Journal of Parasitology Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Study of Naturally Acquired Canine Babesiosis Caused by Single and Mixed Babesia Species in Zambia: Clinicopathological Findings and Case Management Sun, 22 Nov 2015 14:10:30 +0000 A retrospective and prospective analysis of clinical records of dogs diagnosed with Babesia infections was carried out for the years 2000 to 2013 from practices in Lusaka, Zambia. Records of 363 dogs with confirmed Babesia infections were analysed using demographic factors including sex, breed, age, and clinical signs in relation to haematological findings and Babesia species. The clinical and laboratory findings observed are described as well as Babesia species identification. The study included 18 breeds and the highest proportion were mongrels (32.2%), males representing 64.5% of the population. The most common presenting problems were anorexia (65.3%) and lethargy/weakness (65.3%). The most common clinical signs were fever (87.3%), pallor (52.3%), lymphadenopathy (47.4%), and presence of ticks (44.9%). Anaemia (96.4%) and nucleated erythrocytes (42.2%) were the most common laboratory findings. A mixed infection of Babesia rossi and Babesia gibsoni was present in 59.7% of dogs, whilst 8% and 32.2% had B. rossi and B. gibsoni as a single infection, respectively. Case management mainly involved therapy with tetracyclines and imidocarb and was usually accompanied by clinical improvement. This study highlights, for the first time, the presence of B. gibsoni in natural dog populations in Zambia, where previously only B. rossi was reported. King Shimumbo Nalubamba, Ntombi Basimbi Mudenda, Mwaka Mwangala Namwila, Chilufya Susan Mulenga, Eugene Chisela Bwalya, Ethel M’kandawire, Ngonda Saasa, Careen Hankanga, Elizabeth Oparaocha, and Martin Simuunza Copyright © 2015 King Shimumbo Nalubamba et al. All rights reserved. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) Wed, 11 Nov 2015 08:06:56 +0000 Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. Fouad El-Akhal, Raja Guemmouh, Yassine Ez Zoubi, and Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami Copyright © 2015 Fouad El-Akhal et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the First Commercial ELISA Kit for the Diagnosis of Theileria annulata Tue, 10 Nov 2015 09:38:24 +0000 The present study assesses the efficacy of SVANOVIR Theileria annulata-Ab, the first commercial ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection in cattle based on a recombinant protein known as T. annulata surface protein (TaSp). As a reference test, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay depending on T. annulata merozoite surface antigen (Tams-1) was applied. A total of 468 blood samples as well as serum samples were randomly collected from cattle and tested in the PCR as well as in the ELISA developed in this study. Moreover, all samples were also analyzed by conventional Giemsa-stained blood smear. The results of this study revealed a good correlation between the results obtained by PCR and the ELISA, whereas all PCR positive samples scored correctly positive in the ELISA and 73 of the 125 PCR negative samples scored correctly negative. Taken together, a sensitivity of 91.25% and a specificity of 78.4% were recorded, when compared to the PCR data. In conclusion, the SVANOVIR Theileria annulata-Ab is a suitable diagnostic assay for use in the diagnosis and epidemiological surveys of Theileria annulata infection in chronic and carrier animals. Amira A. T. Al-Hosary, Jabbar Ahmed, Ann Nordengrahn, and Malik Merza Copyright © 2015 Amira A. T. Al-Hosary et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 Genotypes in Young Children Living in a Seasonally High Malaria Transmission Setting in Burkina Faso Sun, 08 Nov 2015 07:20:06 +0000 The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher () in the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic ones. No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of ama-1-3D7, ama-1-K1, and ama-1-HB3 genotypes between the two groups (). The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria. Issiaka Soulama, Samuel S. Sermé, Edith C. Bougouma, Amidou Diarra, Alfred B. Tiono, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Amadou T. Konate, Issa Nebie, and Sodiomon B. Sirima Copyright © 2015 Issiaka Soulama et al. All rights reserved. Trypanosoma Infection Rates in Glossina Species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya Wed, 04 Nov 2015 12:08:08 +0000 African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs (proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR assay using internal transcribed spacer primers and individual trypanosome species were identified following agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of the 117 flies trapped in the area 39 (33.3%) were teneral while 78 (67%) were nonteneral. G. pallidipes constituted the largest percentage of 58% while G. longipennis were 42%. The overall trypanosomes infection rate in all nonteneral Glossina spp. was 11.53% with G. longipennis recording the highest infection rate of 23.08% while G. pallidipes had an infection rate of 5.77%. T. vivax was the most infectious (10.26%) compared to T. congolense (1.28%). Mean apparent densities were strongly positively correlated with infection rates () confirming the importance of this parameter as an indicator of AAT transmission risk. Daniel Mutiso Nthiwa, David O. Odongo, Horace Ochanda, Samoel Khamadi, and Bernard M. Gichimu Copyright © 2015 Daniel Mutiso Nthiwa et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Antiplasmodial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Properties, and Safety Profile of Root Extracts of Haematostaphis barteri Hook F. (Anacardiaceae) Wed, 04 Nov 2015 07:10:30 +0000 Malaria is an endemic disease globally and the conundrum of drug resistance has led to the search for newer antimalarial agents. The root extract of H. barteri was evaluated for antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prophylactic effect of H. barteri on P. berghei was determined by pretreating mice with aqueous root extract of H. barteri (30–300 mg/kg), saline, and 1.2 mg/kg sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for three days followed by 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Parasite density was measured after 72 h. The curative antimalarial property of the extract was assessed by treating mice with extract, saline, and 1.14 : 6.9 mg/kg Artemether : Lumefantrine four days after 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Selected organs were harvested for toxicity assessment. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the extract was determined in the carrageenan and thermal tail withdrawal tests, respectively. The extract significantly reduced the parasite density in the prophylactic but not the curative study. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract were significant () only at the highest doses employed. Regeneration of hepatocytes was also evident in the extract treated groups. The extract has prophylactic but not curative activity on P. berghei-induced malaria. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extract occurred at the highest doses used. Johnson Nyarko Boampong Copyright © 2015 Johnson Nyarko Boampong. All rights reserved. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:00:08 +0000 Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. A. E. Abah and F. O. I. Arene Copyright © 2015 A. E. Abah and F. O. I. Arene. All rights reserved. Rational Risk-Benefit Decision-Making in the Setting of Military Mefloquine Policy Thu, 22 Oct 2015 13:55:23 +0000 Mefloquine is an antimalarial drug that has been commonly used in military settings since its development by the US military in the late 1980s. Owing to the drug’s neuropsychiatric contraindications and its high rate of inducing neuropsychiatric symptoms, which are contraindications to the drug’s continued use, the routine prescribing of mefloquine in military settings may be problematic. Due to these considerations and to recent concerns of chronic and potentially permanent psychiatric and neurological sequelae arising from drug toxicity, military prescribing of mefloquine has recently decreased. In settings where mefloquine remains available, policies governing prescribing should reflect risk-benefit decision-making informed by the drug’s perceived benefits and by consideration both of the risks identified in the drug’s labeling and of specific military risks associated with its use. In this review, these risks are identified and recommendations are made for the rational prescribing of the drug in light of current evidence. Remington L. Nevin Copyright © 2015 Remington L. Nevin. All rights reserved. Effectiveness Evaluation of Levamisole, Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Vernonia amygdalina in West African Dwarf Goats Thu, 22 Oct 2015 08:42:24 +0000 Anthelmintic drug resistance has led to the search for alternatives in controlling helminth infections. Fifty West African Dwarf goats without history of anthelmintic treatment were divided equally into five groups. Group A was treated with ivermectin injection subcutaneously, group B with levamisole subcutaneously, group C with albendazole orally, and group D with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and group E was untreated control. Faecal samples were collected before treatment from each animal and larval culture was carried out. Faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was carried out for each group and the data analysed using FECR version 4 to calculate percent reduction in faecal egg count. Predominant helminth infections from larval culture were Haemonchus contortus (70%), Trichostrongylus spp. (61%), and Oesophagostomum spp. (56%). Mixed infection was present in all the animals. From the FECR test Vernonia amygdalina extract was more effective against helminths (100%), compared to ivermectin 96%, levamisole 96%, and albendazole 99%. The lower 95% confidence limit was 89 for ivermectin and levamisole and 91 for albendazole. There is low resistance to ivermectin and levamisole and susceptibility to albendazole while V. amygdalina has great potentials that could be explored for the treatment of helminth diseases in goats. Oyeduntan A. Adediran and Emmanuel C. Uwalaka Copyright © 2015 Oyeduntan A. Adediran and Emmanuel C. Uwalaka. All rights reserved. Complex Membrane Channel Blockade: A Unifying Hypothesis for the Prodromal and Acute Neuropsychiatric Sequelae Resulting from Exposure to the Antimalarial Drug Mefloquine Tue, 20 Oct 2015 08:17:53 +0000 The alkaloid toxin quinine and its derivative compounds have been used for many centuries as effective medications for the prevention and treatment of malaria. More recently, synthetic derivatives, such as the quinoline derivative mefloquine (bis(trifluoromethyl)-(2-piperidyl)-4-quinolinemethanol), have been widely used to combat disease caused by chloroquine-resistant strains of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. However, the parent compound quinine, as well as its more recent counterparts, suffers from an incidence of adverse neuropsychiatric side effects ranging from mild mood disturbances and anxiety to hallucinations, seizures, and psychosis. This review considers how the pharmacology, cellular neurobiology, and membrane channel kinetics of mefloquine could lead to the significant and sometimes life-threatening neurotoxicity associated with mefloquine exposure. A key role for mefloquine blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and connexins in the substantia nigra is considered as a unifying hypothesis for the pathogenesis of severe neuropsychiatric events after mefloquine exposure in humans. Jane C. Quinn Copyright © 2015 Jane C. Quinn. All rights reserved. Effect of Malathion on Reproductive Parameters of Engorged Female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks of Punjab Districts, India Thu, 15 Oct 2015 08:57:26 +0000 The present study was aimed at evaluating effects of malathion on the various reproductive parameters, namely, egg mass weight (EMW), reproductive index (RI), percentage inhibition of oviposition (%IO), and hatchability percentage of eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini 1887) females from 19 districts of Punjab, India. The effect on various parameters was found to be dose dependent and more discernible upon exposure to higher concentrations. Complete cessation of egg laying was recorded in tick isolates on exposure to 5000 ppm and above. The values of %IO ranged in 4.4–68.6, 25.2–76.2, 35.6–100.0, 45.7–100.0, and 71.4–100.0 in groups treated with 1250, 2500, 5000, 10000, and 20000 ppm of malathion, respectively. A low hatching % was recorded in eggs of all treated female ticks in comparison to control treated with distilled water and complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10000 ppm and above. However, the survival of the hatched larvae was not affected and was similar to control group. The results of the current study can be of immense help in formulation and implementation of effective tick control measures. Jyoti, N. K. Singh, Harkirat Singh, and S. S. Rath Copyright © 2015 Jyoti et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Repellency Effect of Mosquito Repellents for DEET, Citronella, and Fennel Oil Wed, 07 Oct 2015 09:25:42 +0000 To confirm that Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines are applicable to test the efficacy of mosquito repellents, these guidelines were used to test the efficacy and complete protection times (CPTs) of three representative mosquito repellents: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), citronella, and fennel oil. The repellency of citronella oil decreased over time, from 97.9% at 0 h to 71.4% at 1 h and 57.7% at 2 h, as did the repellency of fennel oil, from 88.6% at 0 h to 61.2% at 1 h and 47.4% at 2 h. In contrast, the repellency of DEET remained over 90% for 6 h. The CPT of DEET (360 min) was much longer than the CPTs of citronella (10.5 min) and fennel oil (8.4 min). These results did not differ significantly from previous findings, and hence confirm that the KFDA guidelines are applicable for testing the efficacy of mosquito repellents. Jong Kwang Yoon, Kang-Chang Kim, Yeondong Cho, Yong-Dae Gwon, Han Sam Cho, Yoonki Heo, Kihoon Park, Yang-Won Lee, Mijeong Kim, Yu-Kyoung Oh, and Young Bong Kim Copyright © 2015 Jong Kwang Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Lack of Association between Toxocara Exposure and Suicide Attempts in Psychiatric Patients Mon, 21 Sep 2015 06:51:02 +0000 Infection with Toxocara may affect the central nervous system. A high seroprevalence of Toxocara infection has been reported in psychiatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report about an association of Toxocara infection with suicide attempts. Therefore, we sought to determine whether Toxocara exposure is associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric patients. We studied 282 psychiatric outpatients (156 with suicide attempts and 126 without suicide attempts). Sera of patients were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. One of the 156 (0.6%) suicide attempters and 1 (0.8%) of the 126 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.04–13.02; ). Toxocara seropositivity was significantly higher () in male patients with consumption of raw dried goat meat than male patients without this consumption. Results suggest that Toxocara exposure is not associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in Durango City, Mexico. However, further studies with larger samples sizes to confirm our results should be conducted. Too few patients were seropositive to assess further associations of Toxocara exposure with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the psychiatric patients. Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, and Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano Copyright © 2015 Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine against Submicroscopic falciparum Malaria in Central Region, Ghana Sun, 13 Sep 2015 12:56:29 +0000 Malaria infections undetectable by microscopy but detectable by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (submicroscopic malaria) are common in endemic areas like Ghana. Submicroscopic malaria has been linked with severe pregnancy outcomes as well as contributing to malaria transmission. In this cross-sectional study 872 consenting pregnant women (gestation ≥ 20 weeks) were recruited from 8 hospitals in Central Region, Ghana, between July and December 2009. Malaria infection was detected by microscopy and PCR. Haemoglobin was measured and anaemia was defined as haemoglobin lower than 11 g/dL. Majority of the women, 555 (63.6%), were Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) users while 234 (36.4%) were nonusers. The prevalence of malaria by microscopy was 20.9% (182/872) and 9.7% (67/688) of microscopy negative women had submicroscopic malaria. IPTp-SP usage significantly (odds ratio = 0.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.07–0.23, ) reduced the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria as more nonusers (51/234) than users (16/454) were PCR positive. After controlling for other variables the effect of IPTp-SP remained statistically significant (odds ratio = 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.02–0.22, ). These results suggest that Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine is useful in the reduction of submicroscopic malaria in pregnancy. Ekene K. Nwaefuna, Richmond Afoakwah, Verner N. Orish, Alexander Egyir-Yawson, and Johnson N. Boampong Copyright © 2015 Ekene K. Nwaefuna et al. All rights reserved. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Durbete Town, Northwestern Ethiopia Tue, 16 Jun 2015 06:19:33 +0000 Identifying determinants of soil transmitted helminth infection is vital to design control strategy for the disease. This study assessed the prevalence of STH infections and associated factors among schoolchildren in Durbete town, northwestern Ethiopia. Data about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic status of the children were collected using a questionnaire and stool samples were diagnosed using thick Kato-Katz smear. STH infection was more common among school-age children in Durbete town. Hookworm was the most frequent helminth species detected. The prevalence of STH infection was more in children who did not practice wearing shoes and washing hands before eating and in those who were older in age. Deworming of school-age children in the study area would be important. In addition, provision of health education about helminths and the importance of wearing shoes and washing hands before eating would be important to reduce the burden of STH infection in the study area. Tilahun Alelign, Abraham Degarege, and Berhanu Erko Copyright © 2015 Tilahun Alelign et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Malaria Prevalence among Travellers in Nigeria (West Africa) Using Slide Microscopy and a Rapid Diagnosis Test Tue, 12 May 2015 06:20:42 +0000 Malaria is a major disease in Africa and leads to various public health problems. A study was carried out at the Aviation Medical Clinic Laboratory, Murtala Mohammed Airport, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria, in 2014. The work aimed to determine the prevalence of malaria among patients attending the laboratory. Blood samples were therefore collected from 51 patients and subjected to both blood smear microscopy and a rapid immunochromatographic diagnostic test (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag) for detection of, respectively, malaria parasites and antigens. At the end of the study, 22% of the patients were detected positive by the microscopic examination while 9.8% were tested positive when using SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag. The outcomes of the study show a high prevalence of malaria at the airport. This represents a serious risk factor leading to a high likelihood of spread and occurrence of malaria in other countries including Western countries whereby the disease is nonendemic. It also pointed out that the blood smear microscopy seems to be better than Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) for malaria diagnosis. T. V. Dougnon, H. S. Bankole, Y. M. G. Hounmanou, S. Echebiri, P. Atchade, and J. Mohammed Copyright © 2015 T. V. Dougnon et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia Thu, 22 Jan 2015 13:29:41 +0000 Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and was considered significant. Result. The overall prevalence of Haemonchus contortus was 40.9% (). The prevalence in medium body condition 27.3% () varies significantly from that of good body condition 13.5% () (). Moreover, there was significant variation () in the prevalence in young and adult sheep with rates of 21.9% () and 19% (), respectively. At the same time, there is significant variation () in male and female sheep with prevalence of 29.7% () and 11.2% (), respectively. The prevalence of 25.3% () in sheep that originated from Negash compared to Wukro and Agulae showed no significant variation (). Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented. Lidya Gebresilassie and Berihun Afera Tadele Copyright © 2015 Lidya Gebresilassie and Berihun Afera Tadele. All rights reserved. Novel Arsenic Nanoparticles Are More Effective and Less Toxic than As (III) to Inhibit Extracellular and Intracellular Proliferation of Leishmania donovani Wed, 31 Dec 2014 11:31:07 +0000 Visceral leishmaniasis, a vector-borne tropical disease that is threatening about 350 million people worldwide, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Metalloids like arsenic and antimony have been used to treat diseases like leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasites. Arsenic (III) at a relatively higher concentration (30 μg/mL) has been shown to have antileishmanial activity, but this concentration is reported to be toxic in several experimental mammalian systems. Nanosized metal (0) particles have been shown to be more effective than their higher oxidation state forms. There is no information so far regarding arsenic nanoparticles (As-NPs) as an antileishmanial agent. We have tested the antileishmanial properties of the As-NPs, developed for the first time in our laboratory. As-NPs inhibited the in vitro growth, oxygen consumption, infectivity, and intramacrophage proliferation of L. donovani parasites at a concentration which is about several fold lower than that of As (III). Moreover, this antileishmanial activity has comparatively less cytotoxic effect on the mouse macrophage cell line. It is evident from our findings that As-NPs have more potential than As (III) to be used as an antileishmanial agent. Sudipta Chakraborty, Kaushik Bhar, Sandip Saha, Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Anjali Pal, and Anirban Siddhanta Copyright © 2014 Sudipta Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu Wed, 10 Dec 2014 08:47:57 +0000 Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20 mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24 hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298 hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483 hr period to complete a life cycle. Nur Qamarina Abdul Khalid and Faizah Shaharoum-Harrison Copyright © 2014 Nur Qamarina Abdul Khalid and Faizah Shaharoum-Harrison. All rights reserved. Histochemical Study of the Progenetic Trematode Alloglossidium renale Wed, 10 Sep 2014 13:34:47 +0000 A histochemical study of the progenetic trematode Alloglossidium renale has demonstrated the absence of any secreted material between the adult worm and the host (freshwater shrimp) antennal gland tubules. Host tissue is affected only by the compression, abrasion, and ingestion by the parasite, and host tubule cells near the worm have the same staining patterns as those distant from the parasite. The trematode sometimes dies within the host, leaving a necrotic mass whose histochemical staining differs significantly from the living organism. In the necrotic mass, the only recognizable features were the ova and the vitellarium, which atrophied and resulted in tyrosine-positive staining within the mass. A melanin reaction was not observed in the host using a specialized ferro-ferricyanide stain. The only apparent host response to infection was a layer of damaged squamous host cells adhering to the necrotic worm. The results confirm benign host-parasite effects and a highly evolved relationship between the host and parasite, perhaps bordering on commensalism. Craig A. Schimmer and Stephen C. Landers Copyright © 2014 Craig A. Schimmer and Stephen C. Landers. All rights reserved. Morphological Features and In Vitro Cytopathic Effect of Acanthamoeba griffini Trophozoites Isolated from a Clinical Case Mon, 08 Sep 2014 09:11:54 +0000 Light and transmission electron microscopy observations are reported on the structure and in vitro cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba griffini trophozoites isolated from a clinical case. Live trophozoites were moderately active with a remarkable pleomorphism which changed from ovoid to quite elongated shapes. When moving, amoebae formed cytoplasmic projections such as wide lamellae and acanthopodia of diverse size and thickness which contain a significant amount of actin. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm showed the main organelles found in other free-living amoebae. Coincubation of trophozoites with MDCK cell monolayers resulted in a local damage to target cells after 24 h of interaction, suggesting that the cytopathic effect is contact-dependent. By transmission electron microscopy, amoebae appeared to engulf small portions of the MDCK cells; however, the cells that were not in contact with trophozoites had an unaltered morphology. When epithelial monolayers were incubated with conditioned medium for 24 h, small areas of cell injury were also observed. The phylogenetical analysis as well as the sequencing of the acquired amplified product for the DF3 region of the amoebae isolate confirmed that it belongs to genotype T3, which includes other pathogenic amoebae; besides the activity of two drugs currently used against Acanthamoeba was tested on A. griffini. Arturo González-Robles, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Maritza Omaña-Molina, Maria Reyes-Batlle, Carmen M. Martín-Navarro, and Jacob Lorenzo-Morales Copyright © 2014 Arturo González-Robles et al. All rights reserved. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:19:39 +0000 This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6%) samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8%) followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%), Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%), various helminth larvae (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%), Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%), and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%). The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5%) followed by watercress (41.3%), parsley (34.3%), green onion (16.5%), and leek (10.7%). These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (), with highest prevalence in summer (49%) and the lowest in winter (10.8%). These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables. Maysa Ahmad Eraky, Samia Mostafa Rashed, Mona El-Sayed Nasr, Azza Mohammed Salah El-Hamshary, and Amera Salah El-Ghannam Copyright © 2014 Maysa Ahmad Eraky et al. All rights reserved. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. A. W. Wekesa, C. S. Mulambalah, C. I. Muleke, and R. Odhiambo Copyright © 2014 A. W. Wekesa et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae) and Lophira alata Banks (Ochnaceae), Identified from the Ethnomedicine of the Nigerian Middle Belt Wed, 14 May 2014 14:01:34 +0000 Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum requires that new drugs must be developed. Plants are a potential source for drug discovery and development. Two plants that used to treat febrile illnesses in Nigeria were tested for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. Methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Ficus thonningii and Lophira alata were active in in vitro assays against P. falciparum NF54 (sensitive) and K1 (multiresistant) strains. Hexane extracts of F. thonningii and L. alata were the most effective extracts in in vitro assays with IC50 of  g/mL and  g/mL for NF54 and  g/mL and  g/mL for K1 strain. All extracts were nontoxic in cytotoxicity assays against KB human cell line with IC50 of over 20 g/mL, demonstrating selectivity against P. falciparum. In vivo analysis shows that hexane extracts of both plants reduced parasitaemia. At the maximum dose tested, L. alata had a 74.4% reduction of parasitaemia while F. thonningii had a reduction of 84.5%, both extracts prolonged animal survival in mice infected with P. berghei NK65 when compared with vehicle treated controls. The antiplasmodial activity observed justifies the use of both plants in treating febrile conditions. M. O. Falade, D. O. Akinboye, G. O. Gbotosho, E. O. Ajaiyeoba, T. C. Happi, O. O. Abiodun, and A. M. J. Oduola Copyright © 2014 M. O. Falade et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of the Omics Technologies Used to Study Antimonial, Amphotericin B, and Pentamidine Resistance in Leishmania Mon, 12 May 2014 16:25:29 +0000 Leishmaniasis is a serious threat in developing countries due to its endemic nature and debilitating symptoms. Extensive research and investigations have been carried out to learn about the mechanism of drug resistance in Leishmania but results obtained in the laboratory are not in agreement with those obtained from the field. Also the lack of knowledge about the mode of action for a number of drugs makes the study of drug resistance more complex. A major concern in recent times has been regarding the role of parasitic virulence in drug resistance for Leishmania. Researchers have employed various techniques to unravel the facts about resistance and virulence in Leishmania. With advent of advanced and more specific means of detection, further hints about probable mechanisms of conferring resistance are expected. This review aims to provide a consolidated picture along with a comparative account of the work done so far to study the mechanism of antimony, amphotericin B, and pentamidine resistance using various techniques. Gagandeep Kaur and Bhawana Rajput Copyright © 2014 Gagandeep Kaur and Bhawana Rajput. All rights reserved. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria Mon, 12 May 2014 06:14:22 +0000 Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus) in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273) canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion), age (young or adult), and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273). There was significant difference () between hunting (15.94%) and companion dogs (1.52%) but there was no significant difference () between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases) in the region. Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, Temitope Ubaidat Kolapo, and Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka Copyright © 2014 Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran et al. All rights reserved. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65) Sun, 11 May 2014 09:02:59 +0000 The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65). Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G) were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property. Lebari Barine Gboeloh, Okpok Eta Okon, and Samuel Effiong Udoh Copyright © 2014 Lebari Barine Gboeloh et al. All rights reserved. PCR-Based Detection of Babesia ovis in Rhipicephalus bursa and Small Ruminants Thu, 24 Apr 2014 13:45:03 +0000 This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Babesia ovis infection in adult Rhipicephalus bursa and small ruminants in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Blood samples were collected from 280 sheep and 122 goats of forty randomly selected flocks. Specific B. ovis fragment was detected in 67 animals (16.7%), of which 52 animals (18.6%) were sheep and 15 animals (12.2%) goats (). Of the 848 R. bursa collected from naturally infested small ruminants and farm dogs, Babesia ovis was detected by PCR in salivary glands of 94 adult ticks. The frequency of B. ovis infection was higher in flocks with tick in comparison with animals without tick (). Positive amplification from blood of ruminants, ticks, oviposition ticks, eggs, and larvae was subjected to restriction digestion with HphI. One RFLP profile was produced. The PCR-RFLP results indicated that one strain of B. ovis exists in this area. The results showed that the PCR was useful method to investigate the epidemiology of small ruminants’ babesiosis. Furthermore, R. Bursa, which can transovarially transmit B. ovis and as well as being widely distributed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran, might play an important role in the field as a natural vector of B. ovis. Bijan Esmaeilnejad, Mousa Tavassoli, Siamak Asri-Rezaei, Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh, Karim Mardani, Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin, Mostafa Golabi, and Jafar Arjmand Copyright © 2014 Bijan Esmaeilnejad et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Preservation of Intestinal Parasites Using Methylene Blue-Glycerol Mount: A New Approach to Stool Microscopy Thu, 10 Apr 2014 17:52:41 +0000 We have tried a new approach to routine stool microscopy by using a combination of methylene blue and glycerol in wet mount preparation of fresh faecal samples for the demonstration of medically important intestinal parasites. This combination was evaluated for finding differences in the details and clarity of morphology and internal structures of parasites under low- and high-power microscopy as compared to iodine and saline mount. It was further evaluated to estimate the time taken by methylene blue-glycerol mount to dry up as compared to iodine and saline wet mount. Vinay Khanna, Kriti Tilak, Shihnin Rasheed, and Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay Copyright © 2014 Vinay Khanna et al. All rights reserved. Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Associated Determinant Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia Tue, 01 Apr 2014 11:41:42 +0000 Background. Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in tropical and subtropical countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated determinant factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2013. 385 school children were selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated determinant factors. Stool samples were examinedusing formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. P values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 89.9% (). The overall helminthic infection in this study was 96.6% (). Swimming in the river, washing clothes and utensil using river water, crossing the river with bare foot, and fishing activities showed significant association with the occurrence of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection was high in the study area. Therefore, mass deworming at least twice a year and health education for community are needed. Ligabaw Worku, Demekech Damte, Mengistu Endris, Habtie Tesfa, and Mulugeta Aemero Copyright © 2014 Ligabaw Worku et al. All rights reserved.