Journal of Spectroscopy http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Dictionary-Based, Clustered Sparse Representation for Hyperspectral Image Classification Thu, 22 Jan 2015 11:40:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/678765/ This paper presents a new, dictionary-based method for hyperspectral image classification, which incorporates both spectral and contextual characteristics of a sample clustered to obtain a dictionary of each pixel. The resulting pixels display a common sparsity pattern in identical clustered groups. We calculated the image’s sparse coefficients using the dictionary approach, which generated the sparse representation features of the remote sensing images. The sparse coefficients are then used to classify the hyperspectral images via a linear SVM. Experiments show that our proposed method of dictionary-based, clustered sparse coefficients can create better representations of hyperspectral images, with a greater overall accuracy and a Kappa coefficient. Zhen-tao Qin, Wu-nian Yang, Ru Yang, Xiang-yu Zhao, and Teng-jiao Yang Copyright © 2015 Zhen-tao Qin et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Mo-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Thu, 22 Jan 2015 08:08:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/681850/ The undoped and Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under irradiation of a 500 W xenon lamp and natural solar light outdoor. Effects of calcination temperatures and Mo doping amounts on crystal phase, crystallite size, lattice distortion, and optical properties were investigated. The results showed that most of Mo6+ took the place of Ti4+ in the crystal lattice of TiO2, which inhibited the growth of crystallite size, suppressed the transformation from anatase to rutile, and led to lattice distortion of TiO2. Mo doping narrowed the band gap (from 3.05 eV of TiO2 to 2.73 eV of TiMo0.02O) and efficiently increased the optical absorption in visible region. Mo doping was shown to be an efficient method for degradation of methylene blue under visible light, especially under solar light. When the calcination temperature was 550°C and the Mo doping amount was 2.0%, the Mo-doped TiO2 sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Ji-guo Huang, Xue-ting Guo, Bo Wang, Lin-yang Li, Mei-xia Zhao, Li-li Dong, Xing-juan Liu, and Yu-ting Huang Copyright © 2015 Ji-guo Huang et al. All rights reserved. Compression of Extreme-Ultraviolet Ultrashort Pulses by Grating Configurations Thu, 22 Jan 2015 06:46:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/495914/ The design and realization of grating instruments to condition the spectral phase of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet pulses are discussed. The main application of such configurations is the temporal compression of pulses by compensating the phase chirp and getting close to the Fourier limit. We discuss the two configurations useful for the realization of ultrafast grating compressors, namely, the classical diffraction mount and the off-plane one. The configuration may be applied to free-electron lasers and high-order laser harmonics. Fabio Frassetto, Paolo Miotti, and Luca Poletto Copyright © 2015 Fabio Frassetto et al. All rights reserved. Calibration Method for Confocal X-Ray Microanalysis with Polychromatic Excitation Tue, 13 Jan 2015 11:02:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/368054/ To apply the fundamental parameters method at the confocal setup the knowledge of the sensitivity of the spectrometer is required which depends on the characteristics of two X-ray lenses: one in the excitation channel and another in the detection channel. For the particular case of polychromatic excitation, the theory shows that the focalization properties of the excitation lens for all incident energies affect the X-ray fluorescence intensity. Therefore the traditional calibration method based on the measurement of standard samples becomes unstable since the number of required fitting parameters is too high. To reduce these parameters a previous characterization of the excitation lens by a simulation program was employed giving rise to a simplified confocal setup calibration. The developed calibration method was applied for a confocal spectrometer implemented in the Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Source (LNLS) with white beam. The experimental parameters of the sensitivity were obtained from depth profile analysis of several pure thin films. The calibrated confocal setup was used to quantify reference standards in order to validate the calibration procedure. Our results for elemental concentrations show relative errors less than 15% for the quantitative analysis of a light matrix reference standard. C. Sosa, V. Stoytschew, J. Leani, H. J. Sánchez, C. A. Pérez, and R. D. Perez Copyright © 2015 C. Sosa et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of 31 Hydrazones of Carbonyl Compounds by RRLC-UV and RRLC-MS(/MS): A Comparison of Methods Tue, 13 Jan 2015 09:38:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/890836/ Aldehydes and ketones are volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted into the atmosphere by a large number of natural and anthropogenic sources. Carbonyl compounds (CC) are atmospheric pollutants with known damaging effects for the human’s health. In this work, the separation of 31 carbonyl compounds (CC) in their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones form was optimized by rapid resolution liquid chromatography in 9 minutes and simultaneously detected by ultraviolet and mass spectrometry with an APCI(−) as ionization source. The mass spectra of hydrazones presented the [M-H]− ions as base peak, but the MS/MS spectra showed fragments related to different structural classes of aldehydes and ketones, representing an important tool to assist structure elucidation of unknown CC in real samples. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) improved the sensitivity and selectivity for the quantitation method. Analytical parameters using both UV and MS (linearity, determination coefficients, detection limits, and sensitivity) were compared. The detection methods are complementary and a powerful analytical tool for the detection and quantitation of CC in complex environmental samples. Soraya de M. Ochs, Maíra Fasciotti, and Annibal D. Pereira Netto Copyright © 2015 Soraya de M. Ochs et al. All rights reserved. SERS Characterization of the Indocyanine-Type Dye IR-820 on Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in the Near Infrared Tue, 13 Jan 2015 07:53:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/805649/ The Raman spectrum of the indocyanine-type dye IR-820 has been assigned for both solid and solution. SERS spectra of IR-820 on both silver and gold nanoparticles suspensions excited at 1064 nm were obtained. AgNPs allowed the detection of the dye through SERS down to 0.1 micromoles per liter; for the AuNPs the lowest concentration of the dye detectable was 10 micromoles per liter. Changes in the SERS relative intensities compared to the Raman spectrum in solution are subtle, mostly due to the preresonance effect of the dye. However, a perpendicular orientation relative to the metallic surface was inferred for the dye on both AgNPs and AuNPs. The easily distinguishable SERS spectra of the dye excited at 1064 nm, together with the high biological compatibility of cyanine dyes, are both indicative that IR-820 could be used as a high-performance probe molecule for SERS. Tatiana B. V. Neves and Gustavo F. S. Andrade Copyright © 2015 Tatiana B. V. Neves and Gustavo F. S. Andrade. All rights reserved. Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of PM 597 Dye-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles Mon, 12 Jan 2015 12:48:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/901032/ Nanostructured fluorescent pyrromethene (PM) doped-silica core-shell particles were successfully prepared by Stöber process. The average size of the particles was in the range of 10–20 nm measured by TEM micrograph. The atomic structure and morphology of PM 597/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles were studied by AFM and SEM, respectively. Absorption and emission spectra of the PM 597/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles under the UV irradiation were studied and not significantly influenced at the position of peaks. Finally, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and photobleaching of dye were examined and found no significant influence on the peaks of PM dye due to the formation of smaller sizes of PM 597/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. The observed PM 597/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles were different in shapes with smaller size distribution and highly luminescent. Majority of nanoparticles were roughly spherical with many of them aggregated. The less photobleaching of dye core may be due to the protection of pumped energy by SiO2 shell and restricts the leakage of dye. Tahani R. Al-Biladi, A. S. Al Dwayyan, M. Naziruddin Khan, Saif M. H. Qaid, and Khalid Al Zahrani Copyright © 2015 Tahani R. Al-Biladi et al. All rights reserved. Pencil Beam Spectral Measurements of Ce, Ho, Yb, and Ba Powders for Potential Use in Medical Applications Tue, 06 Jan 2015 05:59:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/563763/ The aim of the present study was to obtain modified X-ray spectra, by using appropriate filter materials for use in applications such as dual energy X-ray imaging. K-edge filtering technique was implemented in order to obtain narrow energy bands for both dual- and single-kVp techniques. Three lanthanide filters (cerium, holmium, and ytterbium) and a filter outside lanthanides (barium), with low K-edge, were used to modify the X-ray spectra. The X-ray energies that were used in this work ranged from 60 to 100 kVp. Relative root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of variation were used for filter selection. The increasing filter thicknesses led to narrower energy bands. For the dual-kVp technique, 0.7916 g/cm2 Ho, 0.9422 g/cm2 Yb, and 1.0095 g/cm2 Yb were selected for 70, 80, and 90 kVp, respectively. For the single-kVp technique 0.5991 g/cm2 Ce, 0.8750 g/cm2 Ba, and 0.8654 g/cm2 Ce were selected for 80, 90, and 100 kVp, respectively. The filtered X-ray spectra of this work, after appropriate modification, could be used in various X-ray applications, such as dual-energy mammography, bone absorptiometry, and digital tomosynthesis. N. Martini, V. Koukou, C. Michail, P. Sotiropoulou, N. Kalyvas, I. Kandarakis, G. Nikiforidis, and G. Fountos Copyright © 2015 N. Martini et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Structural and Morphological Properties of Europium (III) Oxide Doped Willemite Wed, 31 Dec 2014 12:06:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/328931/ Willemite- (Zn2SiO4-) based glass ceramics doped with various amounts of europium oxide (Eu2O3) were prepared by solid state melting and quenching method. Effect of sintering temperature (600–1000°C) on structural and morphological properties of the doped samples was investigated. Phase composition, phase evolution, functional groups, and microstructure analysis were, respectively, characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray. XRD analysis detected the presence of rhombohedral crystalline phase in the doped samples sintered at different temperatures. FE-SEM and bulk density results confirmed that doping of the willemite with Eu2O3 effectively enhanced densification. The microstructural analysis of the doped samples showed that the average grain size increased with the increase of sintering temperature. Nur Fatin Syamimi, Khamirul Amin Matori, Way Foong Lim, Sidek Abdul Aziz, and Mohd Hafiz Mohd Zaid Copyright © 2014 Nur Fatin Syamimi et al. All rights reserved. In Situ Dispersive EXAFS in Electrocatalysis: The Investigation of the Local Structure of IrOx in Chronoamperometric Conditions as a Case Study Wed, 31 Dec 2014 11:56:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/480102/ An in situ study with dispersive EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy) at the Ir- edge is performed to characterize Electrodeposited Iridium Oxide Films (EIROF) under chronoamperometric conditions. The technique monitors the local chemical environment and electronic structure of iridium during the oxidation of Ir(III) to Ir(IV) with a time resolution of milliseconds. The study is performed in both acidic and basic media. The Fourier transforms of the time-resolved EXAFS signals clearly show that the short-range structure of Ir is similar to that of rutile-type IrO2 and is maintained during the reaction, thus accounting for the flexibility of the structure of the electrode material in accommodating different oxidation states. From a more general point of view, the work demonstrates the capabilities of in situ experiments based on state-of-the-art dispersive EXAFS in clarifying the mechanistic aspects of electrochemical processes. Elisabetta Achilli, Alessandro Minguzzi, Ottavio Lugaresi, Cristina Locatelli, Sandra Rondinini, Giorgio Spinolo, and Paolo Ghigna Copyright © 2014 Elisabetta Achilli et al. All rights reserved. Raman Study on Pompeii Potteries: The Role of Calcium Hydroxide on the Surface Treatment Wed, 31 Dec 2014 08:42:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/435026/ Pottery samples from the Pompeii archaeological site were investigated by IR Raman spectroscopy and EDAX measurements. The analysis of the Raman spectra of the surfaces reveals the presence calcium hydroxide (peak at about 780 cm−1) while the calcium carbonate is totally absent. The comparative studies on the carbonation effect of the surfaces were performed on laboratory grown samples of calcium hydroxide. The samples were treated at high temperature and exposed to different ambient conditions, and the analysis suggests that the original surfaces of Roman pottery were scattered by calcium hydroxide (limewash) before the cooking process in the furnace. The result of this surface treatment not only permits a vitrification of the surfaces but also seems to reduce the content of CO2 in the furnace atmosphere and then obtain a more oxidant ambient during the cooking of the pottery. These results give new insights on the real degree of knowledge of the Romans about the art of ceramics and more generally about chemistry and technologies. Daniele Chiriu, Pier Carlo Ricci, Andrea Polcaro, Paolo Braconi, David Lanzi, and Davide Nadali Copyright © 2014 Daniele Chiriu et al. All rights reserved. Velocity Selective Polarization Spectroscopy for Modulation-Free Dispersion Signals at Detuned Frequencies Tue, 30 Dec 2014 09:16:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/541063/ We present a simple technique to obtain modulation-free locking signals at the detuned frequency from an atom transition between hyperfine structures. Polarization spectroscopy allows us to obtain the dispersion signals that are suitable for frequency locking. Velocity selective optical pumping using another laser beam also allows us to obtain signals at the detuned frequency and to shift crossover signal away. By combining these two techniques, we were able to obtain the velocity selective birefringence signal only at the principle transition in an Rb vapor cell and compare the birefringence signal with the theoretical spectrum predicted by using Nakayama’s model. Hoon Yu, Seung Jin Kim, and Jung Bog Kim Copyright © 2014 Hoon Yu et al. All rights reserved. Extracting Time-Resolved Information from Time-Integrated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectra Mon, 29 Dec 2014 11:33:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/849310/ Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data are characterized by a strong dependence on the acquisition time after the onset of the laser plasma. However, time-resolved broadband spectrometers are expensive and often not suitable for being used in portable LIBS instruments. In this paper we will show how the analysis of a series of LIBS spectra, taken at different delays after the laser pulse, allows the recovery of time-resolved spectral information. The comparison of such spectra is presented for the analysis of an aluminium alloy. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and number density) are evaluated, starting from the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra, respectively. The results are compared and discussed. Emanuela Grifoni, Stefano Legnaioli, Marco Lezzerini, Giulia Lorenzetti, Stefano Pagnotta, and Vincenzo Palleschi Copyright © 2014 Emanuela Grifoni et al. All rights reserved. Effects of UV-B Radiation on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Identification of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Mon, 29 Dec 2014 07:18:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/751458/ Based on near-infrared spectra of three physiological races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (i.e., CYR31, CYR32, and CYR33) irradiated under four UV-B intensities (i.e., 0, 150, 200, and 250 μw/cm2), the effects of UV-B radiation on near-infrared spectroscopy of the pathogen were investigated in spectral region 4000–10000 cm−1, and support vector machine models were built to identify UV-B radiation intensities and physiological races, respectively. The results showed that the spectral curves under UV-B radiation treatments exhibited great differences compared with the corresponding control treatment (0 μw/cm2) in the spectral regions 5300–5600 cm−1 and 7000–7400 cm−1 and that the absorbance values of all the three physiological races increased with the enhancement of UV-B radiation intensity. Based on near-infrared spectroscopy, different UV-B radiation intensities could be identified and different physiological races could be distinguished from each other with high accuracies. The results demonstrated the utility and stability of the proposed method to identify the physiological races. Pei Cheng, Xiaolong Li, Feng Qin, Longlian Zhao, Junhui Li, Zhanhong Ma, and Haiguang Wang Copyright © 2014 Pei Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Radical Reactions in the Gas Phase: Recent Development and Application in Biomolecules Sun, 28 Dec 2014 09:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/570863/ This review summarizes recent literature describing the use of gas phase radical reactions for structural characterization of complex biomolecules other than peptides. Specifically, chemical derivatization, in-source chemical reaction, and gas phase ion/ion reactions have been demonstrated as effective ways to generate radical precursor ions that yield structural informative fragments complementary to those from conventional collision-induced dissociation (CID). Radical driven dissociation has been applied to a variety of biomolecules including peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. The majority of the molecules discussed in this review see limited fragmentation from conventional CID, and the gas phase radical reactions open up completely new dissociation channels for these molecules and therefore yield high fidelity confirmation of the structures of the target molecules. Due to the extensively studied peptide fragmentation, this review focuses only on nonpeptide biomolecules such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. Yang Gao, Jiexun Bu, Zhou Peng, and Biwei Yang Copyright © 2014 Yang Gao et al. All rights reserved. Interaction between Chromosomal Protein HMGB1 and DNA Studied by DNA-Melting Analysis Sun, 28 Dec 2014 00:10:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/387138/ Interaction of HMGB1 nonhistone chromosomal protein with DNA was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy and thermal denaturation of DNA. Melting DNA in the complex was shown to be a biphasic process. The characteristic melting temperatures of unbound DNA and the DNA bound to HMGB1 in 0.25 mM EDTA solutions were found to be °C and °C, respectively. It was shown that the binding of the HMGB1 molecule affects the melting of the DNA region approximately 30 b.p. long. Elena V. Chikhirzhina, Starkova J. Tatiana, and Alexander M. Polyanichko Copyright © 2014 Elena V. Chikhirzhina et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Laser Emission Parameters on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Cast Pure Titanium Wed, 24 Dec 2014 08:23:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/862305/ The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of laser beam parameters on the mechanical and physical properties of cast commercially pure titanium. Dumbbell-shaped test specimens (ISO6871) were cast with ASTM grades 2 and 3 Ti. The cast surfaces were laser-treated with various laser emission parameters (current: 200, 220, and 240 A; spot diameter: 1.0, 1.6 mm; pulse duration: 10, 1 ms) under argon shielding. Tensile testing was conducted at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data of tensile strength and elongation were statistically analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s test (). Hardness depth profiles were made with cross sections of rod-shaped specimens after laser treatments. Control specimens without laser treatment were also prepared. The laser-treated specimens showed significantly higher tensile strengths than those of control specimen for both grades 2 and 3 Ti. The specimens treated with 1.0 mm spot diameter indicated higher tensile strengths than those treated with 1.6 mm spot diameter for both currents (200 A and 240 A). The laser treatment decreased the subsurface hardness and increased the hardness between 75 μm and 400 μm in depth when compared to the hardness of control specimens. Laser surface treatment for cast commercially pure titanium modified integrity of cast surface and significantly improved mechanical and physical property. Taro Hayashi, Ikuya Watanabe, Tadafumi Kurogi, Takanobu Shiraishi, and Hiroshi Murata Copyright © 2014 Taro Hayashi et al. All rights reserved. Influences of Different Preparation Conditions on Catalytic Activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 for Hydrogenation of Coal Pyrolysis Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:55:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/272819/ A series of catalysts of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was prepared by equivalent volume impregnation method. The effects of the metal loading, calcination time, and calcination temperatures of Ag and Co, respectively, on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimum preparing condition of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was decided, and then the influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was analyzed. The results showed the following: (1) at the same preparation condition, when silver loading was 8%, the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 showed higher catalyst activity, (2) the catalyst activity had obviously improved when the cobalt loading was 8%, while it was weaker at loadings 5% and 10%, (3) the catalyst activity was influenced by different calcination temperatures of silver, but the influences were not marked, (4) the catalyst activity can be influenced by calcination time of silver, (5) different calcination times of cobalt can also influence the catalyst activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3, and (6) the best preparation conditions of the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 were silver loading of 8%, calcination temperature of silver of 450°C, and calcinations time of silver of 4 h, while at the same time the cobalt loading was 8%, the calcination temperature of cobalt was 450°C, and calcination time of cobalt was 4 h. Lei Zhang, Sha Xiang-ling, Lei Zhang, Wang Rui, Zhang Lixin, and Shu Xinqian Copyright © 2014 Lei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Extreme Acidophile Bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) Bioleaching Copper from Flexible PCB by ICP-AES Mon, 17 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/269351/ In order to improve copper leaching efficiency from the flexible printed circuit board (PCB) by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the bacteria bioleaching copper under extreme acidic condition from flexible PCB. The inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a very accurate way to analyze metals in solution; this paper investigated the optimal conditions for copper bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from flexible PCB through ICP-AES. The conditions included particle size of flexible PCB powder, quantity of flexible PCB powder, initial pH of culture medium, bacteria inoculation, bacteria activation time, and quantity of FeSO4·7H2O. Prior to ICP-AES measurement, culture solution was digested by aqua regia. The experimental results demonstrated that flexible PCB contained one main metal (copper); this was associated with the structure of flexible PCB. The optimization conditions were in 50 mL medium, flexible PCB 10 g/L, particle size of flexible PCB 0.42~0.84 mm, culture medium initial pH 2.5, bacteria inoculation 5%, bacteria activation time 5 d, and quantity of FeSO4·7H2O 30 g/L. Under the optimization condition, the leaching rate of copper was 90.10%, which was 42.4% higher than the blank group. For the ICP-AES determination, it reached a conclusion that the best corresponding wavelength (nm) of copper will be 224.7 (nm). Weihua Gu, Jianfeng Bai, Jue Dai, Chenglong Zhang, Wenyi Yuan, Jingwei Wang, Pengcheng Wang, and Xin Zhao Copyright © 2014 Weihua Gu et al. All rights reserved. EIS Evaluation of Fe, Cr, and Ni in NaVO3 at 700°C Mon, 10 Nov 2014 08:54:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/949168/ Due to the depletion of high-grade fuels and for economic reasons, use of residual fuel oil in energy generation systems is a common practice. Residual fuel oil contains sodium, vanadium, and sulphur as impurities, as well as NaCl contamination. Metallic dissolution caused by molten vanadates has been classically considered the main corrosion process involved in the degradation of alloys exposed to the combustion products of heavy fuel oils. Iron and nickel base alloys are the commercial alloys commonly used for the high temperature applications, for example, manufacture of components used in aggressive environments of gas turbines, steam boilers, and so forth. Therefore, because the main constituents of these materials are Fe, Cr, and Ni, where Cr is the element responsible for providing the corrosion resistance, in this study the electrochemical performance of Fe, Cr, and Ni in NaVO3 at 700°C in static air for 100 hours was evaluated. O. Sotelo-Mazón, J. Porcayo-Calderon, C. Cuevas-Arteaga, J. J. Ramos-Hernandez, J. A. Ascencio-Gutierrez, and L. Martinez-Gomez Copyright © 2014 O. Sotelo-Mazón et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Analysis and Molecular Modeling of the Fosinopril β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex Thu, 06 Nov 2014 13:01:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/748468/ This research investigates the interaction between fosinopril sodium (FOS) and beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solution and in solid state, in order to prove the formation of an inclusion complex between the two components. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex was found as 1 : 1 by employing continuous variation method in UV. The formation constant was calculated as 278.93 M−1 using Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The kneaded product (KP) and the physical mixture (PM) were further experimentally examined, using FTIR, powder X-ray diffractometry, and thermal analysis. The results confirm that the physicochemical properties of the FOS/β-CD KP are different from FOS and that the kneading method leads to formation of solid state inclusion complex between FOS and β-CD. Structural studies of the FOS/β-CD were carried out using molecular modeling techniques, in order to explain the complexation mechanism and the host-guest geometry. Lucreția Udrescu, Laura Sbârcea, Adriana Fuliaș, Ionuț Ledeți, Gabriela Vlase, Paul Barvinschi, and Ludovic Kurunczi Copyright © 2014 Lucreția Udrescu et al. All rights reserved. Optical and Thermal Properties of Zn/Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite Intercalated with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Tue, 28 Oct 2014 12:01:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/467064/ Zn/Al-LDH-SDS nanocomposites have been prepared using a coprecipitation method in different molar ratio of Zn2+/Al3+ = 2, 3, and 4 at pH = 10 and different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M). The XRD and FTIR data show the successful intercalation of SDS into the LDH interlayer. The XRD diffractogram showed that the basal spacing for is 0.89 nm compared to 2.54–2.61 nm for the Zn/Al-SDS nanocomposite. Optical band gap of the samples was calculated using Kubelka-Munk model. Due to the presence of LDH phase, two band gap energies ( and ) were observed. The values of and were found around 4.8 eV and 3.75 eV for Zn/Al-LDH (r = 2, 3, and 4). The values of band gap of LDH-SDS nanocomposites were found to increase to around 4.2 eV and 5.2 eV. For Zn4Al-LDH-SDS with 0.4 M and 0.8 M of SDS, only one energy gap at around 3.23 eV was observed. The optical band gap of phase increased as the amount of SDS increases. Thermal diffusivity of the resulted nanocomposite was also investigated. Samaneh Babakhani, Zainal Abidin Talib, Mohd Zobir Hussein, and Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Samaneh Babakhani et al. All rights reserved. Weighted LabPQR Interim Connection Space Based on Human Color Vision for Spectral Color Reproduction Mon, 27 Oct 2014 06:02:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/595602/ A weighted LabPQR interim connection space, based on human color vision, is proposed for retaining more visual color information. A new weight function proposed in our paper is connected with color-matching function and then further weighted the PQR dimensions of LabPQR compared with the other two weight functions and nonweight function. The results indicated that weighting obviously improved the colorimetric representing accuracy and robustness compared with nonweighting, and the new weight function outperformed the other two weight functions. The weighted LabPQR of the new weight function is most suitable for spectral color reproduction. Guangyuan Wu, Zhen Liu, Shengwei Yang, Ming Zhu, and Pan Liu Copyright © 2014 Guangyuan Wu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Index Gases of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer Mon, 20 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/414391/ Analysis of the index gases of coal for the prevention of spontaneous combustion is of great importance for the enhancement of coal mine safety. In this work, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIRS) is presented to be used to analyze the index gases of coal in real time to monitor spontaneous combustion conditions. Both the instrument parameters and the analysis method are introduced at first by combining characteristics of the absorption spectra of the target analyte with the analysis requirements. Next, more than ten sets of the gas mixture containing ten components (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2) are included and analyzed with a Spectrum Two FTIRS made by Perkin Elmer. The testing results show that the detection limit of most analytes is less than . All the detection limits meet the monitoring requirements of coal spontaneous combustion in China, which means that FTIRS may be an ideal instrument and the analysis method used in this paper is sufficient for spontaneous combustion gas monitoring on-line and even in situ, since FTIRS has many advantages such as fast analysis, being maintenance-free, and good safety. Xiaojun Tang, Yuntao Liang, Haozhe Dong, Yong Sun, and Haizhu Luo Copyright © 2014 Xiaojun Tang et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Property of Mo-Doped Visible-Light Response Titaniumdioxide Photocatalyst Tue, 14 Oct 2014 12:45:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/392798/ Mo-titaniumdioxide (P25) photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared with the ammonium molybdate for Mo source and titaniumdioxide for the raw materials by the method of dissolving and calcining. The photocatalysts’ structure was characterized by XRD, XPS, and UV-Vis absorption spectrum and TEM. The photocatalytic activities of Mo-titaniumdioxide were measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The results showed that Mo characteristic peaks appeared at the point of 235.45 eV, 234.2 eV, 232.3 eV, and 231.1 eV. In Mo-titaniumdioxide crystal lattice, Mo6+ had the highest percentage (about 84.08%), indicating that Mo element was inserted into titaniumdioxide crystal lattice and considerable amount of Mo dopant was in the 6+ valence state, which restrained the recombination of electron-hole and had the visible-light photocatalytic activity. Photocatalytic degradation study indicated that the samples prepared at calcination temperature of 500°C were used to degrade MB; after 3 h, the degradation reached up to 80.67%. Yingying Li, Xianliang Song, Zhedong Wei, Jianguang Zhang, Lijuan Qin, and Shengying Ye Copyright © 2014 Yingying Li et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of Dihydroxybenzenes in Complex Water Samples Using Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Second-Order Calibration Mon, 13 Oct 2014 12:15:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/412039/ The dihydroxybenzenes are organic intermediates in many fields for various purposes and have been widely recognized as fatal environmental pollutants. Simultaneous determination of these compounds is particularly important. These habitual methods are time-consuming and laborious. The combination of two-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and second-order calibration of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was investigated for simultaneously determining catechol, hydroquinone, and tryptophan. A total of 25 samples were designed and are divided into a calibration set and a test set. An unexpected constituent was used as unknown interference. The EEM data were successfully decomposed into a four-factor model of PARAFAC. The resolved spectra excitation and emission profiles from PARAFAC algorithm were compared with the corresponding pure spectra to confirm the compounds in samples. Based on the decomposition, the final calibration models provided satisfactory concentration estimates. The mean recovery percentages were 98.3%, 101.7%, and 97.9% for catechol, hydroquinone, and tryptophan, respectively. The results reveal that the developed method is maybe a potential tool for simultaneous determination of phenolic components in water samples or other complex samples. Hui Chen, Zan Lin, Hongmei Tang, Tong Wu, and Chao Tan Copyright © 2014 Hui Chen et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Polysaccharide by HPLC: Extraction and Anticancer Effects Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/751496/ Cervical cancer is a serious health hazard for women’s reproductive system cancer; the method of treatment for cervical cancer is still in surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy as the basic means, but with many complications. The effects of natural medicines for cervical cancer are increasingly becoming the focus of people’s attentions. By studying the polysaccharide of cervical cancer in mice, we found that shark cartilage polysaccharide can increase the serum levels of T-SOD and GSH and decrease MDA level significantly in the tumor mice. The distribution of the drug in the tissue was determined by HPLC method; the drug can be drawn in the liver and kidney the highest, followed by the spleen, lung, and brain levels being the lowest. Polysaccharide can inhibit tumor growth in the mice which may be connected with the enhanced immunity and the antioxidant capacity. Liming Gao, Ya Di, Jiandong Wu, Ming Shi, and Fulu Zheng Copyright © 2014 Liming Gao et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Removal Performance of Potassium Ferrate Tue, 02 Sep 2014 09:10:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/171484/ This experiment adopts the hypochlorite oxidation method to constantly synthesize potassium ferrate. Under the condition of micropolluted source water pH and on the basis of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene as research objects, the effects of different systems to remove aromatic hydrocarbons were studied. Various oxidation systems to remove phenanthrene intermediate are analyzed and the detailed mechanisms for removal of phenanthrene are discussed. The study found that the main intermediate of potassium ferrate system to transform phenanthrene is 9,10-phenanthraquinone and its area percentage reached 82.66%; that is, 9,10-phenanthraquinone is the key entity to remove phenanthrene. Wei Guan, Zhigang Xie, and Jia Zhang Copyright © 2014 Wei Guan et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study of the Composition and Structure of Granular Media in the Shear Bands Based on the HHC-Granular Model Sun, 31 Aug 2014 06:32:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/232178/ The researchers cannot control the composition and structure of coarse grained soil in the indoor experiment because the granular particles of different size have the characteristics of random distribution and no sorting. Therefore, on the basis of the laboratory tests with the coarse grained soil, the HHC-Granular model, which could simulate the no sorting and random distribution of different size particles in the coarse-grained soil, was developed by use of cellular automata method. Meanwhile, the triaxial numerical simulation experiments of coarse grained soil were finished with the different composition and structure soil, and the variation of shear strength was discussed. The results showed that the internal friction angle was likely to reduce with the increasing of gravel contents in the coarse-grained soil, but the mean internal friction angle significantly increased with the increment of gravel contents. It indicated that the gravel contents of shear bands were the major factor affecting the shear strength. Guang-jin Wang, Xiang-yun Kong, and Chun-he Yang Copyright © 2014 Guang-jin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Insights into the Synergistic Effect of Fungi and Bacteria for Reactive Red Decolorization Sun, 10 Aug 2014 11:32:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/237346/ Bacterial contamination is a prevalent problem in fungal dye wastewater decolorization that prevents the development of this technology in practical engineering. New insight into the relationship between fungi and bacteria is given in terms of settleability, bioadsorption, and biodegradation, which all confirm their synergistic effect. Sterilization is implied to be not the only mechanism for fungi decolorization. When the fungi and bacteria isolated from the activated sludge were cocultured, fungi removed more than 70% of the reactive red through sole bioadsorption in 5 min and enhanced the settleability of the bacteria group from 7.7 to 18.4 in the aggregation index. Subsequently, the bacteria played a more significant role in dye biodegradation according to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. They further enhanced the decolorization efficiency to over 80% when cocultured with fungi. Therefore, the advanced bioadsorption and settleability of fungi, combined with the good dye biodegradation ability of bacteria, results in the synergistic effect of the coculture microorganisms. Dandan Zhou, Xueying Zhang, Yilin Du, Shuangshi Dong, Zhengxue Xu, and Lei Yan Copyright © 2014 Dandan Zhou et al. All rights reserved.