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Journal of Toxicology
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 532640, 7 pages
The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels
1Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282, USA
2Department of Pediatric Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282, USA
3Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92116-2599, USA
4Center for Integrative Pediatric Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85711, USA
5Department of Mathematics, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90601-4413, USA
6International Child Development Resource Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA
7Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Received 10 April 2009; Revised 30 June 2009; Accepted 12 July 2009
Academic Editor: Wei Zheng
Copyright © 2009 J. B. Adams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citations to this Article [26 citations]
The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.
- Malarveni Damodaran Lakshmi Priya, and Arumugam Geetha, “Level of Trace Elements (Copper, Zinc, Magnesium and Selenium) and Toxic Elements (Lead and Mercury) in the Hair and Nail of Children with Autism,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 148–158, 2010.
- Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, James B. Adams, and Mark R. Geier, “A biomarker of mercury body-burden correlated with diagnostic domain specific clinical symptoms of autism spectrum disorder,” Biometals, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1043–1051, 2010.
- Matthew Garrecht, and David W. Austin, “The plausibility of a role for mercury in the etiology of autism: a cellular perspective,” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1251–1273, 2011.
- James B. Adams, Tapan Audhya, Sharon McDonough-Means, Robert A. Rubin, David Quig, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Melissa Loresto, Jessica Mitchell, Sharon Atwood, Suzanne Barnhouse, and Wondra Lee, “Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity,” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 8, 2011.
- Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, James B. Adams, Jyutika A. Mehta, Bruce D. Grannemann, and Mark R. Geier, “Toxicity biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder: A blinded study of urinary porphyrins,” Pediatrics International, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 147–153, 2011.
- James B. Adams, Tapan Audhya, Sharon McDonough-Means, Robert A. Rubin, David Quig, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Melissa Loresto, Jessica Mitchell, Sharon Atwood, Suzanne Barnhouse, and Wondra Lee, “Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism,” Bmc Pediatrics, vol. 11, 2011.
- Hiroshi Yasuda, Kazuya Yoshida, Yuichi Yasuda, and Toyoharu Tsutsui, “Infantile zinc deficiency: Association with autism spectrum disorders,” Scientific Reports, vol. 1, 2011.
- Kerrie Shandley, and David W. Austin, “Ancestry Of Pink Disease (Infantile Acrodynia) Identified As A Risk Factor For Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Journal Of Toxicology And Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues, vol. 74, no. 18, pp. 1185–1194, 2011.
- Joanna Kaluzna-Czaplinska, Ewa Socha, Monika Michalska, and Jacek Rynkowski, “Urinary level of homovanillic acid and mercury in autistic children,” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 199–206, 2011.
- S. Akhondzadeh, M. Hormozi, M. Abotorabi-Zarchi, A. Firoozabadi, A. Ghanizadeh, and A. Makarem, “Glutathione-Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Autism, A Review,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 4000–4005, 2012.
- Penelope A. E. Main, Manya T. Angley, Catherine E. O'Doherty, Philip Thomas, and Michael Fenech, “The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 9, 2012.
- David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier, “Hair Toxic Metal Concentrations and Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity in Young Children,” International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 4486–4497, 2012.
- Renee Dufault, Walter J. Lukiw, Raquel Crider, Roseanne Schnoll, David Wallinga, and Richard Deth, “A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States,” Clinical Epigenetics, vol. 4, 2012.
- Mostafa I. Waly, Mady Hornig, Malav Trivedi, Nathaniel Hodgson, Radhika Kini, Akio Ohta, and Richard Deth, “Prenatal and Postnatal Epigenetic Programming: Implications for GI, Immune, and Neuronal Function in Autism,” Autism Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, pp. 1–13, 2012.
- Margaret E. Sears, and Stephen J. Genuis, “Environmental Determinants of Chronic Disease and Medical Approaches: Recognition, Avoidance, Supportive Therapy, and Detoxification,” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, pp. 1–15, 2012.
- Alessandra Cirillo, James Jeffrey Bradstreet, and Nicola Antonucci, “Epigenetic Findings in Autism: New Perspectives for Therapy,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 4261–4273, 2013.
- Alessandra Pecorelli, Silvia Leoncini, Claudio De Felice, Cinzia Signorini, Cosimina Cerrone, Giuseppe Valacchi, Lucia Ciccoli, and Joussef Hayek, “Non-protein-bound iron and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts in classic autism,” Brain & Development, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 146–154, 2013.
- Margaret E. Sears, “Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification—A Review,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, pp. 1–13, 2013.
- G. S. Goldman, “Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: Was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 464–475, 2013.
- Daniel A. Rossignol, and Richard E. Frye, “Evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the brain of individuals with autism,” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 5, 2014.
- D A Rossignol, S J Genuis, and R E Frye, “Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review,” Translational Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. e360, 2014.
- Laura J. Raymond, Richard C. Deth, and Nicholas V. C. Ralston, “Potential Role of Selenoenzymes and Antioxidant Metabolism in relation to Autism Etiology and Pathology,” Autism Research and Treatment, vol. 2014, pp. 1–15, 2014.
- Katherine von Stackelberg, Elizabeth Guzy, Tian Chu, and Birgit Claus Henn, “Exposure to Mixtures of Metals and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: A Multidisciplinary Review Using an Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework,” Risk Analysis, 2015.
- Gerwyn Morris, and Michael Berk, “The many roads to mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroimmune and neuropsychiatric disorders,” BMC Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, 2015.
- Scott Faber, Gregory M Zinn, Andrew Boggess, Timothy Fahrenholz, John C Kern, and HM Skip Kingston, “A cleanroom sleeping environment’s impact on markers of oxidative stress, immune dysregulation, and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015.
- Farida El Baz Mohamed, Eman Ahmed Zaky, Adel Bassuoni El-Sayed, Reham Mohammed Elhossieny, Sally Soliman Zahra, Waleed Salah Eldin, Walaa Yousef Youssef, Rania Abdelmgeed Khaled, and Azza Mohamed Youssef, “Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism,” Behavioural Neurology, vol. 2015, pp. 1–9, 2015.