Journal of Parasitology Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Identification and Preservation of Intestinal Parasites Using Methylene Blue-Glycerol Mount: A New Approach to Stool Microscopy Thu, 10 Apr 2014 17:52:41 +0000 We have tried a new approach to routine stool microscopy by using a combination of methylene blue and glycerol in wet mount preparation of fresh faecal samples for the demonstration of medically important intestinal parasites. This combination was evaluated for finding differences in the details and clarity of morphology and internal structures of parasites under low- and high-power microscopy as compared to iodine and saline mount. It was further evaluated to estimate the time taken by methylene blue-glycerol mount to dry up as compared to iodine and saline wet mount. Vinay Khanna, Kriti Tilak, Shihnin Rasheed, and Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay Copyright © 2014 Vinay Khanna et al. All rights reserved. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Associated Determinant Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:41:42 +0000 Background. Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated determinant factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2013. 385 school children were selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated determinant factors. Stool samples were examinedusing formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 89.9% (). The overall helminthic infection in this study was 96.6% (). Swimming in the river, washing clothes and utensil using river water, crossing the river with bare foot, and fishing activities showed significant association with the occurrence of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection was high in the study area. Therefore, mass deworming at least twice a year and health education for community are needed. Ligabaw Worku, Demekech Damte, Mengistu Endris, Habtie Tesfa, and Mulugeta Aemero Copyright © 2014 Ligabaw Worku et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India Thu, 27 Mar 2014 11:23:18 +0000 In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92%) and 59 (58.41%) false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total. Manali M. Kocharekar, Sougat S. Sarkar, and Debjani Dasgupta Copyright © 2014 Manali M. Kocharekar et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Conditions for In Vitro Culture of the Microphallid Digenean Gynaecotyla adunca Tue, 25 Mar 2014 08:21:44 +0000 In vitro cultivation of digeneans would aid the development of effective treatments and studies of the biology of the parasites. The goal of this study was to optimize culture conditions for the trematode, Gynaecotyla adunca. Metacercariae of the parasite from fiddler crabs, Uca pugnax, excysted in trypsin, were incubated overnight to permit fertilization, and were cultured in different conditions to find those that resulted in maximum worm longevity and egg production. When cultured in media lacking serum, worms lived longer in Hanks balanced salt solution and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium/F-12 (DME/F-12) than in RPMI-1640 but produced the most eggs in DME/F-12. Worm longevity and egg production increased when worms were grown in DME/F-12 supplemented with 20% chicken, horse, or newborn calf serum but the greatest number of eggs was deposited in cultures containing horse or chicken serum. Horse serum was chosen over chicken serum due to the formation of a precipitate in chicken serum. The optimal concentration of horse serum with respect to egg production ranged from 5 to 20%. Infectivity of eggs deposited by worms in culture was tested by feeding eggs to mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta. None of these snails produced G. adunca cercariae. Jenna West, Alexandra Mitchell, and Oscar J. Pung Copyright © 2014 Jenna West et al. All rights reserved. MHC-DRB1/DQB1 Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Resistance/Susceptibility to Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino Sheep Mon, 24 Mar 2014 07:01:34 +0000 The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between polymorphism of the MHC-DRB1/DQB1 gene and its resistance to Cystic Echinococcosis (C.E), as well as to screen out the molecular genetic marker of antiechinococcosis in Chinese Merino sheep. The MHCII-DRB1/DQB1 exon 2 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA samples of healthy and hydatidosis sheep. PCR products were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Five restriction enzymes (Mval, HaeIII, SacI, SacII, and Hin1I) were employed to cut DRB1, while seven restriction enzymes (MroxI, ScaI, SacII, NciI, TaqI, Mval, and HaeIII) were employed to cut DQB1.Results showed that frequencies of patterns Mvalbb (), SacIab in DRB1 exon 2 (), and TaqIaa, HaeIIInn () in DQB1 exon 2 were significantly higher in the healthy group compared with the C.E individuals, which implied that there was a strong association between these genotypes and hydatidosis resistance or susceptibility. Chi-square test showed that individuals with the genic haplotype DRB1-SacIab/DRB1-Mvalbb/DQB1-TaqIaa/DQB1-HaeIIInn () were relatively resistant to C.E, while individuals with the genic haplotypes DRB1-Mvalbc/DQB1-Mvalyy/DQB1-TaqIab/DQB1-HaeIIImn () and DRB1-Mvalbb/DQB1-Mvalcc/DQB1-TaqIab/DQB1-HaeIIImn () were more susceptible to C.E. In addition, to confirm these results, a fielding experiment was performed with Chinese Merino sheep which were artificially infected with E.g. The result was in accordance with the results of the first study. In conclusion, MHC-DRB1/DQB1 exon 2 plays an important role as resistant to C.E in Chinese Merino sheep. In addition, the molecular genetic marker of antiechinococcosis (DRB1-SacIab/DRB1-Mvalbb/DQB1-TaqIaa/DQB1-HaeIIInn) was screened out in Chinese Merino sheep. Hong Shen, Guohua Han, Bin Jia, Song Jiang, and Yingchun Du Copyright © 2014 Hong Shen et al. All rights reserved. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae) Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:57:49 +0000 Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (). There was no significant difference between sexes (). However, significant difference () was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health. Oseni Saheed Oluwasina, Onyiche Emmanuel ThankGod, Omonuwa Omojefe Augustine, and Fufa Ido Gimba Copyright © 2014 Oseni Saheed Oluwasina et al. All rights reserved. Partial Purification of Integral Membrane Antigenic Proteins from Trypanosoma evansi That Display Immunological Cross-Reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:51:34 +0000 Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax, which are the major causative agents of animal trypanosomosis in Venezuela, have shown a very high immunological cross-reactivity. Since the production of T. vivax antigens is a limiting factor as this parasite is difficult to propagate in experimental animal models, our goal has been to identify and isolate antigens from T. evansi that cross-react with T. vivax. Here, we used the Venezuelan T. evansi TEVA1 isolate to prepare the total parasite lysate and its corresponding cytosolic and membranous fractions. In order to extract the T. evansi integral membrane proteins, the particulate portion was further extracted first with Triton X-100, and then with sodium dodecyl sulfate. After discarding the cytosolic and Triton X-100 solubilized proteins, we employed sedimentation by centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients to partially purify the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized proteins from the Triton X-100 resistant particulate fraction of T. evansi. We obtained enriched pools containing polypeptide bands with apparent molecular masses of 27 kDa, 31 kDa, and 53 kDa, which were recognized by anti-T. vivax antibodies from experimentally and naturally infected bovines. Norma P. Velásquez, Rocío E. Camargo, Graciela L. Uzcanga, and José Bubis Copyright © 2014 Norma P. Velásquez et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Chagas Disease in Bolivian Immigrants Living in Europe and the Risk of Stigmatization Thu, 27 Feb 2014 11:27:05 +0000 Background. The prevalence of Chagas disease in endemic countries varies with the kind of vector involved and the socioeconomic conditions of the population of origin. Due to recent immigration it is an emerging public health problem in Europe, especially in those countries which receive immigrant populations with a high prevalence of carriers. The study reviews the impact of the disease on Bolivian immigrants living in Europe, the preventive measures and regulations applied in European countries, and their repercussion on possible stigmatization of certain population groups. Methods. The Bolivian immigrant population resident in 2012 was estimated and the affected population in different European countries was calculated with data on carrier prevalence that were recently published. The preventive measures and regulations available in Europe were also reviewed. MEDLINE-PubMed, GoPubMed, and Embase were consulted for the literature review. Results. The Bolivian immigrant population has the highest prevalence of Chagas carriers (6.7%–25%) compared to the overall Latin American population (1.3%–2.4%). Only in Spain, France, Belgium, UK, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Germany, preventive measures are applied to this population. The established regulations are insufficient and completely different criteria are applied in the different countries and this could reflect a certain degree of stigmatization. Rafael M. Ortí-Lucas, María C. Parada-Barba, José E. de la Rubia-Ortí, Alejandra Carrillo-Ruiz, María Beso-Delgado, and An L. D. Boone Copyright © 2014 Rafael M. Ortí-Lucas et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Chaperone Properties of a Novel Heat Shock Protein, Hsp70.c, from Trypanosoma brucei Mon, 24 Feb 2014 09:36:54 +0000 The neglected tropical disease, African Trypanosomiasis, is fatal and has a crippling impact on economic development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is an important molecular chaperone that is expressed in response to stress and Hsp40 acts as its co-chaperone. These proteins play a wide range of roles in the cell and they are required to assist the parasite as it moves from a cold blooded insect vector to a warm blooded mammalian host. A novel cytosolic Hsp70, from Trypanosoma brucei, TbHsp70.c, contains an acidic substrate binding domain and lacks the C-terminal EEVD motif. The ability of a cytosolic Hsp40 from Trypanosoma brucei J protein 2, Tbj2, to function as a co-chaperone of TbHsp70.c was investigated. The main objective was to functionally characterize TbHsp70.c to further expand our knowledge of parasite biology. TbHsp70.c and Tbj2 were heterologously expressed and purified and both proteins displayed the ability to suppress aggregation of thermolabile MDH and chemically denatured rhodanese. ATPase assays revealed a 2.8-fold stimulation of the ATPase activity of TbHsp70.c by Tbj2. TbHsp70.c and Tbj2 both demonstrated chaperone activity and Tbj2 functions as a co-chaperone of TbHsp70.c. In vivo heat stress experiments indicated upregulation of the expression levels of TbHsp70.c. Adélle Burger, Michael H. Ludewig, and Aileen Boshoff Copyright © 2014 Adélle Burger et al. All rights reserved. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Wed, 19 Feb 2014 12:36:37 +0000 Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita), were initially screened (at two doses) for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg) than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg). Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%), dihydrotagetone (16.71%), piperitenone (10.15%), trans-tagetone (8.67%), 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10)diene (6.47%), β-ocimene (3.25%), and cis-tagetone (1.95%), whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%), β-pinene (15.00%), isocaryophyllene (7.62%), nerolidol (3.70%), 1-tridecanol (1.75%), limonene (1.52%), and sabinene (1.00%). The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus. Wycliffe Wanzala, Ahmed Hassanali, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, and Willem Takken Copyright © 2014 Wycliffe Wanzala et al. All rights reserved. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Thu, 13 Feb 2014 11:55:58 +0000 Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. Deepak Kumar, Rakesh Chawla, P. Dhamodaram, and N. Balakrishnan Copyright © 2014 Deepak Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae Thu, 13 Feb 2014 09:54:22 +0000 This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes, Cenira M. de Carvalho, Karlos Antonio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior, Thyago Fernando Lisboa Ribeiro, Lurdiana Dayse de Barros, Maria Raquel Ferreira de Lima, Flávia de Barros Prado Moura, and Antônio Euzebio Goulart Sant’Ana Copyright © 2014 Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes et al. All rights reserved. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia Tue, 04 Feb 2014 13:04:00 +0000 Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. Haji Hamu, Serkadis Debalke, Endalew Zemene, Belay Birlie, Zeleke Mekonnen, and Delenasaw Yewhalaw Copyright © 2014 Haji Hamu et al. All rights reserved. Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus Tue, 04 Feb 2014 11:52:26 +0000 Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded () when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite () at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked. Negero Gemeda, Walelegn Mokonnen, Hirut Lemma, Ashenif Tadele, Kelbessa Urga, Getachew Addis, Asfaw Debella, Mesaye Getachew, Frehiwot Teka, Kidist Yirsaw, Kissi Mudie, and Solomon Gebre Copyright © 2014 Negero Gemeda et al. All rights reserved. Zoonoses and One Health: A Review of the Literature Thu, 30 Jan 2014 08:42:44 +0000 Background. One health is a concept that was officially adopted by international organizations and scholarly bodies in 1984. It is the notion of combining human, animal, and environmental components to address global health challenges that have an ecological interconnectedness. Methods. A cross-sectional study of the available literature cited was conducted from January 1984 when the one health concept was adopted till December 2012 to examine the role of the one health approach towards zoonoses. Inclusion criteria included publications, professional presentations, funding allocations, official documentation books, and book chapters, and exclusion criteria included those citations written outside the period of review. Results. A total of 737 resources met the inclusion criteria and were considered in this review. Resources showed a continuous upward trend for the years from 2006 to 2012. The predominant resources were journal publications with environmental health as the significant scope focus for one health. There was also an emphasis on the distribution of the work from developed countries. All categories of years, resources, scopes, and country locale differed from the means (). Year of initiative, scope, and country locale showed a dependent relationship (, , and , resp.). Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate the rapid growth in embracing the concept of one health, particularly in developed countries over the past six years. The advantages and benefits of this approach in tackling zoonoses are manifold, yet they are still not seemingly being embraced in developing countries where zoonoses have the greatest impact. Satesh Bidaisee and Calum N. L. Macpherson Copyright © 2014 Satesh Bidaisee and Calum N. L. Macpherson. All rights reserved. Evaluation of an Immunoassay-Based Algorithm for Screening and Identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens in Human Faecal Specimens from Saudi Arabia Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 An immunoassay-based algorithm, involving three commercial kits, was introduced and evaluated for screening and identification of Giardia/Cryptosporidium antigens in human stool specimens. Initially, Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek kit (TechLab), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was adopted for screening. The ELISA-positive reactions were subsequently characterised by RIDA Quick Giardia and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium immunochromatographic kits (R-Biopharm). A gold standard test comprising PCR and microscopy was used for preparing control samples. Performance of individual kits was tested against these samples which included 50 Giardia-positive, 40 Cryptosporidium-positive, and 70 Cryptosporidium/Giardia-negative. For Cryptosporidium, specificities of the ELISA and RIDA Quick Cryptosporidium kits were 95.71% and 100%, respectively. Both kits demonstrated sensitivity of 95%. For Giardia, the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia kits showed sensitivities of 100% and 97.5%, respectively. Specificities obtained by the ELISA and RIDA Quick Giardia were 95.7% and 100%, respectively. Based on the results of two reference PCRs, on 250 random samples, the algorithm exhibited sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 97.06%, 100.00%, 100.00%, and 98.91%, respectively. In conclusion, this immunoassay-based algorithm can be used as routine test in diagnostic laboratories for screening and identification of a large number of samples. Yousry Hawash Copyright © 2014 Yousry Hawash. All rights reserved. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi Tue, 28 Jan 2014 07:27:23 +0000 Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes. Charu Kohli, Rajesh Kumar, G. S. Meena, M. M. Singh, Jyotiranjan Sahoo, and G. K. Ingle Copyright © 2014 Charu Kohli et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA Wed, 22 Jan 2014 06:59:13 +0000 Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action. Victor Ambrose Maikai, Beatty Viv Maikai, and Patricia Ishyaku Kobo Copyright © 2014 Victor Ambrose Maikai et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India Tue, 21 Jan 2014 14:30:02 +0000 Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. Jeevitha Dhanabal, Pradeep Pushparaj Selvadoss, and Kanchana Muthuswamy Copyright © 2014 Jeevitha Dhanabal et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Haematozoan Parasites in Wetlands of Bangladesh Tue, 21 Jan 2014 11:59:31 +0000 The parasites of genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are well-known avian haematozoa and can cause declined productivity and high mortality in wild birds. The objective of the study was to record the prevalence of haematozoan parasites in a wide range of wetland birds in Bangladesh. Six species of Haemoproteus, seven species of Plasmodium, one unidentified species of Leucocytozoon, and one unidentified microfilaria of the genus Paronchocerca were found. Data on the morphology, size, hosts, prevalence, and infection intensity of the parasites are provided. The overall prevalence among the birds was 29.5% (95 out of 322 birds). Of those, 13.2% (42 of 319) of birds were infected with Haemoproteus spp., 15.1% with Plasmodium spp. (48 of 319) and 0.6% with Leucocytozoon spp. (2 of 319). Two birds were positive for both Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. A single resident bird, Ardeola grayii, was found positive for an unidentified microfilaria. Prevalence of infection varied significantly among different bird families. Wild birds of Bangladesh carry several types of haematozoan parasites. Further investigation with a larger sample size is necessary to estimate more accurately the prevalence of haematozoan parasites among wild birds as well as domestic ducks for better understanding of the disease ecology. Rubayet Elahi, Ausraful Islam, Mohammad Sharif Hossain, Khaja Mohiuddin, Andrea Mikolon, Suman Kumer Paul, Parviez Rana Hosseini, Peter Daszak, and Mohammad Shafiul Alam Copyright © 2014 Rubayet Elahi et al. All rights reserved. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger): Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education Sun, 19 Jan 2014 12:25:06 +0000 Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger): clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at . Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (). In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (). Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities. Halima Boubacar Maïnassara and Zilahatou Tohon Copyright © 2014 Halima Boubacar Maïnassara and Zilahatou Tohon. All rights reserved. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil Sun, 19 Jan 2014 11:15:13 +0000 Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva, Priscilla Nunes dos Santos, Gustavo Nunes de Santana Castro, Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca, and José Diomedes Barbosa Copyright © 2014 Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva et al. All rights reserved. First Report of Aprostocetus asthenogmus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in South America and Parasitizing Eggs of Triatominae Vectors of Chagas Disease Sun, 19 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 We report for the first time the parasitism of eggs of two triatomine Chagas disease vectors, Triatoma infestans and T. vitticeps, by the microhymenopterous parasitoid Aprostocetus asthenogmus. We also describe the first identification of this parasitoid in South America. A. asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs. After 24 days, we observed wasps emerging from T. infestans and T. vitticeps eggs. Several characteristics of this parasitoid species suggest that it could be a potential biological control agent of triatomine species. Claudiney Biral dos Santos, Marcelo Teixeira Tavares, Gustavo Rocha Leite, Adelson Luiz Ferreira, Leonardo de Souza Rocha, and Aloísio Falqueto Copyright © 2014 Claudiney Biral dos Santos et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Nested PCR Assay with Conventional Techniques for Diagnosis of Intestinal Cryptosporidiosis in AIDS Cases from Northern India Sun, 12 Jan 2014 14:08:22 +0000 Cryptosporidiosis is a very important opportunistic infection and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Although current laboratory methods are generally considered adequate to detect high concentrations of oocysts, they fail to detect cases of cryptosporidiosis in many immunocompromised patients. The present study was done to determine the diagnostic efficacy of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), antigen detection ELISA, and a nested PCR assay for detection of Cryptosporidium in 58 adult AIDS cases with diarrhea from the ART clinic of Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Cryptosporidium was detected in 17 (29.4%), 39 (67.3%), and 45 (77.5%) cases by modified ZN staining, antigen ELISA, and nested PCR assay, respectively. Taking nested PCR as the gold standard, specificity of both modified ZN staining and Cryptosporidium antigen detection ELISA was 100% while the sensitivity of the tests was 37.8% and 86.6%, respectively. PCR was more sensitive than the other two diagnostic modalities but required a more hands-on time per sample and was more expensive than microscopy. PCR, however, was very adaptable to batch analysis, reducing the costs considerably. This assay can therefore have considerable advantages in the treatment of immunosuppressed individuals like AIDS patients, allowing their early diagnosis and decreasing the morbidity and the mortality. Beena Uppal, Ompal Singh, Sanjim Chadha, and Arun Kumar Jha Copyright © 2014 Beena Uppal et al. All rights reserved. Probiotic Therapy: A Promising Strategy for the Control of Canine Hookworm Tue, 10 Dec 2013 15:32:44 +0000 Canis familiaris is a domestic animal which plays an important role as a pet; however, it is very likely to develop diseases characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this sense, there are some Ancylostomatidae species that can lead to anemia, weight loss, and abdominal pain. Therefore, the treatment with allopathic drugs is essential for eliminating the parasitism. However, the increasing occurrence of resistance to allopathic treatments stimulates the search for new therapeutic inputs, among which the probiotics stand out and are able to positively alter the intestinal microbiota and exert immunomodulatory effect. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of using species of Lactobacillus (L. acidophilus ATCC 4536, L. plantarum ATCC 8014, and L. delbrueckii UFV H2B20) to control canine ancylostomiasis. A probiotic preparation containing 1 × 106 CFU of each strain was administered to 10 naturally infected animals, on alternate days for 28 days. It was observed that the treatment with the probiotic preparation led to a significant reduction in EPG of feces (88.83%/ ), as well as an increase in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, highlighting the potential use of Lactobacillus species in the control of canine ancylostomiasis. Matheus Diniz Gonçalves Coêlho, Francine Alves da Silva Coêlho, and Ismael Maciel de Mancilha Copyright © 2013 Matheus Diniz Gonçalves Coêlho et al. All rights reserved. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR Mon, 21 Oct 2013 11:51:59 +0000 Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems. Bonnie J. Mull, Jothikumar Narayanan, and Vincent R. Hill Copyright © 2013 Bonnie J. Mull et al. All rights reserved. Direct Effect of Two Naphthalene-Sulfonyl-Indole Compounds on Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoite Mon, 21 Oct 2013 08:07:25 +0000 Past studies have stated that the parasitostatic effect of IFN- is most likely due to the starvation of Toxoplasma gondii for tryptophan in the host cell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct effect of two new Naphthalene-Sulfonyl-Indole compounds as competitive molecules for tryptophan on viability and infectivity of Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Tachyzoites of RH strain were incubated in various concentrations (25–800 M) of 1-(naphthalene-2-sulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole and 1-[5-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-1-sulfonyl)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole for 1.5 hours. Then, they were stained by PI and analyzed by FACS. To evaluate the infectivity, tachyzoites exposed to the concentrations mentioned above were intraperitoneally inoculated into five mice from each group. Also, naïve parasites and parasites exposed to DMSO (control) were inoculated in both groups of mice. The LD50 of 1-(naphthalene-2-sulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole was 62 mol whilst the quantity of 1-[5-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-1-sulfonyl)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole was more than 800 mol. The infectivity of tachyzoites exposed to both of the compounds preserved and killed mice. No statistical correlation was seen between longevity of mice groups and different doses of the compounds. If we consider a well-organized transporter mechanism for indole compounds in the parasite, thus the designation of an antagonist that has indole groups can assist with the production of new drugs. Qasem Asgari, Hossein Keshavarz, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Saeedeh Shojaee, Mehdi Mohebali, and Ramin Miri Copyright © 2013 Qasem Asgari et al. All rights reserved. Molecular and Clinical Characterization of Giardia duodenalis Infection in Preschool Children from Lisbon, Portugal Sun, 08 Sep 2013 14:04:38 +0000 Giardia duodenalis is the most prevalent intestinal protozoan infection especially in children. In Portugal scarce data are available relative to this infection in preschoolers. The present study was conducted from April to July 2009 in public preschools in Lisbon enrolling 316 children. Stool examination was performed through microscopy. Molecular analysis was conducted in all positive samples for G. duodenalis in order to determine the assemblage and subassemblage of this parasite. Eight of the preschoolers studied children (2.5%, 8/316) were infected with G. duodenalis. Additionally the brother of one of the infected children was also infected. Genotyping analysis targeting ssu-rRNA and β-giardin loci revealed six infections with assemblage A and 3 with assemblage B. Sub-assemblage determination was possible in four of the samples, with three A2 and one A3. The limited number of cases precluded an association of a determined symptom with an assemblage. The data presented here show the relevance of considering G. duodenalis analysis in children with intestinal complaints even in developed countries. Filipa Santana Ferreira, Rita Alexandre dos Santos Soares de Bellegarde Machado Sá da Bandeira, Cláudia Alexandra Cecílio de Sampaio Ferreira Constantino, Ana Maria Teixeira Duarte Cancela da Fonseca, Joana da Graça Matias Gomes, Rúben Miguel Lopes Rodrigues, Jorge Luís Marques da Silva Atouguia, and Sónia Chavarria Alves Ferreira Centeno-Lima Copyright © 2013 Filipa Santana Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Cajachalcone: An Antimalarial Compound from Cajanus cajan Leaf Extract Thu, 18 Jul 2013 13:21:16 +0000 Cajanus cajan L, a member of the family Fabaceae, was identified from the Nigerian antimalarial ethnobotany as possessing antimalarial properties. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of C. cajan leaves was done in vitro using the multiresistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) in the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. Isolation of compound was achieved by a combination of chromatographic techniques, while the structure of the compound was elucidated by spectroscopy. This led to the identification of a cajachalcone, 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4-methoxy chalcone, as the biologically active constituent from the ethyl acetate fraction. Cajachalcone had an IC50 value of 2.0 μg/mL (7.4 μM) and could be a lead for anti-malarial drug discovery. E. O. Ajaiyeoba, O. O. Ogbole, O. O. Abiodun, J. S. Ashidi, P. J. Houghton, and C. W. Wright Copyright © 2013 E. O. Ajaiyeoba et al. All rights reserved. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice Thu, 18 Jul 2013 13:11:39 +0000 Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant () effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly () reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent. J. N. Boampong, E. O. Ameyaw, B. Aboagye, K. Asare, S. Kyei, J. H. Donfack, and E. Woode Copyright © 2013 J. N. Boampong et al. All rights reserved.