Journal of Parasitology Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia Thu, 22 Jan 2015 13:29:41 +0000 Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and was considered significant. Result. The overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus was 40.9% (). The prevalence in medium body condition 27.3% () varies significantly from that of good body condition 13.5% () (). Moreover, there was significant variation () in the prevalence in young and adult sheep with rates of 21.9% () and 19% (), respectively. At the same time, there is significant variation () in male and female sheep with prevalence of 29.7% () and 11.2% (), respectively. The prevalence of 25.3% () in sheep that originated from Negash compared to Wukro and Agulae showed no significant variation (). Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented. Lidya Gebresilassie and Berihun Afera Tadele Copyright © 2015 Lidya Gebresilassie and Berihun Afera Tadele. All rights reserved. Novel Arsenic Nanoparticles Are More Effective and Less Toxic than As (III) to Inhibit Extracellular and Intracellular Proliferation of Leishmania donovani Wed, 31 Dec 2014 11:31:07 +0000 Visceral leishmaniasis, a vector-borne tropical disease that is threatening about 350 million people worldwide, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Metalloids like arsenic and antimony have been used to treat diseases like leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasites. Arsenic (III) at a relatively higher concentration (30 μg/mL) has been shown to have antileishmanial activity, but this concentration is reported to be toxic in several experimental mammalian systems. Nanosized metal (0) particles have been shown to be more effective than their higher oxidation state forms. There is no information so far regarding arsenic nanoparticles (As-NPs) as an antileishmanial agent. We have tested the antileishmanial properties of the As-NPs, developed for the first time in our laboratory. As-NPs inhibited the in vitro growth, oxygen consumption, infectivity, and intramacrophage proliferation of L. donovani parasites at a concentration which is about several fold lower than that of As (III). Moreover, this antileishmanial activity has comparatively less cytotoxic effect on the mouse macrophage cell line. It is evident from our findings that As-NPs have more potential than As (III) to be used as an antileishmanial agent. Sudipta Chakraborty, Kaushik Bhar, Sandip Saha, Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Anjali Pal, and Anirban Siddhanta Copyright © 2014 Sudipta Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu Wed, 10 Dec 2014 08:47:57 +0000 Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20 mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24 hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298 hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483 hr period to complete a life cycle. Nur Qamarina Abdul Khalid and Faizah Shaharoum-Harrison Copyright © 2014 Nur Qamarina Abdul Khalid and Faizah Shaharoum-Harrison. All rights reserved. Histochemical Study of the Progenetic Trematode Alloglossidium renale Wed, 10 Sep 2014 13:34:47 +0000 A histochemical study of the progenetic trematode Alloglossidium renale has demonstrated the absence of any secreted material between the adult worm and the host (freshwater shrimp) antennal gland tubules. Host tissue is affected only by the compression, abrasion, and ingestion by the parasite, and host tubule cells near the worm have the same staining patterns as those distant from the parasite. The trematode sometimes dies within the host, leaving a necrotic mass whose histochemical staining differs significantly from the living organism. In the necrotic mass, the only recognizable features were the ova and the vitellarium, which atrophied and resulted in tyrosine-positive staining within the mass. A melanin reaction was not observed in the host using a specialized ferro-ferricyanide stain. The only apparent host response to infection was a layer of damaged squamous host cells adhering to the necrotic worm. The results confirm benign host-parasite effects and a highly evolved relationship between the host and parasite, perhaps bordering on commensalism. Craig A. Schimmer and Stephen C. Landers Copyright © 2014 Craig A. Schimmer and Stephen C. Landers. All rights reserved. Morphological Features and In Vitro Cytopathic Effect of Acanthamoeba griffini Trophozoites Isolated from a Clinical Case Mon, 08 Sep 2014 09:11:54 +0000 Light and transmission electron microscopy observations are reported on the structure and in vitro cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba griffini trophozoites isolated from a clinical case. Live trophozoites were moderately active with a remarkable pleomorphism which changed from ovoid to quite elongated shapes. When moving, amoebae formed cytoplasmic projections such as wide lamellae and acanthopodia of diverse size and thickness which contain a significant amount of actin. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm showed the main organelles found in other free-living amoebae. Coincubation of trophozoites with MDCK cell monolayers resulted in a local damage to target cells after 24 h of interaction, suggesting that the cytopathic effect is contact-dependent. By transmission electron microscopy, amoebae appeared to engulf small portions of the MDCK cells; however, the cells that were not in contact with trophozoites had an unaltered morphology. When epithelial monolayers were incubated with conditioned medium for 24 h, small areas of cell injury were also observed. The phylogenetical analysis as well as the sequencing of the acquired amplified product for the DF3 region of the amoebae isolate confirmed that it belongs to genotype T3, which includes other pathogenic amoebae; besides the activity of two drugs currently used against Acanthamoeba was tested on A. griffini. Arturo González-Robles, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Maritza Omaña-Molina, Maria Reyes-Batlle, Carmen M. Martín-Navarro, and Jacob Lorenzo-Morales Copyright © 2014 Arturo González-Robles et al. All rights reserved. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:19:39 +0000 This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6%) samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8%) followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%), Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%), various helminth larvae (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%), Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%), and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%). The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5%) followed by watercress (41.3%), parsley (34.3%), green onion (16.5%), and leek (10.7%). These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (), with highest prevalence in summer (49%) and the lowest in winter (10.8%). These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables. Maysa Ahmad Eraky, Samia Mostafa Rashed, Mona El-Sayed Nasr, Azza Mohammed Salah El-Hamshary, and Amera Salah El-Ghannam Copyright © 2014 Maysa Ahmad Eraky et al. All rights reserved. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. A. W. Wekesa, C. S. Mulambalah, C. I. Muleke, and R. Odhiambo Copyright © 2014 A. W. Wekesa et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae) and Lophira alata Banks (Ochnaceae), Identified from the Ethnomedicine of the Nigerian Middle Belt Wed, 14 May 2014 14:01:34 +0000 Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum requires that new drugs must be developed. Plants are a potential source for drug discovery and development. Two plants that used to treat febrile illnesses in Nigeria were tested for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. Methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Ficus thonningii and Lophira alata were active in in vitro assays against P. falciparum NF54 (sensitive) and K1 (multiresistant) strains. Hexane extracts of F. thonningii and L. alata were the most effective extracts in in vitro assays with IC50 of  g/mL and  g/mL for NF54 and  g/mL and  g/mL for K1 strain. All extracts were nontoxic in cytotoxicity assays against KB human cell line with IC50 of over 20 g/mL, demonstrating selectivity against P. falciparum. In vivo analysis shows that hexane extracts of both plants reduced parasitaemia. At the maximum dose tested, L. alata had a 74.4% reduction of parasitaemia while F. thonningii had a reduction of 84.5%, both extracts prolonged animal survival in mice infected with P. berghei NK65 when compared with vehicle treated controls. The antiplasmodial activity observed justifies the use of both plants in treating febrile conditions. M. O. Falade, D. O. Akinboye, G. O. Gbotosho, E. O. Ajaiyeoba, T. C. Happi, O. O. Abiodun, and A. M. J. Oduola Copyright © 2014 M. O. Falade et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of the Omics Technologies Used to Study Antimonial, Amphotericin B, and Pentamidine Resistance in Leishmania Mon, 12 May 2014 16:25:29 +0000 Leishmaniasis is a serious threat in developing countries due to its endemic nature and debilitating symptoms. Extensive research and investigations have been carried out to learn about the mechanism of drug resistance in Leishmania but results obtained in the laboratory are not in agreement with those obtained from the field. Also the lack of knowledge about the mode of action for a number of drugs makes the study of drug resistance more complex. A major concern in recent times has been regarding the role of parasitic virulence in drug resistance for Leishmania. Researchers have employed various techniques to unravel the facts about resistance and virulence in Leishmania. With advent of advanced and more specific means of detection, further hints about probable mechanisms of conferring resistance are expected. This review aims to provide a consolidated picture along with a comparative account of the work done so far to study the mechanism of antimony, amphotericin B, and pentamidine resistance using various techniques. Gagandeep Kaur and Bhawana Rajput Copyright © 2014 Gagandeep Kaur and Bhawana Rajput. All rights reserved. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria Mon, 12 May 2014 06:14:22 +0000 Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus) in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273) canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion), age (young or adult), and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273). There was significant difference () between hunting (15.94%) and companion dogs (1.52%) but there was no significant difference () between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases) in the region. Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, Temitope Ubaidat Kolapo, and Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka Copyright © 2014 Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran et al. All rights reserved. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65) Sun, 11 May 2014 09:02:59 +0000 The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65). Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G) were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property. Lebari Barine Gboeloh, Okpok Eta Okon, and Samuel Effiong Udoh Copyright © 2014 Lebari Barine Gboeloh et al. All rights reserved. PCR-Based Detection of Babesia ovis in Rhipicephalus bursa and Small Ruminants Thu, 24 Apr 2014 13:45:03 +0000 This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Babesia ovis infection in adult Rhipicephalus bursa and small ruminants in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Blood samples were collected from 280 sheep and 122 goats of forty randomly selected flocks. Specific B. ovis fragment was detected in 67 animals (16.7%), of which 52 animals (18.6%) were sheep and 15 animals (12.2%) goats (). Of the 848 R. bursa collected from naturally infested small ruminants and farm dogs, Babesia ovis was detected by PCR in salivary glands of 94 adult ticks. The frequency of B. ovis infection was higher in flocks with tick in comparison with animals without tick (). Positive amplification from blood of ruminants, ticks, oviposition ticks, eggs, and larvae was subjected to restriction digestion with HphI. One RFLP profile was produced. The PCR-RFLP results indicated that one strain of B. ovis exists in this area. The results showed that the PCR was useful method to investigate the epidemiology of small ruminants’ babesiosis. Furthermore, R. Bursa, which can transovarially transmit B. ovis and as well as being widely distributed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran, might play an important role in the field as a natural vector of B. ovis. Bijan Esmaeilnejad, Mousa Tavassoli, Siamak Asri-Rezaei, Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh, Karim Mardani, Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin, Mostafa Golabi, and Jafar Arjmand Copyright © 2014 Bijan Esmaeilnejad et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Preservation of Intestinal Parasites Using Methylene Blue-Glycerol Mount: A New Approach to Stool Microscopy Thu, 10 Apr 2014 17:52:41 +0000 We have tried a new approach to routine stool microscopy by using a combination of methylene blue and glycerol in wet mount preparation of fresh faecal samples for the demonstration of medically important intestinal parasites. This combination was evaluated for finding differences in the details and clarity of morphology and internal structures of parasites under low- and high-power microscopy as compared to iodine and saline mount. It was further evaluated to estimate the time taken by methylene blue-glycerol mount to dry up as compared to iodine and saline wet mount. Vinay Khanna, Kriti Tilak, Shihnin Rasheed, and Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay Copyright © 2014 Vinay Khanna et al. All rights reserved. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Associated Determinant Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:41:42 +0000 Background. Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated determinant factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2013. 385 school children were selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated determinant factors. Stool samples were examinedusing formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 89.9% (). The overall helminthic infection in this study was 96.6% (). Swimming in the river, washing clothes and utensil using river water, crossing the river with bare foot, and fishing activities showed significant association with the occurrence of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection was high in the study area. Therefore, mass deworming at least twice a year and health education for community are needed. Ligabaw Worku, Demekech Damte, Mengistu Endris, Habtie Tesfa, and Mulugeta Aemero Copyright © 2014 Ligabaw Worku et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India Thu, 27 Mar 2014 11:23:18 +0000 In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92%) and 59 (58.41%) false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total. Manali M. Kocharekar, Sougat S. Sarkar, and Debjani Dasgupta Copyright © 2014 Manali M. Kocharekar et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Conditions for In Vitro Culture of the Microphallid Digenean Gynaecotyla adunca Tue, 25 Mar 2014 08:21:44 +0000 In vitro cultivation of digeneans would aid the development of effective treatments and studies of the biology of the parasites. The goal of this study was to optimize culture conditions for the trematode, Gynaecotyla adunca. Metacercariae of the parasite from fiddler crabs, Uca pugnax, excysted in trypsin, were incubated overnight to permit fertilization, and were cultured in different conditions to find those that resulted in maximum worm longevity and egg production. When cultured in media lacking serum, worms lived longer in Hanks balanced salt solution and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium/F-12 (DME/F-12) than in RPMI-1640 but produced the most eggs in DME/F-12. Worm longevity and egg production increased when worms were grown in DME/F-12 supplemented with 20% chicken, horse, or newborn calf serum but the greatest number of eggs was deposited in cultures containing horse or chicken serum. Horse serum was chosen over chicken serum due to the formation of a precipitate in chicken serum. The optimal concentration of horse serum with respect to egg production ranged from 5 to 20%. Infectivity of eggs deposited by worms in culture was tested by feeding eggs to mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta. None of these snails produced G. adunca cercariae. Jenna West, Alexandra Mitchell, and Oscar J. Pung Copyright © 2014 Jenna West et al. All rights reserved. MHC-DRB1/DQB1 Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Resistance/Susceptibility to Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino Sheep Mon, 24 Mar 2014 07:01:34 +0000 The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between polymorphism of the MHC-DRB1/DQB1 gene and its resistance to Cystic Echinococcosis (C.E), as well as to screen out the molecular genetic marker of antiechinococcosis in Chinese Merino sheep. The MHCII-DRB1/DQB1 exon 2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA samples of healthy and hydatidosis sheep. PCR products were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Five restriction enzymes (Mval, HaeIII, SacI, SacII, and Hin1I) were employed to cut DRB1, while seven restriction enzymes (MroxI, ScaI, SacII, NciI, TaqI, Mval, and HaeIII) were employed to cut DQB1.Results showed that frequencies of patterns Mvalbb (), SacIab in DRB1 exon 2 (), and TaqIaa, HaeIIInn () in DQB1 exon 2 were significantly higher in the healthy group compared with the C.E individuals, which implied that there was a strong association between these genotypes and hydatidosis resistance or susceptibility. Chi-square test showed that individuals with the genic haplotype DRB1-SacIab/DRB1-Mvalbb/DQB1-TaqIaa/DQB1-HaeIIInn () were relatively resistant to C.E, while individuals with the genic haplotypes DRB1-Mvalbc/DQB1-Mvalyy/DQB1-TaqIab/DQB1-HaeIIImn () and DRB1-Mvalbb/DQB1-Mvalcc/DQB1-TaqIab/DQB1-HaeIIImn () were more susceptible to C.E. In addition, to confirm these results, a fielding experiment was performed with Chinese Merino sheep which were artificially infected with E.g. The result was in accordance with the results of the first study. In conclusion, MHC-DRB1/DQB1 exon 2 plays an important role as resistant to C.E in Chinese Merino sheep. In addition, the molecular genetic marker of antiechinococcosis (DRB1-SacIab/DRB1-Mvalbb/DQB1-TaqIaa/DQB1-HaeIIInn) was screened out in Chinese Merino sheep. Hong Shen, Guohua Han, Bin Jia, Song Jiang, and Yingchun Du Copyright © 2014 Hong Shen et al. All rights reserved. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae) Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:57:49 +0000 Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (). There was no significant difference between sexes (). However, significant difference () was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health. Oseni Saheed Oluwasina, Onyiche Emmanuel ThankGod, Omonuwa Omojefe Augustine, and Fufa Ido Gimba Copyright © 2014 Oseni Saheed Oluwasina et al. All rights reserved. Partial Purification of Integral Membrane Antigenic Proteins from Trypanosoma evansi That Display Immunological Cross-Reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:51:34 +0000 Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax, which are the major causative agents of animal trypanosomosis in Venezuela, have shown a very high immunological cross-reactivity. Since the production of T. vivax antigens is a limiting factor as this parasite is difficult to propagate in experimental animal models, our goal has been to identify and isolate antigens from T. evansi that cross-react with T. vivax. Here, we used the Venezuelan T. evansi TEVA1 isolate to prepare the total parasite lysate and its corresponding cytosolic and membranous fractions. In order to extract the T. evansi integral membrane proteins, the particulate portion was further extracted first with Triton X-100, and then with sodium dodecyl sulfate. After discarding the cytosolic and Triton X-100 solubilized proteins, we employed sedimentation by centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients to partially purify the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized proteins from the Triton X-100 resistant particulate fraction of T. evansi. We obtained enriched pools containing polypeptide bands with apparent molecular masses of 27 kDa, 31 kDa, and 53 kDa, which were recognized by anti-T. vivax antibodies from experimentally and naturally infected bovines. Norma P. Velásquez, Rocío E. Camargo, Graciela L. Uzcanga, and José Bubis Copyright © 2014 Norma P. Velásquez et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Chagas Disease in Bolivian Immigrants Living in Europe and the Risk of Stigmatization Thu, 27 Feb 2014 11:27:05 +0000 Background. The prevalence of Chagas disease in endemic countries varies with the kind of vector involved and the socioeconomic conditions of the population of origin. Due to recent immigration it is an emerging public health problem in Europe, especially in those countries which receive immigrant populations with a high prevalence of carriers. The study reviews the impact of the disease on Bolivian immigrants living in Europe, the preventive measures and regulations applied in European countries, and their repercussion on possible stigmatization of certain population groups. Methods. The Bolivian immigrant population resident in 2012 was estimated and the affected population in different European countries was calculated with data on carrier prevalence that were recently published. The preventive measures and regulations available in Europe were also reviewed. MEDLINE-PubMed, GoPubMed, and Embase were consulted for the literature review. Results. The Bolivian immigrant population has the highest prevalence of Chagas carriers (6.7%–25%) compared to the overall Latin American population (1.3%–2.4%). Only in Spain, France, Belgium, UK, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Germany, preventive measures are applied to this population. The established regulations are insufficient and completely different criteria are applied in the different countries and this could reflect a certain degree of stigmatization. Rafael M. Ortí-Lucas, María C. Parada-Barba, José E. de la Rubia-Ortí, Alejandra Carrillo-Ruiz, María Beso-Delgado, and An L. D. Boone Copyright © 2014 Rafael M. Ortí-Lucas et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Chaperone Properties of a Novel Heat Shock Protein, Hsp70.c, from Trypanosoma brucei Mon, 24 Feb 2014 09:36:54 +0000 The neglected tropical disease, African Trypanosomiasis, is fatal and has a crippling impact on economic development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is an important molecular chaperone that is expressed in response to stress and Hsp40 acts as its co-chaperone. These proteins play a wide range of roles in the cell and they are required to assist the parasite as it moves from a cold blooded insect vector to a warm blooded mammalian host. A novel cytosolic Hsp70, from Trypanosoma brucei, TbHsp70.c, contains an acidic substrate binding domain and lacks the C-terminal EEVD motif. The ability of a cytosolic Hsp40 from Trypanosoma brucei J protein 2, Tbj2, to function as a co-chaperone of TbHsp70.c was investigated. The main objective was to functionally characterize TbHsp70.c to further expand our knowledge of parasite biology. TbHsp70.c and Tbj2 were heterologously expressed and purified and both proteins displayed the ability to suppress aggregation of thermolabile MDH and chemically denatured rhodanese. ATPase assays revealed a 2.8-fold stimulation of the ATPase activity of TbHsp70.c by Tbj2. TbHsp70.c and Tbj2 both demonstrated chaperone activity and Tbj2 functions as a co-chaperone of TbHsp70.c. In vivo heat stress experiments indicated upregulation of the expression levels of TbHsp70.c. Adélle Burger, Michael H. Ludewig, and Aileen Boshoff Copyright © 2014 Adélle Burger et al. All rights reserved. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Wed, 19 Feb 2014 12:36:37 +0000 Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita), were initially screened (at two doses) for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg) than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg). Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%), dihydrotagetone (16.71%), piperitenone (10.15%), trans-tagetone (8.67%), 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10)diene (6.47%), β-ocimene (3.25%), and cis-tagetone (1.95%), whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%), β-pinene (15.00%), isocaryophyllene (7.62%), nerolidol (3.70%), 1-tridecanol (1.75%), limonene (1.52%), and sabinene (1.00%). The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus. Wycliffe Wanzala, Ahmed Hassanali, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, and Willem Takken Copyright © 2014 Wycliffe Wanzala et al. All rights reserved. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Thu, 13 Feb 2014 11:55:58 +0000 Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. Deepak Kumar, Rakesh Chawla, P. Dhamodaram, and N. Balakrishnan Copyright © 2014 Deepak Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae Thu, 13 Feb 2014 09:54:22 +0000 This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes, Cenira M. de Carvalho, Karlos Antonio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior, Thyago Fernando Lisboa Ribeiro, Lurdiana Dayse de Barros, Maria Raquel Ferreira de Lima, Flávia de Barros Prado Moura, and Antônio Euzebio Goulart Sant’Ana Copyright © 2014 Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes et al. All rights reserved. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia Tue, 04 Feb 2014 13:04:00 +0000 Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. Haji Hamu, Serkadis Debalke, Endalew Zemene, Belay Birlie, Zeleke Mekonnen, and Delenasaw Yewhalaw Copyright © 2014 Haji Hamu et al. All rights reserved. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus Tue, 04 Feb 2014 11:52:26 +0000 Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded () when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite () at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. Negero Gemeda, Walelegn Mokonnen, Hirut Lemma, Ashenif Tadele, Kelbessa Urga, Getachew Addis, Asfaw Debella, Mesaye Getachew, Frehiwot Teka, Kidist Yirsaw, Kissi Mudie, and Solomon Gebre Copyright © 2014 Negero Gemeda et al. All rights reserved. Zoonoses and One Health: A Review of the Literature Thu, 30 Jan 2014 08:42:44 +0000 Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (). Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (, , and , resp.). Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the rapid growth in embracing the concept of one health, particularly in developed countries over the past six years. The advantages and benefits of this approach in tackling zoonoses are manifold, yet they are still not seemingly being embraced in developing countries where zoonoses have the greatest impact. Satesh Bidaisee and Calum N. L. Macpherson Copyright © 2014 Satesh Bidaisee and Calum N. L. Macpherson. All rights reserved. Evaluation of an Immunoassay-Based Algorithm for Screening and Identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens in Human Faecal Specimens from Saudi Arabia Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An immunoassay-based algorithm, involving three commercial kits, was introduced and evaluated for screening and identification of Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigens in human stool specimens. Initially, Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek kit (TechLab), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was adopted for screening. The ELISA-positive reactions were subsequently characterised by RIDA Quick Giardia and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium immunochromatographic kits (R-Biopharm). A gold standard test comprising PCR and microscopy was used for preparing control samples. Performance of individual kits was tested against these samples which included 50 Giardia-positive, 40 Cryptosporidium-positive, and 70 Cryptosporidium/Giardia-negative. For Cryptosporidium, specificities of the ELISA and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium kits were 95.71% and 100%, respectively. Both kits demonstrated sensitivity of 95%. For Giardia, the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia kits showed sensitivities of 100% and 97.5%, respectively. Specificities obtained by the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia were 95.7% and 100%, respectively. Based on the results of two reference PCRs, on 250 random samples, the algorithm exhibited sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 97.06%, 100.00%, 100.00%, and 98.91%, respectively. In conclusion, this immunoassay-based algorithm can be used as routine test in diagnostic laboratories for screening and identification of a large number of samples. Yousry Hawash Copyright © 2014 Yousry Hawash. All rights reserved. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi Tue, 28 Jan 2014 07:27:23 +0000 Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes. Charu Kohli, Rajesh Kumar, G. S. Meena, M. M. Singh, Jyotiranjan Sahoo, and G. K. Ingle Copyright © 2014 Charu Kohli et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA Wed, 22 Jan 2014 06:59:13 +0000 Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action. Victor Ambrose Maikai, Beatty Viv Maikai, and Patricia Ishyaku Kobo Copyright © 2014 Victor Ambrose Maikai et al. All rights reserved.