Table 3: Germ cell proteins expressed in cancer and proposed function.

GeneGerm cell functionCancer functionMechanismReference

Class I MAGEApoptosis inhibitionProliferationKap1-p53 corepressor [38]
PRAMEApoptosis inhibitionProliferationRetinoic acid receptor[39]
MAGE-A1Transcriptional regulationAberrant transcriptional regulationSKIP, HDAC1[40]
GAGEGene expression regulationAberrant gene expression [41]
LDHCLactose metabolismMetabolic efficiency[42]
SPO-11RecombinationChromosomal instabilityDouble-stranded breaks[4]
SCP-1RecombinationChromosomal instabilityHomologous pairing[4]
REC8*Chromosome segregationAneuploidyRegulated cohesion expression[43]
TERT*Genome protectionImmortalizationTelomere lengthening [44]

Germ cell proteins also expressed in cancer but not currently defined as CTAs.