Journal of Spectroscopy http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Spectroscopic Investigations, DFT Calculations, and Molecular Docking Studies of the Anticonvulsant (2E)-2-[3-(1H-Imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylpropylidene]-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydrazinecarboxamide Wed, 25 May 2016 11:10:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/8520757/ Drug discovery for the management of neurological disorders is a challenging arena in medicinal chemistry. Vibrational spectral studies of (2E)-2-[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylpropylidene]-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydrazinecarboxamide ((2E)-IPPMP) have been recorded and analyzed to identify the functional groups and intermolecular/intramolecular interactions of the title molecule. The blue shift of the C-H stretching wavenumber reveals the presence of improper C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers, Frontier orbital energy, and natural bond orbital analyses have been carried out using density functional theory with a B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of the basis set. The vibrational modes have been unambiguously assigned using potential energy distribution analysis. The scaled wavenumbers are in good agreement with the experimental results. Natural bond orbital analysis has confirmed the intermolecular/intramolecular charge transfer interactions. HOMO-LUMO analysis was carried out to explore charge delocalization on the (2E)-IPPMP molecule. A molecular docking study has supported the anticonvulsant activity of the title molecule. Reem I. Al-Wabli, Devarasu Manimaran, Liji John, Isaac Hubert Joe, Nadia G. Haress, and Mohamed I. Attia Copyright © 2016 Reem I. Al-Wabli et al. All rights reserved. Background Radiance Estimation for Gas Plume Quantification for Airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Imaging Thu, 19 May 2016 09:48:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5428762/ Hyperspectral imaging in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) is a mean that is proving its worth in the characterization of gaseous effluent. Indeed the spectral and spatial resolution of acquisition instruments is steadily decreasing, making the gases characterization increasingly easy in the LWIR domain. The majority of literature algorithms exploit the plume contribution to the radiance corresponding to the difference of radiance between the plume-present and plume-absent pixels. Nevertheless, the off-plume radiance is unobservable using a single image. In this paper, we propose a new method to retrieve trace gas concentration from airborne infrared hyperspectral data. More particularly the outlined method improves the existing background radiance estimation approach to deal with heterogeneous scenes corresponding to industrial scenes. It consists in performing a classification of the scene and then applying a principal components analysis based method to estimate the background radiance on each cluster stemming from the classification. In order to determine the contribution of the classification to the background radiance estimation, we compared the two approaches on synthetic data and Telops Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Imaging Hyper-Cam LW airborne acquisition above ethylene release. We finally show ethylene retrieved concentration map and estimate flow rate of the ethylene release. Ramzi Idoughi, Thomas H. G. Vidal, Pierre-Yves Foucher, Marc-André Gagnon, and Xavier Briottet Copyright © 2016 Ramzi Idoughi et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Quantitation of Melamine in Milk by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Tue, 17 May 2016 12:57:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/6184987/ Melamine is a nitrogen-rich substance and has been illegally used to increase the apparent protein content in food products such as milk. Therefore, it is imperative to develop sensitive and reliable analytical methods to determine melamine in human foods. Current analytical methods for melamine are mainly chromatography-based methods, which are time-consuming and expensive and require complex pretreatment and well-trained technicians. The present paper investigated the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for identifying and quantifying melamine in liquor milk. A total of 75 samples were prepared. Uninformative variable elimination-partial least square (UVE-PLS) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to construct quantitative and qualitative models, respectively. Based on the ratio of performance to standard deviate (RPD), UVE-PLS model with 3 components resulted in a better solution. The PLS-DA model achieved an accuracy of 100% and outperformed the optimal reference model of soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Such a method can serve as a potential tool for rapid screening of melamine in milk products. Tong Wu, Hui Chen, Zan Lin, and Chao Tan Copyright © 2016 Tong Wu et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Structural and Photoluminescence for Al-Doped CdO Thin Films Sun, 15 May 2016 07:33:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5127348/ Al-doped CdO thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at different deposition time and substrate temperature. X-ray diffraction showed that the changes in the intensities of the (200), (220), and (311) planes followed a similar trend with increase in deposition time. The surface of the thin film was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Grain sizes of Al-doped CdO thin films increased significantly with increasing deposition time. The film thicknesses were 0.09, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.225 μm for the deposition times of 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra of the Al-doped CdO thin films were measured at room temperature. The photoluminescence wavelength changed in the sequence, green, blue, green, and blue, with increasing deposition time, which indicates that blue light emitting films can be fabricated by adjusting the processing parameters. Bong Ju Lee and Jin Jeong Copyright © 2016 Bong Ju Lee and Jin Jeong. All rights reserved. Studies on Structural and Morphological Properties of Multidoped Ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095O () as Solid Solutions Tue, 10 May 2016 14:13:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5184542/ The nanopowdery solid solutions of multidoped ceria Ce0.8Nd0.0025Sm0.0025Gd0.005Dy0.095Y0.095 () with the fluorite type crystal structure of CeO2 were synthesized for the first time. Two synthesis procedures were applied: the modified glycine-nitrate procedure (MGNP method) and room temperature self-propagating reaction (SPRT method). All nanopowders were characterized by XRPD analysis, Raman spectroscopy, low temperature nitrogen physisorption, TEM, and SEM methods. According to the XRPD and Raman spectroscopy results, single phase solid solutions of fluorite structure were evidenced regardless of the number of dopants and synthesis procedure. Both XRPD and TEM were analyses evidenced nanometer particle dimensions. The SPRT method results in obtaining sample with higher specific surface area, smaller crystallite and particles sizes, and the same values of the lattice parameter in comparison to pure CeO2. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to the oxygen vacancies introduced into the ceria lattice when Ce4+ ions were replaced with cations (dopants) of lower valence state (3+), which may indicate the potential improvement of ionic conductivity. Additionally, the presence of oxygen vacancies in the lattice ceria, as well as very developed grain boundaries, gives a new possibility for potential application of obtained nanopowders in the area of room temperature ferromagnetism as spintronics. Marija Stojmenović, Maja C. Pagnacco, Vladimir Dodevski, Jelena Gulicovski, Milan Žunić, and Snežana Bošković Copyright © 2016 Marija Stojmenović et al. All rights reserved. Ultra-Thin Films of Poly(acrylic acid)/Silver Nanocomposite Coatings for Antimicrobial Applications Thu, 05 May 2016 07:12:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/7489536/ In this work not only colloids of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) but thin films (10 nm) also were deposited using electrospray deposition technique (ESD). A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and ascorbic acid (AA) were utilized to reduce the silver ions to generate Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix. Moreover, sodium tricitrate was used to stabilize the prepared colloids. The obtained colloids and films were characterized using UV-visible, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-Vis results reveal that an absorption peak at 425 nm was observed in presence of PAA-AgNO3-AA-citrate-NaBH4. This peak is attributed to the well-known surface plasmon resonance of the silver bound in Ag-NPs, while the reduction was rendering and/or inhibiting in absence of the AA and citrate. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the mechanism of the reaction process of silver nitrate with PAA. TEM images showed the well dispersion of Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix with average particle size of 8 nm. The antimicrobial studies showed that the Ag-NPs embedded in the PAA matrix have proven to have a significant antimicrobial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis, and C. albicans. Alaa Fahmy, Wael H. Eisa, Mohamed Yosef, and Ali Hassan Copyright © 2016 Alaa Fahmy et al. All rights reserved. Stretched Gelatin Phantom for Detection of Residual Dipolar Couplings in MR Spectra and Data Analysis of Carnosine Sat, 30 Apr 2016 07:54:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/4596542/ Peak splitting due to the residual dipolar coupling (RDC) represents a potentially applicable spectral parameter for diagnostic purposes. Several of the skeletal muscle metabolites were previously reported to display the RDC splitting in in vivo MR spectra. We constructed an in vitro model consisting of mechanically stretched gelatin cylinder soaked with the muscle metabolite carnosine. We describe the preparation procedure of an upscaled 50 mL stretched gelatin sample with carnosine that can be used as a phantom for setting-up and testing of spectroscopic measurements of RDC in a MR scanner. We also report on analysis of the RDC splittings in 1H and 13C high resolution MR spectra of carnosine. Karel Bernášek, Marián Grocký, Martin Burian, and Jan Lang Copyright © 2016 Karel Bernášek et al. All rights reserved. Microanalysis of Organic Pigments in Ancient Textiles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Agar Gel Matrices Wed, 27 Apr 2016 06:12:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/1380105/ We review some new methods based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the nondestructive/minimally invasive identification of organic colorants in objects whose value or function precludes sampling, such as historic and archeological textiles, paintings, and drawing. We discuss in detail the methodology we developed for the selective extraction and identification of anthraquinones and indigoids in the typical concentration used in textiles by means of an ecocompatible homogeneous nanostructured agar matrix. The extraction system was modulated according to the chemical properties of the target analyte by choosing appropriate reagents for the extraction and optimizing the extraction time. The system has been found to be extremely stable, easy to use and produce, easy to store, and at the same time able to be analyzed even after long time intervals, maintaining its enhancement properties unaltered, without the detriment of the extracted compound. Highly structured SERS band intensities have been obtained from the extracted dyes adopting laser light excitations at 514.5 and 785 nm of a micro-Raman setup. This analytical method has been found to be extremely safe for the analyzed substrates, thus being a promising procedure for the selective analysis and detection of molecules at low concentration in the field of artworks conservation. Marilena Ricci, Cristiana Lofrumento, Emilio Castellucci, and Maurizio Becucci Copyright © 2016 Marilena Ricci et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Benzylpenicillin Potassium Residues in Duck Meat Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Au Nanoparticles Tue, 26 Apr 2016 13:54:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/7086723/ A new method using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with Au nanoparticles was established for the rapid detection of benzylpenicillin potassium (PG) residues in duck meat. Au nanoparticles were used as SERS enhancement substrate, and the maximum absorption peak of Au nanoparticles using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer was 548 nm. In the research, the SERS spectra of PG solutions and PG duck meat extract as well as their vibrational assignment were analyzed. The effects of Au nanoparticles addition, sample addition, NaCl solution addition, and adsorption time on the SERS intensities of PG duck meat extract were discussed. It is revealed that a good linearity can be obtained between the SERS intensities at 993 cm−1 and the PG residues concentrations (0.5~15.0 mg·L−1) detected in duck meat extract. The linear equation was , and the determination coefficient was 0.9553. The determination coefficient of PG in duck meat extract between the actual values and the predictive values was 0.9757, and the root mean square error (RMSEP) was 0.6496 mg/L. The recovery rate of PG in duck meat extract was 90~121%. The results showed that the method using SERS with Au nanoparticles could pave a new way for the rapid detection of PG residues in duck meat. Yijie Peng, Muhua Liu, Jinhui Zhao, Haichao Yuan, Yao Li, Jinjiang Tao, and Hongqing Guo Copyright © 2016 Yijie Peng et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Lead on the Interpretation of Bone Samples with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Tue, 26 Apr 2016 11:52:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/8205479/ This study is devoted to tracing and identifying the elements available in bone sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The bone samples were prepared from the thigh of laboratory rats, which consumed 325.29 g/mol lead acetate having 4 mM concentration in specified time duration. About 76 atomic lines have been analyzed and we found that the dominant elements are Ca I, Ca II, Mg I, Mg II, Fe I, and Fe II. Temperature curve and bar graph were drawn to compare bone elements of group B which consumed lead with normal group, group A, in the same laboratory conditions. Plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density were determined by considering Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in the plasma. An inverse relationship has been detected between lead absorption and elements like Calcium and Magnesium absorption comparing elemental values for both the groups. Abdolhamed Shahedi, Esmaeil Eslami, and Mohammad Reza Nourani Copyright © 2016 Abdolhamed Shahedi et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Optical Characterization of High Density Au/PAA Nanoarrays Sun, 24 Apr 2016 07:16:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5083482/ Hexagonal nanoarrays of Au nanorods and nanopillar were deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA) membranes utilizing dc electrodeposition. The surface morphologies and optical properties were characterized by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The optical reflectance spectra of the as-prepared, pore widened, and 2D-Au nanorods-coated PAA membranes were studied in detail. The effects of the angle of incident, pore widening time, and electrodeposition time on the characteristic peaks positions and intensities of the fabricated nanoarrays were addressed. As the angle of incident increased, the interference peaks and transverse surface resonance are shifted to longer wavelengths, but the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance is shifted to shorter wavelengths. Also, the reflected intensities are decreased linearly for the as-prepared sample and decreased exponentially for Au/PAA samples. Using the modified Kubelka-Munk radiative transfer model, the energy gap is increased from 2.83 to 3.06 eV and the refractive index is decreased from 1.84 to 1.36 for the as-prepared and 70 min pore widened PAA membranes, respectively. Based on the advantages of the fabrication approach and the enhanced and controlled properties, this generation of Au/PAA arrays can be used as efficient building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanophotonic devices. Mohamed Shaban Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Shaban. All rights reserved. Study on the Fluorescence Spectra Characteristics of Vinegar-Water Solutions Thu, 21 Apr 2016 13:36:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/8416869/ Fluorescence spectra and polarization spectra of vinegar-water solutions with different concentration of CH3COOH have been studied. The characteristics and mechanism of fluorescence spectra are discussed, and polarization degree is calculated. Vinegar-water solutions are excited by ultraviolet (UV) light at 380 nm. The characteristic fluorescence peaks of the solution were identified at 445 nm and 470 nm. The type of emission fluorescence is . With the increasing concentration of CH3COOH/pH value, the peak intensity is enhanced first, and then fluorescence quenching occurs. The polarization degree confirms the molecular orientation of different sample solutions. This research provides theoretical and experimental basis for the physical/chemical properties and quality of vinegar detection by florescence spectroscopy. Dan Li, Xuan Wang, and Caiqin Han Copyright © 2016 Dan Li et al. All rights reserved. Optical Estimation on Pollution Level of Respirable Dust Based on Infrared Transmitting Behavior in Coalmine Fully Mechanized Working Face Thu, 14 Apr 2016 16:01:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/2626414/ Respirable coal particle generated during underground mining is the main cause for gas-dust explosions and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) which needs accurate monitoring especially on its concentration. Focusing on the coal dust pollution in the fully mechanized working face of Huangbaici coalmine, coal particle was sampled for further industrial analysis and FT-IR test to obtain its chemical composition and optical constant. Combined with the simulated spatial distribution of airborne dust, the spectral transmission characteristics of coal dust within wavelengths of 2.5 to 25 μm under different operating conditions were obtained. The simulation results show that the transmittance and aerosol optical depth (AOD) of coal dust are closely linked and obviously influenced by the variation of dust generation source (intensity of dust release, position of coal cutting, and the wetting of the coal seam) and airflow field (wind speed and direction of ventilation). Furthermore, an optical channel of 1260–1280 cm−1 (7.937–7.813 μm) which is almost only sensitive to the variation of dust concentration but dull to the diameter change of coal dust was selected to establish the correlation of dust concentration and infrared transmittance. The fitting curve was then applied to retrieve the equivalent dust concentration based on optical information, and the comparison results demonstrate that the estimated pollution level is consistent with field measurement data in engineering practice. Wen-Zheng Wang, Yan-Ming Wang, and Guo-Qing Shi Copyright © 2016 Wen-Zheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Discrimination of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma from Noncancerous Ex Vivo Tissue Using Reflectance Spectroscopy Thu, 14 Apr 2016 08:12:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/1596845/ Reflectance spectroscopy is a low-cost, nondestructive, and noninvasive method for detection of neoplastic lesions of mucosal tissue. This study aims to evaluate the capability of reflectance spectroscopy system under white light (400–700 nm) with a multivariate statistical analysis for distinguishing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from nasopharyngeal benign ex vivo tissues. High quality reflectance spectra were acquired from nasopharyngeal ex vivo tissues belonging to 18 noncancerous and 19 cancerous subjects, and the combination of principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) along with leave-one-spectrum-out cross-validation (LOOCV) diagnostic algorithm was subsequently employed to classify different types of tissue group, achieving a diagnostic sensitivity of 73.7% and a specificity of 72.2%. Furthermore, in order to distinguish NPC from nasopharyngeal benign ex vivo tissues based on reflectance spectra simply, spectral intensity ratios of oxyhemoglobin (540/576) were used as an indicator of the carcinogenesis associated transformation in the hemoglobin oxygenation. This tentative work demonstrated the potential of reflectance spectroscopy for NPC detection using ex vivo tissue and has significant experimental and clinical value for further in vivo NPC detection in the future. Zhihong Xu, Wei Huang, Duo Lin, Shanshan Wu, Maowen Chen, Xiaosong Ge, Xueliang Lin, and Liqing Sun Copyright © 2016 Zhihong Xu et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Sensitivity of Hyperspectral Sensor to Detect Oils with Sea Ice Mon, 04 Apr 2016 11:30:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/6584314/ The reflectance of two commonly used oils, crude oil and diesel, is measured under various conditions: on a water surface, among pack ice, and on/beneath compact ice. The spectral characteristics of each oil are analyzed using the results from these measures. In conjunction with estimated noise thresholds of the sensor environment, the theoretical potential to identify oil is assessed for the hyperspectral Hyperion. The hyperspectral sensor is more sensitive to the crude oil than to diesel under all conditions. The visible and infrared bands, from 468 nm to 933 nm, are more suitable to identify the crude oil. In addition, when the background is pack ice, the infrared region from 1134 nm to 1326 nm is another potential useful zone. Through the visible-to-infrared bands, the sensitivity to the existence of diesel is inferior to that of crude oil. Relatively, the bands greater than 1134 nm have the potential to separate diesel from the water or sea ice. These characteristics and sensitivity of oil film in terms of ice and oil type can be effectively used to select suitable bands to distinguish oils from sea water and sea ice. Bingxin Liu, Ying Li, Qiang Zhang, and Liang Han Copyright © 2016 Bingxin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Backward Spectral Characterization of Liquid Crystal Display Based on Forward Spectral Characterization Tue, 29 Mar 2016 11:13:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/8515672/ A backward spectral characterization for Liquid Crystal Display by the use of rule for the maximum peak of spectral radiation curves changing with the digital input values is proposed; this new model is developed based on forward spectral characterization. It deals with estimation of RGB used as input to the digital display from known spectral radiation curves. We first investigate the rule for the peak of spectral radiation curves changing with the digital input values of primaries; then the initial digital input RGB are calculated based on that rule using the known spectral radiation curves . Third, RGB are inputted into forward spectral characterization model and the corresponding spectral radiation curves are predicted. Last, RGB are modified according to the difference between predicted and known , until this difference satisfied the prediction accuracy of the inverse characterization model. The inverse model has the advantage of using the same model for both forward and inverse color space transformation. This improves the accuracy of the color space transformation and reduces the source of errors. Results for 3 devices are shown and discussed; the accuracy of this model is considered sufficient for many applications. Jian-qing Zhang, Fang Cai, Xiao-ying Shen, Zhen Liu, and Ming Zhu Copyright © 2016 Jian-qing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. AuCu@Pt Nanoalloys for Catalytic Application in Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:24:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/6210794/ To enhance and optimize nanocatalyst ability for nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction reaction we look beyond Au-metal nanoparticles and describe a new class of Au nanoalloys with controlled composition for core of AuCu-metals and Pt-metal shell. The reduction of 4-NP was investigated in aqueous media spectroscopically on 7.8 nm Au nanospheres (AuNSs), 8.3 nm AuCuNSs, and 9.1 nm AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs in diameter. The rate constants of the catalyzed reaction at room temperature, activation energies, and entropies of activation of reactions catalyzed by the AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs are found to have different values to those of the pure metal NSs. The results strongly support the proposal that catalysis by nanoparticles is taking place efficiently on the surface of NSs. These core-shell nanocatalysts exhibited stability throughout the reduction reaction and proved that heterogonous type mechanisms are most likely to be dominant in nanoalloy based catalysis if the surface of the NSs is not defected upon shell incorporation. Sadia Mehmood, Naveed Kausar Janjua, Farhat Saira, and Hicham Fenniri Copyright © 2016 Sadia Mehmood et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Spectroscopy Approach for Detection of Internal Defect of Component without Zero-Position Sensors Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:42:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5958236/ Conventional approach to detect the internal defect of a component needs sensors to mark the “zero” positions, which is time-consuming and lowers down the detecting efficiency. In this study, we proposed a novelty approach that uses spatial spectroscopy to detect internal defect of objects without zero-position sensors. Specifically, the spatial variation wave of distance between the detecting source and object surface is analyzed, from which a periodical cycle is determined with the correlative approaches. Additionally, a wavelet method is adopted to reduce the noise of the periodic distance signal. This approach is validated by the ultrasound detection of a component with round cross section and elliptical shape in axis. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach greatly saves the time spent on the judgment of a complete cycle and improves the detecting efficiency of internal defect in the component. The approach can be expanded to other physical methods for noninvasive detection of internal defect, such as optical spectroscopy or X-ray scanning, and it can be used for hybrid medium, such as biological tissues. Qizhou Wu, Yong Jin, Zhaoba Wang, and Zhaoqian Xiao Copyright © 2016 Qizhou Wu et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR Mon, 07 Mar 2016 07:44:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/4024783/ Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-NIR spectrometer and fitted with an integration sphere working in a diffused reflectance mode. The spectra were correlated with hardness and tensile properties. Partial least square (PLS) calibration models were built from the spectra datasets with preprocessing techniques, that is, smoothing and second derivative. This indicated that reasonably accurate models, that is, with a coefficient of determination [] of the validation greater than 0.9, could be achieved for the hardness and tensile properties of rubber materials. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR analysis can be applied to determine hardness and tensile values in rubbers and rubber blends effectively. Rattapol Pornprasit, Philaiwan Pornprasit, Pruet Boonma, and Juggapong Natwichai Copyright © 2016 Rattapol Pornprasit et al. All rights reserved. Reagentless Bacterial Identification Using a Combination of Multiwavelength Transmission and Angular Scattering Spectroscopy Mon, 29 Feb 2016 17:11:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5436821/ Optics based technologies are being advanced by many diagnostic companies around the globe. This resurgence is being driven by several factors including novel materials, enhanced computer power, nonlinear optics, and advances in algorithmic and statistical analysis. This study expands on a previous paper that evaluated the capability of a reagent-free optical profiling platform technology that used multiwavelength transmission spectroscopy to identify bacterial pathogens from pure culture. This study combines multiwavelength angular scattering with transmission based analysis into a single algorithm that will identify bacterial pathogens. Six predominant organisms, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, and coagulase negative Staphylococcus, were analyzed from a total of 753 clinical isolates received from three large community hospital systems. The bacterial identification method used for comparison in this study was the Vitek-2 (bioMerieux) which utilizes a biochemically based identification system. All of the clinical isolates received were blinded as to their identification until completion of the optical analysis. Sensitivities ranged from 87.7 to 94.6% with specificities ranging from 97.2 to 99.9% indicating that optical profiling is a powerful and exciting new technology that could be developed for the rapid identification of pathogens without the use of chemical reagents. Debra E. Huffman, Yulia M. Serebrennikova, Jennifer M. Smith, Alison Roth, Jack N. Lindon, German F. Leparc, and Luis H. Garcia-Rubio Copyright © 2016 Debra E. Huffman et al. All rights reserved. Spectroscopic Investigations and DFT Calculations on 3-(Diacetylamino)-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one Sun, 28 Feb 2016 08:43:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5396439/ The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies of 3-(diacetylamino)-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2) were investigated. The experimental Laser-Raman spectrum (4000–100 cm−1) and FT-IR spectrum (4000–400 cm−1) of the newly synthesized compound were recorded in the solid phase. Both the theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles have for the first time been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP and DFT/M06-2X) quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set using Gaussian 03 software. The vibrational frequencies were assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis using VEDA 4 software. The calculated vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding reported experimental data. Also, the energies of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and other related molecular energies for 3-(diacetylamino)-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2) have been investigated using the same computational methods. Yusuf Sert, Fatih Ucun, Gamal A. El-Hiti, Keith Smith, and Amany S. Hegazy Copyright © 2016 Yusuf Sert et al. All rights reserved. Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy Studies of Carbon Nitride Films Wed, 24 Feb 2016 09:32:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/5810592/ Amorphous carbon nitride films with N/C ratios ranging from 2.24 to 3.26 were deposited by reactive sputtering at room temperature on corning glass, silicon, and quartz as substrates. The average chemical composition of the films was obtained from the semiquantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Photoluminescence measurements were performed to determine the optical band gap of the films. The photoluminescence spectra displayed two peaks: one associated with the substrate and the other associated with films located at ≈ eV. Results show an increase in the optical band gap from 2.11 to 2.15 eV associated with the increase in the N/C ratio. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a dominant band. ratio reaches a maximum value for N/C ≈ 3.03 when the optical band gap is 2.12 eV. Features observed by the photoluminescence and Raman studies have been associated with the increase in the carbon sp2/sp3 ratio due to presence of high nitrogen content. J. Hernández-Torres, A. Gutierrez-Franco, P. G. González, L. García-González, T. Hernandez-Quiroz, L. Zamora-Peredo, V. H. Méndez-García, and A. Cisneros-de la Rosa Copyright © 2016 J. Hernández-Torres et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Molecular Structure Modifications on Vibrational Properties of Some Beta Blockers: A Combined Raman and DFT Study Tue, 23 Feb 2016 16:19:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/3137140/ We report results of a systematic Raman, SERS, and DFT study on four beta blocking molecules: Atenolol, Metoprolol, Propranolol, and, for the first time reported in the literature, Bisoprolol. The choice of these molecules was motivated by the structural similarities between Atenolol, Bisoprolol, and Metoprolol on one hand and by their differences relative to Propranolol. The density functional theory (DFT) approach, using the B3LYP method at the 6-311+G(d,p) level of theory, has been employed for geometry optimization and vibration bands assignments. The obtained results highlight the major role played by the central aromatic ring whose vibrations dominate the Raman spectra in all compounds. While the phenyl group vibrations dominate the Raman spectrum in the case of Atenolol, Bisoprolol, and Metoprolol, the spectrum of Propranolol presents high intensity vibrations of the naphthyl group. SERS performed on gold and silver colloids, at various pH conditions, revealed a higher sensitivity for Propranolol detection. The pH dependence of the spectrum indicates that the studied beta blockers attach themselves to the metal nanoparticles in a protonated form. The molecular adsorption geometry on metal nanoparticles surface has been evaluated by using the experimental SER spectra and the quantum chemical calculations. A. Farcaș, C. Iacoviță, E. Vințeler, V. Chiș, R. Știufiuc, and C. M. Lucaciu Copyright © 2016 A. Farcaș et al. All rights reserved. Probing into the Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Submaxillary Mucin: NMR, Fluorescence, and FTIR Approaches Tue, 23 Feb 2016 09:36:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/9580136/ Nicotine, the important component of cigarette products, may have an impact on the oral environment after inhalation. The research of interaction between nicotine and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) contributes to understand the binding mechanism of nicotine and BSM, and the effects of nicotine on the structure and function of the mucin. NMR data demonstrated that the interaction between nicotine and BSM did exist, and it was pyrrolidyl ring of nicotine playing the major role in the binding. The quenching mechanisms of nicotine and BSM in different pH were different: for acidic environment, the quenching was dynamic; while it became static in the alkaline circumstance. Synchronous fluorescence spectra indicated that nicotine had effect on the microenvironment of the Trp rather than Tyr residue. Meanwhile, the impact of nicotine on the conformation of BSM was also confirmed by 3D fluorescence and FTIR spectra. Xiaoxiang Liao, Dalin Yuan, Jianguo Tang, Hongqin Yang, Bing Liang, Qiang Cheng, and Hui Li Copyright © 2016 Xiaoxiang Liao et al. All rights reserved. Fourier-Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in Binary Hydrocarbon-Alcohol Single Droplet Evaporation Wed, 17 Feb 2016 09:51:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/3619634/ Broadband absorption spectroscopy, by way of FTIR, was used to investigate the vapor cloud of a single millimeter sized liquid droplet suspended by a syringe as it evaporates at standard conditions. Single beam data were collected every 8 seconds resulting in a time-resolved record. Species concentrations were tracked using their resonant absorption peaks and correlated with a multidimensional numerical model. The numerical model combined a Gaussian beam transmission through a temporally changing spherical vapor cloud with radial concentration gradients, informed by the law and interpreted using the Abel transform. There was fair agreement with temporal evaporation trends for single component runs. Multicomponent experiments of ethanol and isooctane showed synergistic blending effects and preferential evaporation of ethanol. Droplets were also suspended by a thermocouple to track the droplet temperature over time as they were subject to evaporative cooling. This work is the foundation of a basic technique for collecting useful data to inform a complex transport problem. Shane R. Daly, Nicholas Olson, and Christopher L. Hagen Copyright © 2016 Shane R. Daly et al. All rights reserved. Prospects on Time-Domain Diffuse Optical Tomography Based on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting for Small Animal Imaging Wed, 10 Feb 2016 09:32:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/1947613/ This paper discusses instrumentation based on multiview parallel high temporal resolution (<50 ps) time-domain (TD) measurements for diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and a prospective view on the steps to undertake as regards such instrumentation to make TD-DOT a viable technology for small animal molecular imaging. TD measurements provide information-richest data, and we briefly review the interaction of light with biological tissues to provide an understanding of this. This data richness is yet to be exploited to its full potential to increase the spatial resolution of DOT imaging and to allow probing, via the fluorescence lifetime, tissue biochemical parameters, and processes that are otherwise not accessible in fluorescence DOT. TD data acquisition time is, however, the main factor that currently compromises the viability of TD-DOT. Current high temporal resolution TD-DOT scanners simply do not integrate sufficient detection channels. Based on our past experience in developing TD-DOT instrumentation, we review and discuss promising technologies to overcome this difficulty. These are single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors and fully parallel highly integrated electronics for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). We present experimental results obtained with such technologies demonstrating the feasibility of next-generation multiview TD-DOT therewith. Yves Bérubé-Lauzière, Matteo Crotti, Simon Boucher, Seyedrohollah Ettehadi, Julien Pichette, and Ivan Rech Copyright © 2016 Yves Bérubé-Lauzière et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Luminescent Characteristics of Ce3+-Activated Borosilicate Blue-Emitting Phosphors for LEDs Mon, 01 Feb 2016 08:46:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/9346503/ The phosphors Sr3B2SiO8:Ce3+ have been successfully synthesized via solid-state reaction process. Emission/excitation spectra and photoluminescence decay behaviors were investigated in detail. Under the excitation of 340 nm, the emission spectrum presented an asymmetry emission band extended from 350 to 600 nm, which with the main peak at 425 nm can be fitted in two peaks (23940 cm−1 and 21934 cm−1). The chromaticity coordinates of :Ce3+ are fixed in the blue region; when the intensity of Ce3+ reached the maximum, the chromaticity coordinate is (0.154, 0.088) which is more close to the standard CIE of blue light (0.140, 0.080). The results showed the kind of phosphor may have potential applications in the fields of UV-excited white LEDs. Hong Yu, Jinlei Chen, and Shucai Gan Copyright © 2016 Hong Yu et al. All rights reserved. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Screening for Bladder Disease in Africa: Training Rural Clinic Staff to Collect Data of Diagnostic Quality Sun, 24 Jan 2016 14:15:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/1241862/ Background. While near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recognized relevance for developing countries, biomedical applications are rare. This reflects the cost and complexity of NIRS and the convention of comprehensive training for accurate data collection. In an international initiative using transcutaneous NIRS to screen for bladder disease in Africa, we evaluated if interactive training enabled clinic staff to collect data accurately. Methods. Workshop training in a Ugandan medical clinic on NIRS monitoring theory; bladder physiology and chromophore changes occurring with disease; device orientation; device positioning over the bladder, monitoring subjects during voiding; and saving/uploading data. Participation in patient screening followed with observation, assistance, and then data collection. Evaluation comprised conduct of serial independent screenings with analysis if saved files were of diagnostic quality. Results. 10 individuals attended 1-hour workshops and then 0.5–3.0 hours of screening. Five then felt able to conduct screening independently and all collected data were of diagnostic quality (>5 consecutive patients); all had participated in screening for >1.5 hours (6+ subjects); less participation allowed competent assistance but not consistent adherence to the monitoring protocol. Conclusion. A simplified NIRS system, small-group theory/orientation workshops, and >I.5 hours of 1 : 1 training during screening enabled clinic staff in Africa to collect accurate NIRS data. Lynn Stothers, Andrew Macnab, Sharif Mutabazi, Ronald Mukisa, Behnam Molavi, and Babak Shadgan Copyright © 2016 Lynn Stothers et al. All rights reserved. Thickness Measurement of V2O5 Nanometric Thin Films Using a Portable XRF Sun, 24 Jan 2016 09:32:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/9509043/ Nanometric thin films have always been chiefly used for decoration; however they are now being widely used as the basis of high technology. Among the various physical qualities that characterize them, the thickness strongly influences their properties. Thus, a new procedure is hereby proposed and developed for determining the thickness of V2O5 nanometric thin films deposited on the glass surface using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF) equipment and the attenuation of the radiation intensity Kα of calcium present in the glass. It is shown through the present paper that the radiation intensity of calcium Kα rays is proportional to film thickness in nanometric films of vanadium deposited on the glass surface. Fabio Lopes, Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin, Larissa da Silva Martins, Alexandre Urbano, Carlos Roberto Appoloni, and Roberto Cesareo Copyright © 2016 Fabio Lopes et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication and Crystallization of ZnO-SLS Glass Derived Willemite Glass-Ceramics as a Potential Material for Optics Applications Thu, 21 Jan 2016 13:12:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/8084301/ Willemite glass-ceramics were successfully derived from conventional melt-quench ZnO-SLS precursor glass by an isothermal heat treatment process. The effect of heat treatment temperatures on the physical properties was investigated by Archimedes principle and linear shrinkage. The generation of willemite crystal phase and morphology with increase in heat treatment temperature was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. X-ray diffraction revealed that the metastable -Zn2SiO4 and thermodynamically stable zinc orthosilicate α-Zn2SiO4 phases can be observed at temperatures above 700°C. The experimental results indicated that the density and shrinkage of the glass-ceramic vary with increasing the sintering temperature. FTIR studies showed that the structure of glass-ceramic consists of SiO2 and ZnO4 units and exhibits the structural evolution of willemite glass-ceramics. The characteristic of strong vibrational bands can be related to the tetrahedron corresponding to reference spectra of willemite. Mohd Hafiz Mohd Zaid, Khamirul Amin Matori, Sidek Hj. Abdul Aziz, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus, Zaidan Abdul Wahab, and Nur Farhana Samsudin Copyright © 2016 Mohd Hafiz Mohd Zaid et al. All rights reserved.