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Figure 9: Scheme of intracellular hyperthermia using NPrCAP/PEG/M or NPrCAP/M with AMF exposure. NPrCAP/PEG/M nanoparticles are selectively incorporated in melanoma cells. Intracellular hyperthermia can induce necrotic cell death, and adjacent live melanoma cells suffer heat shock, resulting in increased level of intracellular HSP-peptide complexes. Repeated hyperthermia turns heat-shocked cells to necrotic cells, leading to the release of HSP-peptide complexes into extracellular milieu. The released HSPs-peptide complexes are taken up by dendritic cells (DCs). Then, DCs migrate into regional lymph nodes and cross-present HSP chaperoned antigenic peptides to T cells in the context of MHC class I molecules, thereby inducing antimelanoma cytotoxic T cells.