- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Skin Cancer
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 973123, 6 pages
Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Received 24 October 2012; Accepted 4 January 2013
Academic Editor: Justin Lee
Copyright © 2013 Elisabeth Enzenhofer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- C. Suárez, J. P. Rodrigo, A. Ferlito, K. O. Devaney, and A. Rinaldo, “Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck,” Oral Oncology, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 773–779, 2004.
- P. Peloschek, C. Novotny, C. Mueller-Mang et al., “Diagnostic imaging in Merkel cell carcinoma: lessons to learn from 16 cases with correlation of sonography, CT, MRI and PET,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 317–323, 2010.
- C. Toker, “Trabecular carcinoma of the skin,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 107–110, 1972.
- C. K. Tang, C. Toker, A. Nedwich, and A. N. F. Zaman, “Unusual cutaneous carcinoma with features of small cell (oat cell-like) and squamous cell carcinomas. A variant of malignant merkel cell neoplasm,” American Journal of Dermatopathology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 537–548, 1982.
- B. D. Nguyen and A. E. McCullough, “Imaging of merkel cell carcinoma,” Radiographics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 367–376, 2002.
- C. L. Hitchcock, K. I. Bland, R. G. Laney, D. Franzini, B. Harris, and E. M. Copeland III, “Neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of the skin. Its natural history, diagnosis, and treatment,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 201–207, 1988.
- W. J. O’Connor and D. G. Brodland, “Merkel cell carcinoma,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 22, pp. 262–267, 1996.
- F. Eftekhari, S. Wallace, E. G. Silva, and R. Lenzi, “Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin: imaging and clinical features in 93 cases,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 69, no. 819, pp. 226–233, 1996.
- M. L. Haag, L. F. Glass, and N. A. Fenske, “Merkel cell carcinoma: diagnosis and treatment,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 669–683, 1995.
- M. Heath, N. Jaimes, B. Lemos et al., “Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU features,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 375–381, 2008.
- L. Jeremiah, J. L. Messina, S. S. Marzban et al., “Merkel cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 2360–2366, 2012.
- E. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. O. Kim et al., “Merkel cell carcinoma of the inguinal lymph node with an unknown primary site,” Journal of Dermatology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 170–173, 2009.
- I. S. Winer, F. Lonardo, S. C. Johnson, and G. Deppe, “Merkel cell carcinoma in a patient with noninvasive vulvular Paget’s disease,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. e9–e11, 2012.
- M. Agelli, L. X. Clegg, J. C. Becker, and D. E. Rollison, “The etiology and epidemiology of merkel cell carcinoma,” Current Problems in Cancer, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 14–37, 2010.
- J. C. Becker, “Merkel cell carcinoma,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. vii81–vii85, 2010.
- E. Ramahi, J. Choi, C. D. Fuller, and T. Y. Eng, “Merkel cell carcinoma,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, pp. 1–10, 2011.
- S. Jank, P. Robatscher, R. Emshoff, H. Strobl, G. Gojer, and B. Norer, “The diagnostic value of ultrasonography to detect occult lymph node involvement at different levels in patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the maxillofacial region,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 39–42, 2003.
- J. F. Griffith, A. C. W. Chan, A. T. Ahuja et al., “Neck ultrasound in staging squamous oesophageal carcinoma—a high yield technique,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 696–701, 2000.
- T. P. Jessup, W. Y. Wassef, R. K. Yantiss, and K. Bhattacharya, “Metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed by EUS-guided FNA of a rapidly progressive peripancreatic mass,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 527–529, 2006.
- J. Bernstein, A. J. Adeniran, G. Cal et al., “Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration diagnosis of merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas,” Diagnostic Cytopathology, 2012.
- S. Sanchez-Gàrcia, C. Manzanares-Campillo, P. Menéndez-Sànchez, V. Munoz- Atienza, and J. Martin-Fernández, “Merkel cell carcinoma and literature review,” Cirugia y Cirujanos, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 63–66, 2012.
- L. Stoll, S. Mudali, and S. Z. Ali, “Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: aspiration findings and differential diagnosis,” Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 754–757, 2010.
- B. T. Collins, P. G. Elmberger, E. M. Tani, V. Bjornhagen, and R. R. Ramos, “Fine-needle aspiration of Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin with cytomorphology and immunocytochemical correlation,” Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 251–257, 1998.
- F. J. Civantos, S. J. Stoeckli, R. P. Takes et al., “What is the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of oral cancer in 2010?” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 267, no. 6, pp. 839–844, 2010.
- S. Brodsky, J. S. Zager, and C. G. Berman, “Imaging of merkel cell carcinoma,” in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach, chapter 9, pp. 159–169, 2010.
- J. Ortin-Perez, M. C. van Rijk, R. A. Valdes-Olmos et al., “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in Merkel's cell carcinoma,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 119–122, 2007.
- W. K. Stadelmann, L. Cobbins, E. J. Lentsch, and J. J. Disa, “Incidence of nonlocalization of sentinel lymph nodes using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in 74 consecutive head and neck melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma patients,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 546–550, 2004.
- S. P. L. Leong, T. A. Achtem, F. A. Habib et al., “Discordancy between clinical predictions vs lymphoscintigraphic and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph node drainage of primary melanoma,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 135, no. 12, pp. 1472–1476, 1999.
- M. B. Colgan, T. I. Tarantola, A. L. Weaver et al., “The predictive value of imaging studies in evaluating regional lymph node involvement in merkel cell carcinoma,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1250–1256, 2012.
- M. J. Gollub, D. R. Gruen, and D. David Dershaw, “Merkel cell carcinoma: CT findings in 12 patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 617–620, 1996.
- L. I. Canales, A. Parker, and S. Kadakia, “Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from Merkel cell carcinoma,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 1464–1466, 1992.
- L. Azizi, K. Marsot-Dupuch, P. Bigel, S. Mzali, B. Meyer, and J. M. Tubiana, “Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of hypervascular nasal tumor,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1389–1393, 2001.
- P. Dunlop, H. Sapp, P. M. Logan, and N. M. G. Walsh, “Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 396–399, 1998.
- S. E. Anderson, K. T. Beer, A. Banic et al., “MRI of Merkel cell carcinoma: histologic correlation and review of the literature,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 185, no. 6, pp. 1441–1448, 2005.
- F. Ikawa, K. Kiya, T. Uozumi et al., “Brain metastasis of merkel cell carcinoma: case report and review of the literature,” Neurosurgical Review, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 1999.
- D. J. Kwekkeboom, A. M. Hoff, S. W. J. Lamberts, H. Yoe Oei, and E. P. Krenning, “Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy: a simple and sensitive method for the in vivo visualization of Merkel cell tumors and their metastases,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 818–821, 1992.
- B. K. Durani, A. Klein, M. Henze, U. Haberkorn, and W. Hartschuh, “Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy in Merkel cell tumours,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 148, no. 6, pp. 1135–1140, 2003.
- P. Guitera-Rovel, J. Lumbroso, M. S. Gautier-Gougis et al., “Indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy of Merkel cell carcinomas and their metastases,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 807–811, 2001.
- C. O. Wong, A. N. Pham, and H. J. Dworkin, “F-18 FDG accumulation in an octreotide negative merkel cell tumor,” Clinical Positron Imaging, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 71–73, 2000.
- E. G. Eising, D. Bier, E. J. Knust, and C. Reiners, “Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy methods-indications-results,” Radiologe, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 81–88, 1996.
- V. A. Smith, E. Ramssay Camp, and E. J. Lentsch, “Merkel cell carcinoma: identification of prognostic factors unique to tumors located in the head and neck based on analysis of SEER Data,” Laryngoscope, vol. 122, pp. 1283–1290, 2012.
- T. Belhocine, G. E. Pierard, J. Frühling et al., “Clinical added-value of 18FDG PET in neuroendocrine-merkel cell carcinoma,” Oncology Reports, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 347–352, 2006.
- R. Concannon, G. S. Larcos, and M. Veness, “The impact of 18F-FDG PET-CT scanning for staging and management of Merkel cell carcinoma: results from Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 76–84, 2010.
- A. Iagaru, A. Quon, I. R. McDougall, and S. S. Gambhir, “Merkel cell carcinoma: is there a role for 2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography?” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 212–217, 2006.
- J. N. Talbot, K. Kerrou, F. Missoum et al., “6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography in the imaging of Merkel cell carcinoma: preliminary report of three cases with 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography or pentetreotide-(111In) SPECT data,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 257–261, 2005.
- S. G. Gupta, L. C. Wang, P. F. Peñas, M. Gellenthin, S. J. Lee, and P. Nghiem, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy for evaluation and treatment of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: the Dana-Farber experience and meta-analysis of the literature,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 685–690, 2006.
- J. L. Lampreave, F. Bénard, A. Alavi, J. Jimenez-Hoyuela, and D. Fraker, “PET evaluation of therapeutic limb perfusion in Merkel's cell carcinoma,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2087–2090, 1998.
- G. Maury, O. Dereure, A. Du-Thanh, D. Mariano-Goulart, and B. Guillot, “Interest of (18)F-FDG PET-CT scanning for staging and management of merkel cell carcinoma: a retrospective study of 15 patients,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1420–1427, 2011.
- R. K. Grewal, N. Pandit-Taskar, M. Gonen, and S. M. Larson, “FDG-PET for evaluation of Merkel cell carcinoma,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 46, no. 2, abstract 137, 2005.
- O. Warburg, K. Posener, and E. Negelein, “The metabolism of cancer cells,” Biochemischen Zeitschrift, vol. 152, pp. 129–169, 1924.
- G. Larcos and M. N. Maisey, “FDG-PET screening for cerebral metastases in patients with suspected malignancy,” Nuclear Medicine Communications, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 197–198, 1996.