Journal of Parasitology Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence Wed, 27 Apr 2016 09:49:39 +0000 Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. Miguel Romero, R. Cerritos, and Cecilia Ximenez Copyright © 2016 Miguel Romero et al. All rights reserved. Neobenedenia melleni Parasite of Red Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus, with Regression Statistical Analysis between Fish Length, Temperature, and Parasitic Intensity in Infected Fish, Cultured at Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia Wed, 06 Apr 2016 06:38:58 +0000 The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 (fish length) + 0.32 (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504. Rajiv Ravi and Zary Shariman Yahaya Copyright © 2016 Rajiv Ravi and Zary Shariman Yahaya. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran Sun, 03 Apr 2016 13:50:13 +0000 Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73%) of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69%) were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3%) were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (). But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people. Davoud Balarak, Mohammad Jafari Modrek, Edris Bazrafshan, Hossein Ansari, and Ferdos Kord Mostafapour Copyright © 2016 Davoud Balarak et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d’Ivoire versus Gabon Thu, 24 Mar 2016 14:14:41 +0000 Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d’Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d’Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d’Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d’Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. William Yavo, Abibatou Konaté, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Fulgence Kondo Kassi, Marie L. Tshibola Mbuyi, Etienne Kpongbo Angora, Eby I. Hervé Menan, and Marielle K. Bouyou-Akotet Copyright © 2016 William Yavo et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Given as Antimalarial Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women in Selected Health Facilities in Central Region of Ghana Sun, 06 Mar 2016 14:32:17 +0000 The use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as an intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria during pregnancy has become a policy in most sub-Sahara African countries and crucially depends on the efficacy of SP. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of the SP given to the pregnant women in some selected health facilities in the Central Region of Ghana to prevent maternal malaria in pregnant women. A total of 543 pregnant women recruited from 7 selected health centres in Central Region of Ghana participated in the study. Parasite density of Plasmodium falciparum was determined from peripheral blood of the pregnant women using microscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and dissolution tester were used to determine the quality of the SP. Malaria infection was recorded in 11.2% of pregnant women who had a history of SP consumption. SP failed the dissolution test. Pregnant women who did not receive IPT-SP were 44%. Low haemoglobin level was recorded in 73.5% of the pregnant women. The results indicated that SP was substandard. IPT-SP is ineffective in preventing malaria infection. Danny F. Yeboah, Richmond Afoakwah, Ekene K. Nwaefuna, Orish Verner, and Johnson N. Boampong Copyright © 2016 Danny F. Yeboah et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts Tue, 16 Feb 2016 08:58:00 +0000 Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant () dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. J. G. Gotep, J. T. Tanko, G. E. Forcados, I. A. Muraina, N. Ozele, B. B. Dogonyaro, O. O. Oladipo, M. S. Makoshi, O. B. Akanbi, H. Kinjir, A. L. Samuel, T. E. Onyiche, G. O. Ochigbo, O. B. Aladelokun, H. A. Ozoani, V. Z. Viyoff, C. C. Dapuliga, A. A. Atiku, P. A. Okewole, D. Shamaki, M. S. Ahmed, and C. I. Nduaka Copyright © 2016 J. G. Gotep et al. All rights reserved. Feeding Patterns and Xenomonitoring of Trypanosomes among Tsetse Flies around the Gashaka-Gumti National Park in Nigeria Mon, 15 Feb 2016 08:21:52 +0000 In order to understand the epidemiology of trypanosomoses in Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we determined the density, infection rates, and feeding patterns of tsetse flies using biconical traps, ITS, and mitochondrial cytochrome b PCRs. A total of 631 tsetse flies were captured, of which 531 (84.2%) and 100 (15.8%) were analyzed for trypanosomes and blood meals, respectively. Tsetse distribution varied significantly () across study sites with average trap and daily catches of 4.39 and 26.34, respectively. Overall tsetse infection rate was 5.08% and ranged between 3.03% and 6.84% across study sites. We identified 10 T. brucei, 3 T. congolense savannah, 2 T. congolense forest, and 2 mixed infections among the 13 pools made from the 27 flies positive for trypanosomes with light microscopy. The distribution of vertebrate blood meals in tsetse flies varied significantly () and ranged between 6.0% and 45% across hosts. We also observed dual feeding patterns involving at least 2 hosts in 24% and multiple feeding involving at least 3 hosts in 17% of the flies. We observed predominance of G. palpalis which also recorded higher infection rate. T. brucei was more prevalent among tsetse flies. Tsetse flies fed predominantly on cattle and less frequently on humans and also showed mixed feeding habits. Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Idris A. Lawal, and Oluseyi Oluyinka Okubanjo Copyright © 2016 Solomon Ngutor Karshima et al. All rights reserved. Silent Human Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infections around the Old Gboko Sleeping Sickness Focus in Nigeria Sun, 31 Jan 2016 13:35:57 +0000 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes Gambian trypanosomosis, a disease ravaging affected rural parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. We screened 1200 human blood samples for T. b. gambiense using the card agglutination test for trypanosomosis, characterized trypanosome isolates with Trypanosoma gambiense serum glycoprotein-PCR (TgsGP-PCR), and analyzed our data using Chi square and odds ratio at 95% confidence interval for statistical association. Of the 1200 samples, the CATT revealed an overall infection rate of 1.8% which ranged between 0.0% and 3.5% across study sites. Age and sex based infection rates ranged between 1.2% and 2.3%. We isolated 7 (33.3%) trypanosomes from the 21 seropositive samples using immunosuppressed mice which were identified as T. b. gambiense group 1 by TgsGP-PCR. Based on study sites, PCR revealed an overall infection rate of 0.6% which ranged between 0.0% and 1.5%. Females and males revealed PCR based infection rates of 0.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Infection rates in adults (1.3%) and children (0.1%) varied significantly (). We observed silent T. b. gambiense infections among residents of this focus. Risks of disease development into the second fatal stage in these patients who may also serve as reservoirs of infection in the focus exist. Karshima Solomon Ngutor, Lawal A. Idris, and Okubanjo Oluseyi Oluyinka Copyright © 2016 Karshima Solomon Ngutor et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Helminths in Dogs and Owners’ Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases in Mampong, Ashanti, Ghana Sun, 31 Jan 2016 11:06:33 +0000 Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (; ) and location (; ) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds, Isaac Monney, Lucy Mawusi Adowah, and Samuel Opoku Agyemang Copyright © 2016 Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Efficacy of Five Indigenous Weeds against an Indian Strain of Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) Sun, 31 Jan 2016 10:13:36 +0000 Background and Objectives. Aedes aegypti, dengue fever mosquito, is primarily associated with the transmission of dengue and chikungunya in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The present investigations were carried out to assess the larvicidal efficiency of five indigenous weeds against Ae. aegypti. Methods. The 1,000 ppm hexane and ethanol extracts prepared from the leaves and stem of five plants (Achyranthes aspera, Cassia occidentalis, Catharanthus roseus, Lantana camara, and Xanthium strumarium) were screened for their larvicidal activity against early fourth instars of dengue vector. The extracts which could cause 80–100% mortality were further investigated for their efficacy. Results. The preliminary screening established the efficacy of hexane extracts as compared to the ethanol extracts. Further investigations revealed the highest larvicidal potential of A. aspera extracts exhibiting LC50 value of 82.555 ppm and 68.133 ppm, respectively. Further, their leaf extracts showed 5–85.9% higher larvicidal activity and stem extracts exhibited 0.23- to 0.85-fold more efficiency than the other four extracts. Conclusion. The present investigations suggest the possible use of A. aspera as an ideal ecofriendly, larvicidal agent for the control of dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Future studies are, however, required to explore and identify the bioactive component involved and its mode of action. Aarti Sharma, Sarita Kumar, and Pushplata Tripathi Copyright © 2016 Aarti Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Thu, 28 Jan 2016 11:42:31 +0000 Mass drug administration (MDA) to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC) is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4%) before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2), 16.2% (12.7–20.1), and 1.0% (0.3–2.5), respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs. Zerihun Zerdo, Tsegaye Yohanes, and Befikadu Tariku Copyright © 2016 Zerihun Zerdo et al. All rights reserved. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water Tue, 26 Jan 2016 09:34:31 +0000 The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. Yasmin Abou-Rahma, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, and Amira Kamal Ahmed Copyright © 2016 Yasmin Abou-Rahma et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Partec Rapid Malaria Test with Conventional Light Microscopy for Diagnosis of Malaria in Northwest Ethiopia Mon, 11 Jan 2016 12:00:36 +0000 Background. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the key for effective disease management. Diagnosis of malaria infection requires rapid, sensitive, and specific test methods with an affordable cost. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of Partec rapid malaria test with reference to light microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 180 febrile patients were tested for malaria using Giemsa stain microscopy and Partec rapid malaria test from June to July 2013 at Gendewuha health centers, Metema district. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated. Result. The sensitivity and specificity of Partec rapid malaria test were 93.8% (95% CI = 87.1%–100%) and 87.9% (95% CI = 79.7%–96.1%), respectively, while the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 6.4% (95% CI = 77.2%–95.5%) and 94.6% (95% CI = 88.7%–100%), respectively. There was also an excellent agreement between two tests with Kappa value of 0.811 (95% CI = 0.625–0.996). Conclusion. Partec rapid malaria test showed good sensitivity and specificity with an excellent agreement to the reference light microscopy. Therefore PT can be considered as alternative diagnostic tools in malaria endemic areas. Meseret Birhanie Copyright © 2016 Meseret Birhanie. All rights reserved. Developments in Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Elimination Era Wed, 30 Dec 2015 09:29:08 +0000 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most devastating parasitic infection worldwide causing high morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation of VL ranges from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to severe and complicated symptomatic disease. A major challenge in the clinical management of VL is the weakness of health systems in disease endemic regions. People affected by VL mostly present to primary health care centers (PHCs), often late in their therapeutic itinerary. PHC physicians face a major challenge: they do not deal with a single disease issue but with patients presenting with complaints pointing to several diagnostic possibilities. Risk exists when some patients having less clinical manifestations are misdiagnosed. Therefore, field based accurate, sensitive, and cost effective rapid diagnostic tools that can detect disease in its mildest form are essential for effective control and reaching the goal of VL elimination. In this review, we discuss the current status and challenges of various diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of VL and assess their application in resource poor settings. Om Prakash Singh and Shyam Sundar Copyright © 2015 Om Prakash Singh and Shyam Sundar. All rights reserved. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force Thu, 17 Dec 2015 12:20:53 +0000 The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug’s use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies. Stuart McCarthy Copyright © 2015 Stuart McCarthy. All rights reserved. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India Mon, 14 Dec 2015 13:49:49 +0000 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. K. P. Shyma, Jay Prakash Gupta, Veer Singh, and K. K. Patel Copyright © 2015 K. P. Shyma et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Genes Encoding the Enzymes for Glycogen and Trehalose Metabolism in L3 and L4 Larvae of Anisakis simplex Wed, 09 Dec 2015 08:27:14 +0000 Trehalose and glycogen metabolism plays an important role in supporting life processes in many nematodes, including Anisakis simplex. Nematodes, cosmopolitan helminths parasitizing sea mammals and humans, cause a disease known as anisakiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of genes encoding the enzymes involved in the metabolism of trehalose and glycogen—trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), glycogen synthase (GS), and glycogen phosphorylase (GP)—in stage L3 and stage L4 larvae of A. simplex. The expression of mRNA all four genes, tps, tpp, gs, and gp, was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The A. simplex ribosomal gene (18S) was used as a reference gene. Enzymatic activity was determined. The expression of trehalose enzyme genes was higher in L3 than in L4 larvae, but an inverse relationship was noted for the expression of gs and gp genes. E. Łopieńska-Biernat, E. A. Zaobidna, and M. Dmitryjuk Copyright © 2015 E. Łopieńska-Biernat et al. All rights reserved. Plasmodium falciparum msp2 Genotypes and Multiplicity of Infections among Children under Five Years with Uncomplicated Malaria in Kibaha, Tanzania Sun, 06 Dec 2015 12:33:03 +0000 Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum may pose challenges in malaria treatment and prevention through chemotherapy and vaccination. We assessed Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) of P. falciparum infections and sort relationship of parasitaemia with P. falciparum msp2 genotypes as well as with the number of infecting clones. The study was carried out in Kibaha, Tanzania. Ninety-nine children under five years with uncomplicated malaria were recruited. Genetic diversity was analyzed by genotyping the msp2 gene using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Thirty-two different msp2 alleles were obtained. The msp2 3D7 allelic frequency was higher (48.1%) and more prevalent than FC27 (27.3%) (). Twenty-four percent of the infections were mixed alleles. The individuals with FC27 had high parasitemia compared to those with 3D7 alleles (). The mean MOI was low (1.4 clones, 95% CI 1.2–1.5). The P. falciparum population among children at Kibaha is composed of distinct P. falciparum clones, and parasites having 3D7 are more frequent than those with FC27 alleles. Individuals with parasite having FC27 alleles have high parasite densities suggesting that parasites with FC27 alleles may associate with severity of disease in Kibaha. Low MOI at Kibaha suggests low malaria transmission rate. W. Kidima and G. Nkwengulila Copyright © 2015 W. Kidima and G. Nkwengulila. All rights reserved. Human Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in the United States Mon, 30 Nov 2015 06:48:23 +0000 Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and Babesia microti, a causative agent of babesiosis, are increasingly implicated in the growing tick-borne disease burden in the northeastern United States. These pathogens are transmitted via the bite of an infected tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, which is capable of harboring and inoculating a host with multiple pathogens simultaneously. Clinical presentation of the diseases is heterogeneous and ranges from mild flu-like symptoms to near-fatal cardiac arrhythmias. While the reason for the variability is not known, the possibility exists that concomitant infection with both B. burgdorferi and B. microti may synergistically increase disease severity. In an effort to clarify the current state of understanding regarding coinfection with B. burgdorferi and B. microti, in this review, we discuss the geographical distribution and pathogenesis of Lyme disease and babesiosis in the United States, the immunological response of humans to B. burgdorferi or B. microti infection, the existing knowledge regarding coinfection disease pathology, and critical factors that have led to ambiguity in the literature regarding coinfection, in order to eliminate confusion in future experimental design and investigation. Kristen L. Knapp and Nancy A. Rice Copyright © 2015 Kristen L. Knapp and Nancy A. Rice. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization and Risk Factors of Giardia duodenalis among School Children from La Habana, Cuba Sun, 29 Nov 2015 12:52:12 +0000 Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common protozoan infecting humans worldwide. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of eight groups (assemblages A to H) which differ in their host distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 639 children from La Habana between January and December 2013. Two assemblage-specific PCRs were carried out for the molecular characterization. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.9%. DNA from 63 of 76 (82.9%) samples was successfully amplified by PCR-tpi, while 58 from 76 (76.3%) were detected by PCRE1-HF. Similar results by both PCRs were obtained in 54 from 76 samples (71%). According to these analyses, assemblage B and mixed assemblages A + B account for most of the Giardia infections in the cohort of children tested. Our current study identified assemblage B as predominant genotype in children infected with Giardia. Univariate analysis indicated that omission of washing hands before eating and keeping dogs at home were significant risk factors for a Giardia infection. In the future, novel molecular tools for a better discrimination of assemblages at the subassemblages level are needed to verify possible correlations between Giardia genotypes and symptomatology of giardiasis. Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla, Fidel A. Núñez, Isabel Martínez Silva, Lázara Rojas Rivero, Marta Martínez González, Yuliet Méndez Sutil, Lucía Ayllón Valdés, Iraís Atencio Millán, and Norbert Müller Copyright © 2015 Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:17:40 +0000 This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were and  mm, while those of males were and  mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1 : 1.33 and 1 : 1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1 : 2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was  μm. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. Maryam Ebrahimi, Soheila Rouhani, Iraj Mobedi, Ali Rostami, Hoshang Khazan, and Mohammad Bagher Ahoo Copyright © 2015 Maryam Ebrahimi et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Naturally Acquired Canine Babesiosis Caused by Single and Mixed Babesia Species in Zambia: Clinicopathological Findings and Case Management Sun, 22 Nov 2015 14:10:30 +0000 A retrospective and prospective analysis of clinical records of dogs diagnosed with Babesia infections was carried out for the years 2000 to 2013 from practices in Lusaka, Zambia. Records of 363 dogs with confirmed Babesia infections were analysed using demographic factors including sex, breed, age, and clinical signs in relation to haematological findings and Babesia species. The clinical and laboratory findings observed are described as well as Babesia species identification. The study included 18 breeds and the highest proportion were mongrels (32.2%), males representing 64.5% of the population. The most common presenting problems were anorexia (65.3%) and lethargy/weakness (65.3%). The most common clinical signs were fever (87.3%), pallor (52.3%), lymphadenopathy (47.4%), and presence of ticks (44.9%). Anaemia (96.4%) and nucleated erythrocytes (42.2%) were the most common laboratory findings. A mixed infection of Babesia rossi and Babesia gibsoni was present in 59.7% of dogs, whilst 8% and 32.2% had B. rossi and B. gibsoni as a single infection, respectively. Case management mainly involved therapy with tetracyclines and imidocarb and was usually accompanied by clinical improvement. This study highlights, for the first time, the presence of B. gibsoni in natural dog populations in Zambia, where previously only B. rossi was reported. King Shimumbo Nalubamba, Ntombi Basimbi Mudenda, Mwaka Mwangala Namwila, Chilufya Susan Mulenga, Eugene Chisela Bwalya, Ethel M’kandawire, Ngonda Saasa, Careen Hankanga, Elizabeth Oparaocha, and Martin Simuunza Copyright © 2015 King Shimumbo Nalubamba et al. All rights reserved. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Wed, 11 Nov 2015 08:06:56 +0000 Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. Fouad El-Akhal, Raja Guemmouh, Yassine Ez Zoubi, and Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami Copyright © 2015 Fouad El-Akhal et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the First Commercial ELISA Kit for the Diagnosis of Theileria annulata Tue, 10 Nov 2015 09:38:24 +0000 The present study assesses the efficacy of SVANOVIR Theileria annulata-Ab, the first commercial ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection in cattle based on a recombinant protein known as T. annulata surface protein (TaSp). As a reference test, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay depending on T. annulata merozoite surface antigen (Tams-1) was applied. A total of 468 blood samples as well as serum samples were randomly collected from cattle and tested in the PCR as well as in the ELISA developed in this study. Moreover, all samples were also analyzed by conventional Giemsa-stained blood smear. The results of this study revealed a good correlation between the results obtained by PCR and the ELISA, whereas all PCR positive samples scored correctly positive in the ELISA and 73 of the 125 PCR negative samples scored correctly negative. Taken together, a sensitivity of 91.25% and a specificity of 78.4% were recorded, when compared to the PCR data. In conclusion, the SVANOVIR Theileria annulata-Ab is a suitable diagnostic assay for use in the diagnosis and epidemiological surveys of Theileria annulata infection in chronic and carrier animals. Amira A. T. Al-Hosary, Jabbar Ahmed, Ann Nordengrahn, and Malik Merza Copyright © 2015 Amira A. T. Al-Hosary et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 Genotypes in Young Children Living in a Seasonally High Malaria Transmission Setting in Burkina Faso Sun, 08 Nov 2015 07:20:06 +0000 The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher () in the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic ones. No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of ama-1-3D7, ama-1-K1, and ama-1-HB3 genotypes between the two groups (). The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria. Issiaka Soulama, Samuel S. Sermé, Edith C. Bougouma, Amidou Diarra, Alfred B. Tiono, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Amadou T. Konate, Issa Nebie, and Sodiomon B. Sirima Copyright © 2015 Issiaka Soulama et al. All rights reserved. Trypanosoma Infection Rates in Glossina Species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya Wed, 04 Nov 2015 12:08:08 +0000 African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs (proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR assay using internal transcribed spacer primers and individual trypanosome species were identified following agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of the 117 flies trapped in the area 39 (33.3%) were teneral while 78 (67%) were nonteneral. G. pallidipes constituted the largest percentage of 58% while G. longipennis were 42%. The overall trypanosomes infection rate in all nonteneral Glossina spp. was 11.53% with G. longipennis recording the highest infection rate of 23.08% while G. pallidipes had an infection rate of 5.77%. T. vivax was the most infectious (10.26%) compared to T. congolense (1.28%). Mean apparent densities were strongly positively correlated with infection rates () confirming the importance of this parameter as an indicator of AAT transmission risk. Daniel Mutiso Nthiwa, David O. Odongo, Horace Ochanda, Samoel Khamadi, and Bernard M. Gichimu Copyright © 2015 Daniel Mutiso Nthiwa et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Antiplasmodial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Properties, and Safety Profile of Root Extracts of Haematostaphis barteri Hook F. (Anacardiaceae) Wed, 04 Nov 2015 07:10:30 +0000 Malaria is an endemic disease globally and the conundrum of drug resistance has led to the search for newer antimalarial agents. The root extract of H. barteri was evaluated for antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prophylactic effect of H. barteri on P. berghei was determined by pretreating mice with aqueous root extract of H. barteri (30–300 mg/kg), saline, and 1.2 mg/kg sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for three days followed by 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Parasite density was measured after 72 h. The curative antimalarial property of the extract was assessed by treating mice with extract, saline, and 1.14 : 6.9 mg/kg Artemether : Lumefantrine four days after 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Selected organs were harvested for toxicity assessment. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the extract was determined in the carrageenan and thermal tail withdrawal tests, respectively. The extract significantly reduced the parasite density in the prophylactic but not the curative study. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract were significant () only at the highest doses employed. Regeneration of hepatocytes was also evident in the extract treated groups. The extract has prophylactic but not curative activity on P. berghei-induced malaria. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extract occurred at the highest doses used. Johnson Nyarko Boampong Copyright © 2015 Johnson Nyarko Boampong. All rights reserved. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:00:08 +0000 Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. A. E. Abah and F. O. I. Arene Copyright © 2015 A. E. Abah and F. O. I. Arene. All rights reserved. Rational Risk-Benefit Decision-Making in the Setting of Military Mefloquine Policy Thu, 22 Oct 2015 13:55:23 +0000 Mefloquine is an antimalarial drug that has been commonly used in military settings since its development by the US military in the late 1980s. Owing to the drug’s neuropsychiatric contraindications and its high rate of inducing neuropsychiatric symptoms, which are contraindications to the drug’s continued use, the routine prescribing of mefloquine in military settings may be problematic. Due to these considerations and to recent concerns of chronic and potentially permanent psychiatric and neurological sequelae arising from drug toxicity, military prescribing of mefloquine has recently decreased. In settings where mefloquine remains available, policies governing prescribing should reflect risk-benefit decision-making informed by the drug’s perceived benefits and by consideration both of the risks identified in the drug’s labeling and of specific military risks associated with its use. In this review, these risks are identified and recommendations are made for the rational prescribing of the drug in light of current evidence. Remington L. Nevin Copyright © 2015 Remington L. Nevin. All rights reserved. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats Thu, 22 Oct 2015 08:42:24 +0000 Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. Oyeduntan A. Adediran and Emmanuel C. Uwalaka Copyright © 2015 Oyeduntan A. Adediran and Emmanuel C. Uwalaka. All rights reserved.