/kg diet; LD), medium dose (Ovx + 525 mg/kg diet; MD), and high dose (Ovx + 750 mg/kg diet; HD) of vitamin E and sacrificed after 100 days. Animals receiving MD and HD of vitamin E had increased serum alkaline phosphatase compared to the Ovx-control group. Bone histomorphometry analysis indicated a decrease in bone resorption as well as increased bone formation and mineralization in the Ovx groups supplemented with MD and HD of vitamin E. Microcomputed tomography findings indicated no effects of vitamin E on trabecular bone of fifth lumbar vertebrae. Animals receiving HD of vitamin E had enhanced fourth lumbar vertebra quality as evidenced by improved ultimate and yield load and stress when compared to Ovx-control group. These findings demonstrate that vitamin E improves bone quality, attenuates bone resorption, and enhances the rate of bone formation while being unable to restore bone density and trabecular bone structure. Rafaela G. Feresin, Sarah A. Johnson, Marcus L. Elam, Jeong-Su Kim, Dania A. Khalil, Edralin A. Lucas, Brenda J. Smith, Mark E. Payton, Mohammed P. Akhter, and Bahram H. Arjmandi Copyright © 2013 Rafaela G. Feresin et al. All rights reserved. Black Tea May Be a Prospective Adjunct for Calcium Supplementation to Prevent Early Menopausal Bone Loss in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis Wed, 24 Jul 2013 09:17:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/760586/ The present study was undertaken to find out the ability of black tea extract (BTE) as a suitable alternative of adjunct for calcium supplementation in treating an ovariectomized rat model of early osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats weighing 140–150 g were divided into four groups consisting of six animals in each group: (A) sham-operated control; (B) bilaterally ovariectomized; (C) bilaterally ovariectomized + BTE; (D) bilaterally ovariectomized + 17β-estradiol. Results suggest that BTE could promote intestinal absorption of calcium significantly ( for duodenum and ileum; and for jejunum). This was found associated with enhanced activities of two relevant intestinal mucosal enzymes alkaline phosphatase ( for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) and Ca2+ activated ATPase ( for duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). Such BTE-mediated promotion of calcium absorption was coupled with increase in serum estrogen titer () and recovery of all urinary, bone, and serum osteoporotic marker parameters, including bone histological features. Serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was not altered in these animals (). A comparative study with 17β-estradiol, a well-known adjunct for calcium supplementation, indicated that efficacy of BTE in maintaining skeletal health is close to that of 17β-estradiol. This study suggests that simultaneous use of BTE is promising as a prospective candidate for adjunctive therapies for calcium supplementation in the early stage of menopausal bone changes. Asankur Sekhar Das, Maitrayee Banerjee, Dolan Das, Sandip Mukherjee, and Chandan Mitra Copyright © 2013 Asankur Sekhar Das et al. All rights reserved. Does Percutaneous Kyphoplasty Have Better Functional Outcome Than Vertebroplasty in Single Level Osteoporotic Compression Fractures? A Comparative Prospective Study Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:03:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/690329/ Purpose. To evaluate the relative differences in surgical outcome of kyphoplasty (KP) versus vertebroplasty (VP) in the patients with single level refractory osteoporotic compression fractures (OCFs). Method. From August 2008 to May 2012, we intermittently treated 57 patients with single level OCF by PV and KP (Groups A and B, resp.). We used visual analogue scale (VAS) and short form 36 (SF36) questionnaire to measure functional recovery and followed them for six months. Independent samples t- and Kendall’s tau-b tests were for statistics. Results. In terms of age, number, and bone mineral density of the patients, there were no significant differences between the two groups. In both groups, VAS and SF-36 scores improved significantly and remained relatively stable throughout the follow-up period. We had 9 and 6 asymptomatic cement extravasations and 5 and 8 new vertebral fractures in Group A and B, respectively. In comparing the two groups, the results indicated that KP almost failed to show any significant higher effect relative to VP during this period. Conclusions. In considering the high cost of KP relative to VP in the developing countries like Iran, there is no logical reason to use KP in a single level refractory OCF in these regions. F. Omidi-Kashani, F. Samini, E. G. Hasankhani, A. R. Kachooei, K. Z. Toosi, and F. Golhasani-Keshtan Copyright © 2013 F. Omidi-Kashani et al. All rights reserved. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers Wed, 26 Jun 2013 13:18:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/460210/ Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal score versus controls (). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar score (, ) and femur score (, ) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (, ), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. Sahar Fathi Ahmed, Neveen Fouda, and Amal Ahmed Abbas Copyright © 2013 Sahar Fathi Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Mon, 03 Jun 2013 15:56:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/250423/ Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control) were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9%) and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1%) while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%). For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only), and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only). Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults. George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley Copyright © 2013 George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley. All rights reserved. Women’s Attitudes and Health Beliefs toward Osteoporosis Screening in a Community Pharmacy Tue, 28 May 2013 08:54:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/650136/ The aim of this study was to examine women’s attitudes and health beliefs towards osteoporosis screening in a community pharmacy setting, utilizing the theoretical framework of Health Belief Model. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design, examining a convenience sample of women aged 18 and over, from several New York City senior care centers, a church, and a university campus in New York, was employed to assess the study objectives. Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale questionnaire was used to study the attitudes and health beliefs of participants towards bone mineral density screening in community pharmacy. From the study, it was observed that perceptions of severity and susceptibility towards osteoporosis and subjects’ demographic characteristics did not seem to significantly influence the decision to screen in a community pharmacy setting. The perceptions of benefits of community pharmacy-based osteoporosis screening and the perceived barriers were found to be of greater importance in women’s decisions to engage in osteoporosis-specific preventive behavior. Priyanka Deo, Rajesh Nayak, and Jigar Rajpura Copyright © 2013 Priyanka Deo et al. All rights reserved. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring Mon, 27 May 2013 16:33:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/154109/ Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol) have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol) or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol) amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, ) and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, ), compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, ) and density (4%, ) of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength () and stiffness (). However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring. Pedro S. P. Huot, David W. Dodington, Rebecca C. Mollard, Sandra A. Reza-López, Diana Sánchez-Hernández, Clara E. Cho, Justin Kuk, Wendy E. Ward, and G. Harvey Anderson Copyright © 2013 Pedro S. P. Huot et al. All rights reserved. Purinergic Signaling in Bone Thu, 16 May 2013 15:19:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/673684/ Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Elena Adinolfi, Isabel Orriss, and Peter Schwarz Copyright © 2013 Niklas Rye Jørgensen et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Bone Mineral Density and Its Determinants in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Sun, 31 Mar 2013 13:26:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/397814/ Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been inconsistently associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. 86 consecutive T1DM cases and 140 unrelated age and sex matched healthy nondiabetic controls were included in the study. After history and examination, BMD and body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, albumin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, 25 (OH) vitamin D3, intact parathormone (PTH) levels (both cases and controls) and HbA1c, antimicrosomal and IgA tissue transglutaminase (IgA TTG) antibodies, cortisol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) (cases only). T1DM cases had a lower BMD as compared to controls at both total body (TB) and lumbar spine (LS) (). Patients with celiac autoimmunity (CA) had significantly, lower BMD as compared to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) matched T1DM controls. Linear regression analysis showed that low BMD in T1DM patients was associated with poor glycaemic control, lower IGF-1 levels, less physical activity (in total population as well as in male and female subgroups), and lower body fat percentage (in females) and higher alkaline phosphatase level (in males) (). Ameya Joshi, Premlata Varthakavi, Manoj Chadha, and Nikhil Bhagwat Copyright © 2013 Ameya Joshi et al. All rights reserved. Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool Performance in a Large Sample of Postmenopausal Women of Mendoza, Argentina Mon, 04 Mar 2013 16:15:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/150154/ The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST) is a clinical instrument designed to select patients at risk of osteoporosis, who would benefit from a bone mineral density measurement. The OST only takes into account the age and weight of the subject. It was developed for Asian women and later validated for European and North American white women. The performance of the OST in a sample of 4343 women from Greater Mendoza, a large metropolitan area of Argentina, was assessed. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of lumbar spine and hip were obtained. Patients were classified as either osteoporotic () or nonosteoporotic () according to their lowest T-score at any site. Osteoporotic patients had lower OST scores (). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve of 71% (), with a sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 44% for a cut-off value of 2. Positive predictive value was 52% and negative predictive value was 79%. The odds ratio for the diagnosis of osteoporosis was 4.06 (CI95 3.51 to 4.71; ). It is concluded that the OST is useful for selecting postmenopausal women for DXA testing in the studied population. Fernando D. Saraví Copyright © 2013 Fernando D. Saraví. All rights reserved. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity Mon, 25 Feb 2013 11:14:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/953271/ Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team ( for each group). Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity) and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women. Fernando D. Saraví and Fabiana Sayegh Copyright © 2013 Fernando D. Saraví and Fabiana Sayegh. All rights reserved. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background Wed, 16 Jan 2013 14:33:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/325693/ In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals), the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone, which was reflected in slowing the thinning of bone trabeculae and in preventing the occurrence of these microfractures, as well as increasing quality of experimental fractures healing. D. S. R. Rajkumar, A. V. Faitelson, O. S. Gudyrev, G. M. Dubrovin, M. V. Pokrovski, and A. V. Ivanov Copyright © 2013 D. S. R. Rajkumar et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Clinical Decision Rules for Bone Mineral Density Testing among White Women Thu, 10 Jan 2013 14:57:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2013/792831/ Background. Osteoporosis is a devastating, insidious disease that causes skeletal fragility. Half of women will suffer osteoporotic fractures during their lifetimes. Many fractures occur needlessly, because of inattentiveness to assessment, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Study Purpose. Study Purpose. To evaluate the discriminatory performance of clinical decision rules to determine the need to undergo bone mineral density testing. Methods. A nationally representative sample from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey consisted of 14,060 subjects who completed surveys, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and bone mineral density exams. Multivariable linear regression tested the correlation of covariates that composed the clinical decision rules with bone mineral density. Results. Increased age and decreased weight were variables in the final regression models for each gender and race/ethnicity. Among the indices, the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, which is composed of age and weight, performed best for White women. Study Implications. These results have implications for the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool performed best and is inexpensive and the least time consuming to implement. Michael E. Anders, Lori Turner, and Jeanne Freeman Copyright © 2013 Michael E. Anders et al. All rights reserved. Detecting Early Biomechanical Effects of Zoledronic Acid on Femurs of Osteoporotic Female Rats Tue, 04 Dec 2012 12:05:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2012/162806/ Aim. To investigate the biomechanical effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on femurs of female osteoporotic rats after follow-up periods of 9 and 12 months. Methods. Eighty female Wistar rats were prospectively assessed. At 60 days of age, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy (O) () and sham surgery (S) (). At 90 days of age, groups O and S were randomly subdivided into four groups, according to whether 0.1 mg/kg of ZA or distilled water (DW) was intraperitoneally administered: OZA (), ODW (), SZA (), and SDW (). The animals were sacrificed at 9 and 12 months after the administration of the substances, and then their right femurs were removed and analyzed biomechanically. Axial compression tests that focused on determining the maximum load (N), yield point (N), and stiffness coefficient (N/mm) of the proximal femur were performed in the biomechanical study. Results. ZA significantly increased the maximum load and yield point, reducing the stiffness coefficient concerning the oophorectomy status and follow-up period. Conclusion. Zoledronic acid, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, significantly increased the maximum loads and yield points and reduced the stiffness coefficients in the femurs of female rats with osteoporosis caused by bilateral oophorectomy. Evandro Pereira Palacio, Sérgio Swain Müller, Trajano Sardenberg, Roberto Ryuiti Mizobuchi, José Antônio Galbiatti, Alcides Durigan Jr., Aniello Savarese, and Érika Veruska Paiva Ortolan Copyright © 2012 Evandro Pereira Palacio et al. All rights reserved. Divergent Significance of Bone Mineral Density Changes in Aging Depending on Sites and Sex Revealed through Separate Analyses of Bone Mineral Content and Area Sun, 25 Nov 2012 08:46:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2012/642486/ Bone mineral density (aBMD) is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC) divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change. Yasumoto Matsui, Marie Takemura, Atsushi Harada, Fujiko Ando, and Hiroshi Shimokata Copyright © 2012 Yasumoto Matsui et al. All rights reserved. Osteoporosis Knowledge of Students in Relevant Healthcare Academic Programs Mon, 19 Nov 2012 12:44:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2012/383412/ For healthcare professionals who treat individuals with osteoporosis, it is vital that they receive adequate education on osteoporosis to ensure sufficient knowledge of osteoporosis to properly treat individuals with the disease. To test for adequate osteoporosis education, a study was conducted to measure osteoporosis knowledge in 206 students in relevant healthcare academic programs, such as nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and dietetics. The study showed that differences existed in osteoporosis knowledge in general between the programs and between different years of students in the same programs. There were also discrepancies in specific areas of osteoporosis knowledge between the classes of students, and the average scores of correctly answered items were only as high as 24.40 (76.3%) out of 32 items on osteoporosis knowledge. This study shows that students have osteoporosis knowledge and that it is not completely inadequate; however, osteoporosis knowledge could still be more sufficient, and results demonstrate the need to increase osteoporosis education in the curriculum for these healthcare academic programs to increase osteoporosis knowledge and better prepare graduates and professionals to treat individuals with the disease. Vu H. Nguyen and Ze Wang Copyright © 2012 Vu H. Nguyen and Ze Wang. All rights reserved. Survivorship and Severe Complications Are Worse for Octogenarians and Elderly Patients with Pelvis Fractures as Compared to Adults: Data from the National Trauma Data Bank Wed, 07 Nov 2012 09:39:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2012/475739/ Purpose. This study examined whether octogenarians and elderly patients with pelvic fractures have a different risk of complication and mortality as compared to adults. Methods. Data was gathered from the National Trauma Data Bank from 2002 to 2006. There were 32,660 patients 18–65, 6,408 patients 65–79, and 5,647 patients ≥ 80 years old with pelvic fractures. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the adult population as a referent. Results. Multivariate analysis showed 4.7-fold higher odds of death and 4.57 odds of complications in the octogenarian group after a pelvic fracture compared to adults. The elderly had 1.81-fold higher odds of death and 2.18-fold higher odds of severe complications after sustaining a severe pelvic fracture relative to adults. An ISS ≥ 16 yielded 15.1-fold increased odds of mortality and 18.3-fold higher odds of severe complications. Hypovolemic shock had 7.65-fold increased odds of death and 6.31-fold higher odds of severe complications. Between the ages of 18 and 89 years, there is approximately a 1% decrease in survivorship every 10 years. Conclusions. This study illustrates that patients older than 80 years old with pelvis fractures have a higher mortality and complications rate than elderly or adult patients. Amir Matityahu, Joshua Elson, Saam Morshed, and Meir Marmor Copyright © 2012 Amir Matityahu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Kalsis, A Dietary Supplement, on Bone Metabolism in the Ovariectomized Rats Thu, 04 Oct 2012 13:20:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2012/639427/ We studied the ability of Kalsis, a food supplement that contains selenium, citric acid, and vitamin E, to prevent the effects of ovariectomy on bone loss. Six-month-old, Wistar female rats were studied. Groups (): SHAM: sham-operated rats; OVX: ovariectomized rats, treated with vehicle; OVX + Kalsis: ovariectomized rats treated with Kalsis (25 mg/kg/day) for 3 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by DXA in lumbar spine and femur. Computerized microtomography (CT) in femur and serum osteocalcin (BGP), aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen I (PINP), β-isomer of carboxyterminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTX), and 5b isoenzyme of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were performed. Treatment with Kalsis prevented BMD loss in OVX group. CT showed a decrease in BV/TV, and trabecular number, and an increase in trabecular separation in OVX rats. Kalsis administration attenuated partially bone loss observed by CT due to ovariectomy. BGP, PINP, and the resorption index (CTX/TRAP) were increased in OVX group. Treatment with Kalsis maintained this increase. The mechanism of action of this supplement is not through a decrease in bone remodelling rate. The antioxidant action of this food supplement, due to the synergism of all its components, as a cause of its beneficial effect is suggested. Mercedes Montero, Manuel Díaz-Curiel, David Guede, Jose Ramón Caeiro, Marta Martín-Fernández, Mercedes Rubert, Daisy Navarro, and Concepción de la Piedra Copyright © 2012 Mercedes Montero et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Purinergic Receptors in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Wed, 03 Oct 2012 10:36:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2012/758181/ Cancer-induced bone pain severely compromises the quality of life of many patients suffering from bone metastasis, as current therapies leave some patients with inadequate pain relief. The recent development of specific animal models has increased the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer-induced bone pain including the involvement of ATP and the purinergic receptors in the progression of the pain state. In nociception, ATP acts as an extracellular messenger to transmit sensory information both at the peripheral site of tissue damage and in the spinal cord. Several of the purinergic receptors have been shown to be important for the development and maintenance of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and studies have demonstrated the importance of both peripheral and central mechanisms. We here provide an overview of the current literature on the role of purinergic receptors in cancer-induced bone pain with emphasis on some of the difficulties related to studying this complex pain state. Sarah Falk, Maria Uldall, and Anne-Marie Heegaard Copyright © 2012 Sarah Falk et al. All rights reserved.