About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Sensors
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 747803, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/747803
Review Article

Highly Sensitive Sensors Based on Photonic Crystal Fiber Modal Interferometers

1Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, (ICFO) Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain
2Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, (ICREA) 08010 Barcelona, Spain

Received 23 March 2009; Accepted 19 May 2009

Academic Editor: Christos Riziotis

Copyright © 2009 Joel Villatoro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. A. Jackson and J. D. C. Jones, “Interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Sensors: Systems and Applications, B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Eds., pp. 239–280, Artech House, Norwood, Mass, USA, 1989.
  2. J. D. C. Jones, “Interferometry and polarimetry for optical sensing,” in Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology, J. M. López-Higuera, Ed., pp. 227–245, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK, 2002.
  3. F. T. S. Yu and S. Yin, Eds., Fiber Optic Sensors, Marcel & Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
  4. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, pp. 4729–4749, 2006.
  5. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Mass, USA, 2003.
  6. O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser & Photonics Reviews, vol. 2, pp. 449–459, 2008.
  7. W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, et al., “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Communications, vol. 193, no. 1–6, pp. 97–104, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. D. Káčik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. A. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, “Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3465–3470, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Two-mode operation in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2472–2474, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. R. Layton and J. A. Bucaro, “Optical fiber acoustic sensor utilizing mode-mode interference,” Applied Optics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 666–670, 1979.
  11. M. Spajer, B. Carquille, and H. Maillotte, “Application of intermodal interference to fibre sensors,” Optics Communications, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 261–264, 1986.
  12. T. A. Eftimov and W. J. Bock, “Sensing with a LP01-LP02 intermodal interferometer,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 2150–2156, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. T.-J. Chen, “A novel two-mode fiber-optic interferometer based on HE11-TE01 modal interference utilizing a liquid-crystal-clad fiber modal filter,” Optics Communications, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. W. Jin, Z. Wang, and J. Ju, “Two-mode photonic crystal fibers,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2082–2088, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2535–2537, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 19, pp. 4490–4495, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonics crystal fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 15, Article ID 151113, 3 pages, 2007.
  18. O. Frazao, J. M. Baptista, and J. L. Santos, “Temperature independent strain sensor based on a Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Journal Sensors, vol. 7, pp. 1453–1455, 2007.
  19. H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L.-Y. Shao, et al., “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Applied Optics, vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 2835–2839, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. O. Frazão, J. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Applied Optics, vol. 47, no. 13, pp. 2520–2523, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, et al., “Strain and temperature sensitivities of an elliptical hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber based on Sagnac interferometer,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 2481–2486, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Optics Letters, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692–694, 1996.
  23. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Self-interference of long-period fibre grating and its application as temperature sensor,” Electronics Letters, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 2059–2060, 1998.
  24. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 3450–3459, 1999.
  25. O. Duhem, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Optics Communications, vol. 180, no. 4, pp. 255–262, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1702–1705, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. W. James, I. Ishaq, G. J. Ashwell, and R. P. Tatam, “Cascaded long-period gratings with nanostructured coatings,” Optics Letters, vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 2197–2199, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. I. D. Villar, M. Achaerandio, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Generation of selective fringes with cascaded long-period gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1412–1414, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. P. L. Swart, “Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1576–1580, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “In-fiber reflection mode interferometer based on a long-period grating for external refractive-index measurement,” Applied Optics, vol. 44, no. 26, pp. 5368–5373, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings,” Optics Letters, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 346–348, 2004.
  32. X. Yu, P. Shum, and X. Dong, “Photonic-crystal-fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer using long-period gratings,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1379–1383, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. H. Y. Choi, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer composed of a long period fiber grating and one point collapsing of air holes,” Optics Letters, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 812–814, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. J. Ju, W. Jin, and H. L. Ho, “Compact in-fiber interferometer formed by long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1899–1901, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, et al., “Retaining and characterizing nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,” Optics Express, vol. 11, pp. 98–104, 2003.
  36. H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, et al., “Tapered photonic crystal fibers: properties, characterization and applications,” Applied Physics B, vol. 81, pp. 377–387, 2005.
  37. J. Hu, B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, et al., “Pulse compression using a tapered microstructure optical fiber,” Optics Express, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 4026–4036, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Laflamme, S. Lacroix, J. Bures, and X. Daxhelet, “Understanding power leakage in tapered solid core microstructured fibers,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 387–396, 2007.
  39. M.-L. V. Tse, P. Horak, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “Designing tapered holey fibers for soliton compression,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 192–198, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, “Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 19, pp. 7609–7614, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, “Temperature-independent strain sensor made from tapered holey optical fiber,” Optics Letters, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 305–307, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, and J. Villatoro, “High-temperature sensing with tapers made of microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 18, pp. 511–513, 2006.
  43. V. P. Minkovich, D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, “Microstructured optical fiber coated with thin films for gas and chemical sensing,” Optics Express, vol. 14, no. 18, pp. 8413–8418, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. V. P. Minkovich, D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with selective transmission for sensor applications,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4319–4328, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, “Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 8, Article ID 081106, 3 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. X. Daxhelet, J. Bures, and R. Maciejko, “Temperature-independent all-fiber modal interferometer,” Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 373–376, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Biconical fiber taper sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 18, pp. 2239–2241, 2006.
  48. L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Sun, “In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer,” Optics Letters, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 2692–2694, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Optics Communications, vol. 271, no. 2, pp. 391–395, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1491–1496, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. H. Y. Choi, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “All-fiber Mach-Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 5711–5720, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, “Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 9, Article ID 091109, 3 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, “Refractometry based on a photonic crystal fiber interferometer,” Optics Letters, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 617–619, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, “Ultrastable in reflection photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer for accurate refractive index sensing,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 19, Article ID 191106, 3 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Jha, et al., “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for chemical vapor detection with high sensitivity,” Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1447–1453, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, and R. Vallée, “Microstructured fiber splicing,” Optics Express, vol. 11, no. 25, pp. 3412–3417, 2003.
  57. A. D. Yablon and R. T. Bise, “Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 118–120, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. J. Canning and A. L. G. Carter, “Modal interferometer for in situ measurements of induced core index change in optical fibers,” Optics Letters, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 561–563, 1997.
  59. Q. Li, C.-H. Lin, P.-Y. Tseng, and H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of high extinction ratio modal interference in a two-mode fiber and its applications for all-fiber comb filter and high-temperature sensor,” Optics Communications, vol. 250, no. 4–6, pp. 280–285, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. Q. Wang and G. Farrell, “All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: proposal and design,” Optics Letters, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 317–319, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. Lee, and K. Oh, “Compact three segmented multimode fibre modal interferometer for high sensitivity refractive-index measurement,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1129–1133, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar