Journal of Quantum Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Understanding the Polar Character Trend in a Series of Diels-Alder Reactions Using Molecular Quantum Similarity and Chemical Reactivity Descriptors Mon, 07 Jul 2014 09:21:55 +0000 In molecular similarity there is a premise “similar molecules tend to behave similarly”; however in the actual quantum similarity field there is no clear methodology to describe the similarity in chemical reactivity, and with this end an analysis of charge-transfer (CT) processes in a series of Diels-Alder (DA) reactions between cyclopentadiene (Cp) and cyano substitutions on ethylene has been studied. The CT analysis is performed in the reagent assuming a grand canonical ensemble and the considerations for an electrophilic system using B3LYP/6-31 and M06-2X/6-311 + methods. An analysis for CT was performed in agreement with the experimental results with a good statistical correlation relating the polar character to the bond force constants in DA reactions. The quantum distortion analysis on the transition states (TS) was performed using molecular quantum similarity indexes of overlap and coulomb showing good correlation between the rate constants and quantum similarity indexes. In this sense, an electronic reorganization based on molecular polarization in terms of CT is proposed; therefore, new interpretations on the electronic systematization of the DA reactions are presented, taking into account that today such electronic systematization is an open problem in organic physical chemistry. Additionally, one way to quantify the similarity in chemical reactivity was shown, taking into account the dependence of the molecular alignment on properties when their position changes; in this sense a possible way to quantify the similarity of the CT in systematic form on these DA cycloadditions was shown. Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo and Ricardo Vivas-Reyes Copyright © 2014 Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo and Ricardo Vivas-Reyes. All rights reserved. Quantum Chemical Study of Mixed-Ligand Monometallic Ruthenium(II) Complex of Composition [(bpy)2Ru(H3Imbzim)](ClO4)2·2H2O Mon, 19 May 2014 07:09:03 +0000 On the basis of density functional theoretical approach, we have assessed the ground state geometries and absorption spectra of recently synthesized monometallic ruthenium (II) complex of composition [(bpy)2Ru(H3Imbzim)](ClO4)2·2H2O where bpy = 2,2′-bypyridine and H3Imbzim = 4,5-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)imidazole. The all different kinds of charge transfers such as ligand-ligand, and metal-ligand have been quantified, compared, and contrasted with the experimental results. In addition, the effect of solvent on excitation energies has been evaluated. In spite of some digital discrepancies in calculated and observed geometries, as well as in absorption spectra, the density functional theory (DFT) seems to explain the main features of this complex. Mohsin Yousuf Lone and Prakash Chandra Jha Copyright © 2014 Mohsin Yousuf Lone and Prakash Chandra Jha. All rights reserved. Theoretical Calculations and Modeling for the Molecular Polarization of Furan and Thiophene under the Action of an Electric Field Using Quantum Similarity Mon, 17 Mar 2014 09:10:14 +0000 A theoretical study on the molecular polarization of thiophene and furan under the action of an electric field using Local Quantum Similarity Indexes (LQSI) was performed. This model is based on Hirshfeld partitioning of electron density within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT). Six local similarity indexes were used: overlap, overlap-interaction, coulomb, coulomb-interaction, Euclidian distances of overlap, and Euclidean distances of coulomb. In addition Topo-Geometrical Superposition Algorithm (TGSA) was used as a method of alignment. This method provides a straightforward procedure to solve the problem of molecular relative orientation. It provides a tool to evaluate molecular quantum similarity, enabling the study of structural systems, which differ in only one atom such as thiophene and furan (point group ) and cyclopentadienyl molecule (point group ). Additionally, this model can contribute to the interpretation of chemical bonds, and molecular interactions in the framework of the solvent effect theory. Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo and Ricardo Vivas-Reyes Copyright © 2014 Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo and Ricardo Vivas-Reyes. All rights reserved. Topological Model on the Inductive Effect in Alkyl Halides Using Local Quantum Similarity and Reactivity Descriptors in the Density Functional Theory Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:17:26 +0000 We present a topological analysis to the inductive effect through steric and electrostatic scales of quantitative convergence. Using the molecular similarity field based in the local guantum similarity (LQS) with the Topo-Geometrical Superposition Algorithm (TGSA) alignment method and the chemical reactivity in the density function theory (DFT) context, all calculations were carried out with Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) code, using the gradient generalized approximation (GGA) and local exchange correlations PW91, in order to characterize the electronic effect by atomic size in the halogens group using a standard Slater-type-orbital basis set. In addition, in this study we introduced news molecular bonding relationships in the inductive effect and the nature of the polar character in the C–H bond taking into account the global and local reactivity descriptors such as chemical potential, hardness, electrophilicity, and Fukui functions, respectively. These descriptors are used to find new alternative considerations on the inductive effect, unlike to the binding energy and dipole moment performed in the traditional organic chemical. Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo and Ricardo Vivas-Reyes Copyright © 2014 Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo and Ricardo Vivas-Reyes. All rights reserved. Electronic Structure of Ferrocene-Substituted Cavitands: A QTAIM and NBO Study Mon, 10 Feb 2014 12:42:29 +0000 Ferrocene-substituted tetrakis(methyl)resorcin[4]arenes have been investigated by means of DFT calculations employing the gradient-corrected PBEPBE functional. In comparison with ferrocene and simple ansa-ferrocenes containing 2–4 bridging methylene groups, it was found that the tilt angle of the functionalized cyclopentadienyl (Cp) rings strongly influences the electron density distribution of the ferrocenyl moieties. According to NBO analyses, the iron atoms in the cavitands are more positive in comparison to those in ferrocene, whereas they are less positive in ansa-ferrocenes. The partial charges of carbon atoms belonging to Cp rings show some correlation with the tilt angle. Tímea R. Kégl, László Kollár, and Tamás Kégl Copyright © 2014 Tímea R. Kégl et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Bite Angle Effect on the Electronic Structure of Cobalt-Phosphine Complexes: A QTAIM Study Wed, 29 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The influence of bite angle in bisphosphine complexes has been modeled by DFT calculations employing the simple model compound HCo(CO)(PP) (PP = Xantphos or two monophosphine ligands). The increase of the bite angle increases the strength of the H–Co bond, whereas the C–O bond in the carbonyl ligand is weakened revealing an increase also in the donor character. The model compound cis-[HCo(CO)(PPh3)2] shows a flexibility both in terms of energy, and in terms of electronic structure upon the change of the P-Co-P angle, which can be a sign of the flexibility of PPh3 ligands in real reaction conditions. Tamara Papp, László Kollár, and Tamás Kégl Copyright © 2014 Tamara Papp et al. All rights reserved. DFT Study on the Co-Xe Bond in the HCo(CO)Xe Adduct Thu, 02 Jan 2014 13:14:26 +0000 The metal-xenon interaction has been studied in hydrido-cobalt-carbonyl complexes by means of density functional methods. The method of choice has been selected after testing various functionals including dispersion correction on the bond dissociation enthalpy of Xe in the Cr(CO)5Xe adduct. In general, the long range corrected versions of popular gradient-corrected functionals performed well. In particular, LC-mPWPW91 resulted in a perfect match with available experimental data; therefore this functional was selected for the computation of HCo(CO)3Xe adducts. For HCo(CO)3Xe two isomers have been located; the structure with CS symmetry has proved to be more stable by 5.3 kcal/mol than the C3V adduct in terms of free energy. The formation of HCo(CO)3Xe is, however, endergonic by 3.5 kcal/mol for the CS isomer. Tamás Kégl Copyright © 2014 Tamás Kégl. All rights reserved. Towards Rational Designing of Efficient Sensitizers Based on Thiophene and Infrared Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Thu, 02 Jan 2014 12:50:44 +0000 Geometries, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of the dyes which are a combination of thiophene based dye (THPD) and IR dyes (covering IR region; TIRBD1-TIRBD3) were performed using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), respectively. Different electron donating groups, electron withdrawing groups, and IR dyes have been substituted on THPD to enhance the efficiency. The bond lengths of new designed dyes are almost the same. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of designed dyes are above the conduction band of TiO2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energies are below the redox couple revealing that TIRBD1-TIRBD3 would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The broad spectra and low energy gap also showed that designed materials would be efficient sensitizers. Ahmad Irfan, Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi, and Shabbir Muhammad Copyright © 2014 Ahmad Irfan et al. All rights reserved. Anharmonic Spectroscopic Investigation of Tellurophene and Its Perdeuterated Isotopomer: Application of Second-Order Perturbation Theory Thu, 02 Jan 2014 11:04:51 +0000 Vibrational spectra of tellurophene and of its perdeuterated isotopomer were computed using the DFT-B3LYP functional with the LANL2DZ(d,p) basis set. The frequencies of fundamental and overtone transitions were obtained in vacuum under the harmonic approximation and anharmonic second-order perturbation theory (PT2). On the whole the anharmonic corrections reduce the harmonic wavenumber values, in many cases better reproducing the observed fundamental frequencies. The largest anharmonic effects are found for the C–H and C–D stretching vibrations, characterized by relatively high anharmonic coupling constants (up to ca. 120 cm−1). For the C–H/C–D stretches, the harmonic H→D isotopic frequency red-shifts overestimate the observed data by 47–63 cm−1 (5.9–8.1%), whereas the PT2 computations exhibit significantly better performances, predicting the experimental data within 1–19 cm−1 (0.1–2.4%). Andrea Alparone Copyright © 2014 Andrea Alparone. All rights reserved. A Theoretical Study of the Relationships between Electronic Structure and CB1 and CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Binding Affinity in a Group of 1-Aryl-5-(1-H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-H-pyrazole-3-carboxamides Thu, 02 Jan 2014 09:55:16 +0000 We report the results of a search for model-based relationships between hCB1 and hCB2 receptor binding affinity and molecular structure for a group of 1-aryl-5-(1-H-pyrrol-1-yl)-1-H-pyrazole-3-carboxamides. The wave functions and local atomic reactivity indices were obtained at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of theory with full geometry optimization. Interaction pharmacophores were generated for both receptors. The main conclusions of this work are as follows. (1) We obtained statistically significant equations relating the variation of hCB1 and hCB2 receptor binding affinities with the variation of definite sets of local atomic reactivity indices. (2) The interaction of the molecules with the hCB1 and hCB2 receptors seems to be highly complex and mainly orbital controlled. (3) The interaction mechanisms seem to be different for each type of receptor. This study, contrarily to the statistically backed ones, is able to provide a microscopic insight of the mechanisms involved in the binding process. Francisco Salgado-Valdés and Juan S. Gómez-Jeria Copyright © 2014 Francisco Salgado-Valdés and Juan S. Gómez-Jeria. All rights reserved.