About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 953123, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/953123
Research Article

Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

1The Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF), 436 14th Street, Suite 1500, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
3San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA, USA
4Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
5Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
6Urban Health Program, RTI International, San Francisco, CA, USA

Received 19 January 2013; Revised 30 May 2013; Accepted 6 June 2013

Academic Editor: Mark R. Dybul

Copyright © 2013 George Ayala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Beyrer, S. D. Baral, F. van Griensven et al., “The global epidemiology of HIV infection among men who have sex with men,” The Lancet, vol. 380, no. 9839, pp. 367–377, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Baral, F. Sifakis, F. Cleghorn, and C. Beyrer, “Elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries 2000–2006: a systematic review,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, no. 12, article e339, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. S. Sullivan, O. Hamouda, V. Delpech et al., “Reemergence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in North America, Western Europe, and Australia, 1996–2005,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 423–431, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevalence and awareness of HIV infection among men who have sex with men—21 cities, United States, 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, pp. 1201–1207, 2010.
  5. C. Beyrer, A. Wirtz, D. Walker, B. Johns, F. Sifakis, and S. Baral, The Global HIV Epidemics Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
  6. G. Ayala, P. Hebert, J. Keatley, and M. Sundararaj, An Analysis of Major HIV Donor Investments Targeting Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People, The Global Forum on MSM & HIV, (MSMGF), Oakland, Calif, USA, 2011.
  7. R. M. Grant, J. R. Lama, P. L. Anderson et al., “Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 27, pp. 2587–2599, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. S. Cohen, Y. Q. Chen, M. McCauley et al., “Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 6, pp. 493–505, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Das, P. L. Chu, G. Santos et al., “Decreases in community viral load are accompanied by reductions in new HIV infections in San Francisco,” PloS ONE, vol. 5, no. 6, Article ID e11068, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Anglemyer, G. W. Rutherford, M. Egger, and N. Siegfried, “Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 5, Article ID CD009153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. UNAIDS, Combination HIV Prevention: Tailoring and Coordinating Biomedical, Behavioral and Structural Strategies to Reduce New HIV Infections: A Discussion Paper, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
  12. G. R. Gupta, J. O. Parkhurst, J. A. Ogden, P. Aggleton, and A. Mahal, “Structural approaches to HIV prevention,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9640, pp. 764–775, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. D. Johnson, R. M. Diaz, W. D. Flanders et al., “Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD001230, 2008. View at Scopus
  14. C. R. Waldo and T. J. Coates, “Multiple levels of analysis and intervention in HIV prevention science: exemplars and directions for new research,” AIDS, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. S18–S26, 2000. View at Scopus
  15. J. E. Mantell, L. Myer, A. Carballo-Diéguez et al., “Microbicide acceptability research: current approaches and future directions,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 319–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. World Bank, World Bank Country and Lending Groups, 2012, http://bit.ly/907M8u.
  17. C. T. Su and L. D. Parham, “Generating a valid questionnaire translation for cross-cultural use,” The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 581–585, 2002. View at Scopus
  18. B. Nevo, “Face validity re-visited,” Journal of Educational Measurement, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 287–293, 2005.
  19. I. Carrière and J. Bouyer, “Choosing marginal or random-effects models for longitudinal binary responses: application to self-reported disability among older persons,” BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol. 2, no. 1, article 15, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Song, X. Li, L. Zhang et al., “HIV-testing behavior among young migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China,” AIDS Care, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 179–186, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Ayala, P. Hebert, K. Lauer, and M. Sundararaj, “HIV Prevention with MSM: Balancing Evidence with Rights based Principles of Practice,” Global Forum on MSM and HIV website, 2010, http://www.msmgf.org/index.cfm/id/11/aid/2107.
  22. J. Knox, T. Sandfort, H. Yi, V. Reddy, and S. Maimane, “Social vulnerability and HIV testing among South African men who have sex with men,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 709–713, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Arreola, P. Hebert, K. Makofane, J. Beck, and G. Ayala, Access to HIV Prevention and Treatment for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Finding from the 2012 Global Men’s Health and Rights Survey (GMHR), The Global Forum on MSM & HIV, (MSMGF), Oakland, Calif, USA, 2012.
  24. G. Ayala, T. Bingham, J. Kim, D. Wheeler, and G. Millet, “Modeling the impact of social discrimination and financial hardship on the sexual risk for HIV among Latino and Black men who have sex with men,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. S242–S249, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Y. Mizuno, C. Borkowf, G. A. Millett, T. Bingham, G. Ayala, and A. Stueve, “Homophobia and racism experienced by Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: correlates of exposure and associations with HIV risk behaviors,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 724–735, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. A. Wilson and H. Yoshikawa, “Experiences of and responses to social discrimination among Asian and Pacific Islander gay men: their relationship to HIV risk,” AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 68–83, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. M. Díaz, G. Ayala, E. Bein, J. Henne, and B. V. Marin, “The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: findings from 3 US cities,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 927–932, 2001. View at Scopus
  28. R. Stall, M. Frieden, and J. Catania, “An update on syndemic theory among urban gay men,” in Proceedings of the American Public Health Association Conference, Abstract #1558542007, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  29. S. Shoptaw, R. E. Weiss, B. Munjas et al., “Homonegativity, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV status in poor and ethnic men who have sex with men in Los Angeles,” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 86, supplement 1, pp. S77–S92, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. F. Wong, G. Weiss, G. Ayala, and M. D. Kipke, “Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men,” AIDS Education and Prevention, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 286–298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. McDermott, K. Roen, and J. Scourfield, “Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours,” Culture, Health and Sexuality, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 815–829, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Stall, C. Hoff, T. J. Coates et al., “Decisions to get HIV tested and to accept antiretroviral therapies among gay/bisexual men: Implications for secondary prevention efforts,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 151–160, 1996. View at Scopus
  33. I. H. Meyer, “Minority stress and mental health in gay men,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 38–56, 1995. View at Scopus
  34. S. Arreola, G. Ayala, O. Banos, J. Beck, J. Keatley, and M. Sundararaj, In Our Own Words: Preferences, Values and Perspectives on HIV Prevention and Treatment—A Civil Society Consultation with MSM and Transgender People, The Global Forum on MSM & HIV, (MSMGF), Oakland, Calif, USA, 2010.
  35. T. Jackson, A. Huang, H. Chen, X. Gao, X. Zhong, and Y. Zhang, “Cognitive, psychosocial, and sociodemographic predictors of willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among chinese men who have sex with men,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1853–1861, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I. M. Poynten, F. Jin, G. P. Prestage, J. M. Kaldor, J. Imrie, and A. E. Grulich, “Attitudes towards new HIV biomedical prevention technologies among a cohort of HIV-negative gay men in Sydney, Australia,” HIV Medicine, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 282–288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. T. Galea, J. J. Kinsler, X. Salazar et al., “Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: barriers and facilitators to pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake among at-risk peruvian populations,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 256–262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. A. Brooks, R. J. Landovitz, R. L. Kaplan, E. Lieber, S. Lee, and T. W. Barkley, “Sexual risk behaviors and acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in serodiscordant relationships: a mixed methods study,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 87–94, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Kelesidis and R. J. Landovitz, “Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention,” Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 94–103, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Majid, R. R. Redfield, and B. L. Gilliam, “The use of preexposure treatments for HIV prophylaxis,” HIV/AIDS—Research and Palliative Care, vol. 4, pp. 17–28, 2012. View at Scopus
  41. A. E. Talley and B. A. Bettencourt, “The moderator roles of coping style and identity disclosure in the relationship between perceived sexual stigma and psychological distress,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 2883–2903, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. F. Balsam and J. J. Mohr, “Adaptation to sexual orientation stigma: a comparison of bisexual and lesbian/gay adults,” Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 306–319, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. M. Detrie and S. H. Lease, “The relation of social support, connectedness, and collective self-esteem to the psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth,” Journal of Homosexuality, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 173–199, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Golombok, R. Harding, and J. Sheldon, “An evaluation of a thicker versus a standard condom with gay men,” AIDS, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 245–250, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, “Interim guidance: preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in men who have sex with men,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 65–68, 2011. View at Scopus
  46. K. J. Rothman, “No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons,” Epidemiology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 1990. View at Scopus
  47. B. Schwartländer, J. Stover, T. Hallett et al., “Towards an improved investment approach for an effective response to HIV/AIDS,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9782, pp. 2031–2041, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Trapence, C. Collins, S. Avrett et al., “For personal survival to public health: community leadership by men who have sex with me in the response to HIV,” The Lancet, vol. 380, no. 9839, pp. 400–410, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar