Table 1: Cellular pathways deregulated in gliomas and associated epigenetic events through promoter hypermethylation, CpGs hypomethylation, and histone alterations leading to modified chromatin states.

Cellular pathwayGenes in gliomas deregulated by hypo/hypermethylation/histone modification

Ras signalingRASSF1A, RRP22, DIRAS3
Cell migration and adherenceNECL1, E-cadherin, SLIT2, EMP3, TIMP3
Wnt signalingWIF1, FZD9, IGFBP-3, SFRP family, PEG3
Tyrosine kinase pathwaysKIT, SYK, c-ROS
Transcription factorsSOX2, KLF4, GATA 6, ATOH1
Homeobox genesHOXA 9, HOXA10, HOXA11
Sonic hedgehog signalingPTCH1, Cyclin D2, Plakoglobin, PAX6, NKX2.2
Notch signallingNEURL1, HES1, HEY1
BMP developmental pathwayBMPR1B
Hypermutator pathwayshMLH1, hPMS2, MGMT, WRN
ApoptosisTMS1, DAPK1, CASP8, DR4, DR5
TP53/cell cycleHIC-1, CDKN2A, RB1, p16INK4a
MicroRNAsmiR-124a, miR-21, miR-7, miR-137, miR128